Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-747cfc64b6-rtmr9 Total loading time: 0.235 Render date: 2021-06-12T23:01:08.887Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true }

Article contents

Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride and dietary protein content on performance, carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore bulls

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 September 2015

N. R. B. Cônsolo
Affiliation:
Department of Animal Science, School of Veterinary Medicine, Universidade de São Paulo, Duque de Caxias Norte, 225, 13635-900 Pirassununga, São Paulo, Brazil
B. S. Mesquita
Affiliation:
Ouro Fino Saúde Animal, Rod. Anhanguera SP330, Km 298, 14140-000 Cravinhos, São Paulo, Brazil
F. D. Rodriguez
Affiliation:
Department of Animal Science, School of Veterinary Medicine, Universidade de São Paulo, Duque de Caxias Norte, 225, 13635-900 Pirassununga, São Paulo, Brazil
V. G. Rizzi
Affiliation:
Ouro Fino Saúde Animal, Rod. Anhanguera SP330, Km 298, 14140-000 Cravinhos, São Paulo, Brazil
L. F. P. Silva
Affiliation:
Department of Animal Science, School of Veterinary Medicine, Universidade de São Paulo, Duque de Caxias Norte, 225, 13635-900 Pirassununga, São Paulo, Brazil
Corresponding
E-mail address:
Get access

Abstract

Ractopamine hydrochloride (RH) alters protein metabolism and improves growth performance in Bos taurus cattle with high carcass fat. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of RH, dietary CP and RH×CP interaction on performance, blood metabolites, carcass characteristics and meat quality of young Nellore bulls. A total of 48 bulls were randomly assigned to four treatments in a 2×2 factorial arrangement. The factors were two levels of dietary CP (100% and 120% of metabolizable protein requirement, defined as CP100 and CP120, respectively), and two levels of RH (0 and 300 mg/animal·per day). Treated animal received RH for the final 35 days before slaughter. Animals were weighed at the beginning of the feedlot period (day 63), at the beginning of ractopamine supplementation (day 0), after 18 days of supplementation (day 18) and before slaughter (day 34). Animals were slaughtered and hot carcass weights recorded. After chilling, carcass data was collected and longissimus samples were obtained for determination of meat quality. The 9–11th rib section was removed for carcass composition analysis. Supplementation with RH increased ADG independently of dietary CP. There was a RH×CP interaction on dry matter intake (DMI), where RH reduced DMI at CP120, with no effect at CP100. Ractopamine improved feed efficiency, without RH×CP interaction. Ractopamine had no effect on plasma creatinine and urea concentration. Greater dietary CP tended to increase blood urea, and there was a RH×CP interaction for plasma total protein. Ractopamine supplementation increased plasma total protein at CP120, and had no effect at CP100. Ractopamine also decreased plasma glucose concentration at CP100, but had no effect at CP120. Ractopamine increased alkaline phosphatase activity at CP120 and had no effect at CP100. There was a tendency for RH to increase longissimus muscle area, independently of dietary CP. Ractopamine did not alter fat thickness; however, fat thickness was reduced by greater CP in the diet. Supplementation with RH decreased meat shear force, but only at day 0 of aging, having no effect after 7, 14 or 21 days. Greater dietary protein increased meat shear force after 0 and 7 days of aging, with no effect after 14 or 21 days. These results demonstrate for the first time the efficacy of ractopamine supplementation to improve gain and feed efficiency of intact Bos indicus males, with relatively low carcass fat content. Ractopamine effects were not further improved by increasing dietary protein content above requirements.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
© The Animal Consortium 2015 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Agnew, RE and Yan, T 2000. Impact of recent research on energy feeding systems for dairy cattle. Livestock Production Science 66, 197215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Allen, MS, Bradford, BJ and Oba, M 2009. Board-invited review: the hepatic oxidation theory of the control of feed intake and its application to ruminants. Journal of Animal Science 87, 33173334.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
American Meat Science Association 1995. Research guidelines for cookery, sensory evaluation and instrumental tenderness measurements of fresh meat. AMSA, Chicago, IL, USA.Google Scholar
Arp, TS, Howard, ST, Woerner, DR, Scanga, JA, McKenna, DR, Kolath, WH, Chapman, PL, Tatum, JD and Belk, KE 2013. Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride and zilpaterol hydrochloride supplementation on longissimus muscle shear force and sensory attributes of beef steers. Journal of Animal Science 91, 59895997.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Association of Official Analytical Chemists 2000. Official methods of analysis vol. 2, 17th edition. AOAC, Arlington, VA, USA.Google Scholar
Avendaño, L, Rodriguez, VT, Murilo, FJM, Linres, CP, Saavedra, FF and Robinson, PH 2006. Effects of two beta-adrenergic agonists on finishing performance carcass characteristics, and meat quality of feedlot steers. Journal of Animal Science 84, 32593265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beerman, DH 2002. Beta-adrenergic receptor agonist modulation of skeletal muscle growth. Journal of Animal Science 80, 1823.Google Scholar
Berge, P, Culioli, J, Renerre, M, Touraille, C, Micol, D and Geay, Y 1993. Effect of feed protein on carcass composition and meat quality in steers. Meat Science 35, 7992.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brooks, JC, Claus, HC, Dikeman, ME, Shook, J, Hilton, GG, Lawrence, TE, Mehaffey, JM, Johnson, BJ and Allen, DM 2009. Effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride feeding duration and postmortem aging on Warner-Bratzler shear force of three muscles from beef steers and heifers. Journal of Animal Science 87, 37643769.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bryant, TC, Engle, TE, Galyean, ML, Wagner, JJ, Tatum, JD, Anthony, RV and Laudert, SB 2012. Effects of ractopamine and trenbolone acetate implants with or without estradiol on growth performance, carcass characteristics, adipogenic enzyme activity, and blood metabolites in feedlot steers and heifers. Journal of Animal Science 88, 41024119.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cônsolo, NRB, Gardinal, R, Gandra, JR, Freitas Junior, JE, Renno, FP, Santana, MHA, Pflanzer, SB and Pereira, ASC 2015. High levels of whole raw soybean in diets for Nellore bulls in feedlot: effect on growth performance, carcass traits and meat quality. Journal Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 99, 201209.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dunshea, FR, D’souza, DN, Pethic, DW, Harper, GS and Warner, RD 2005. Effects of dietary factors and other metabolic modifiers on quality and nutritional value of meat. Meat Science 71, 838.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fluharty, FL, Loerch, SC, Turner, TB, Moeller, SJ and Lowe, GD 2000. Effects of weaning age and diet on growth and carcass characteristics in steers. Journal of Animal Science 78, 17591767.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Geesink, GH, Smulders, FJM, Van Laack, HLJM, Van der Kolk, JH, Wensing, T and Breukink, HJ 1993. Effect of meat quality of the use of clenbuterol in veal calves. Journal of Animal Science 71, 11611170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gruber, SL, Tatum, JD, Engle, TE, Mitchell, MA, Laudert, SB, Schroeder, AL and Platter, WJ 2007. Effects of ractopamine supplementation on growth performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot steers differing in biological type. Journal of Animal Science 85, 18091815.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hankins, OG and Howe, PE 1946. Estimation of the composition of beef carcasses and cuts. USDA Technical Bulletin. 926, Washington, DC, USA.Google Scholar
Kellermeier, JD, Tittor, AW, Brooks, JC, Galyean, ML, Yates, DA, Hutcheson, JP, Nichols, WT, Streeter, MN, Johnson, BJ and Miller, MF 2009. Effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride with or without an estrogen-trenbolone acetate terminal implant on carcass traits, retail cutout, tenderness, and muscle fiber diameter in finishing steers. Journal of Animal Science 87, 37023711.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lanna, DPD, Boin, C and Alleoni, GF 1995. Estimation of carcass and empty body composition of zebu bulls using the composition of rib cuts. Scientia Agricola 52, 189197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Latorre, MA, Làzaro, R, Gracia, MI, Nieto, M and Mateos, GG 2003. Effect of sex and terminal sire genotype on performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of pigs slaughtered at 117 kg body weight. Meat Science 65, 13691377.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Leheska, JM, Montgomery, JL, Krehbiel, CL, Yates, DA, Hutcheso, JP, Nichols, M, Streeter, WT, Blanton, JR and Miller, MF 2008. Dietary zilpaterol hydrochloride. II. Carcass composition and meat palatability of beef. Journal of Animal Science 87, 13841393.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Leme, PR, Boin, C and Alleoni, GF 1994. Estimating body chemical composition from deuterium space. Brazilian Journal of Animal Science 23, 441452.Google Scholar
Marino, R, Albenzio, M, Caroprese, M, Napolitano, F, Santillo, A and Braghieri, A 2011. Effect of grazing and dietary protein on eating quality of Podolian beef. Journal of Animal Science 89, 37523758.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McEvers, TJ, Nichols, WT, Hutcheson, JP, Edmonds, MD and Lawrence, TE 2012. Feeding performance, carcass characteristics, and tenderness attributes of steers sorted by the Igenity tenderness panel and fed zilpaterol hydrochloride. Journal of Animal Science 90, 41404147.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Miller, MF, Carr, MA, Ramsey, CB, Crockett, KL and Hoover, LC 2001. Consumer thresholds for establishing the value of beef tenderness. Journal of Animal Science 79, 30623068.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mitchell, AD, Solomon, MB and Steele, NC 1991. Influence of level of dietary protein or energy on effects of ractopamine in finishing swine. Journal of Animal Science 69, 44874495.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Muchenje, V, Dzama, K, Chimonyo, M, Raats, JG and Strydom, PE 2009. Some biochemical aspects pertaining to beef eating quality and consumer health: a review. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 112, 279289.Google Scholar
National Research Council 2000. Nutrient requirements of beef cattle, 7th edition (updated). NRC, Washington, DC, USA.Google Scholar
Quinn, MJ, Reinhardt, CD, Loe, ER, Depenbusch, BE, Corrigan, ME, May, EML and Drouillard, JS 2008. The effects of ractopamine-hydrogen chloride (Optaflexx) on performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of finishing feedlot heifers. Journal of Animal Science 86, 902908.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Radostitis, OM, Gay, CC, Hinchcliff, KW and Constable, PD 2007. Veterinary medicine. A textbook of diseases of cattle, sheep, pigs, goats and horses, 10th edition. W.B. Saunders Ltd., London, UK.Google Scholar
Rathmann, RJ, Mehaffey, JM, Baxa, TJ, Nichols, WT, Yates, DA, Hutcheson, JP, Brooks, JC, Johnson, BJ and Miller, MF 2009. Effects of duration of zilpaterol hydrochloride and days on the finishing diet on carcass cutability, composition, tenderness, and skeletal muscle gene expression in feedlot steers. Journal of Animal Science 87, 36863701.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schroeder, AL 2004. The effect of Optaflexx on growth performance and carcass traits of steers and heifers. In Proceedings of 19th Annual Southwest Nutrition and Management Conference, Temple, Arizona, EUA, pp. 65–81.Google Scholar
Scramlin, SM, Platter, WJ, Gomez, RA, Choat, WT, Mckeith, FK and Killefer, J 2010. Comparative effects of ractopamine hydrochloride and zilpaterol hydrochloride on growth performance, carcass traits, and longissimus tenderness of finishing steers. Journal of Animal Science 88, 18231829.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sirtori, F, Crovetti, A, Acciaioli, A, Pugliese, C, Bozzi, R, Campodoni, G and Franci, O 2014. Effect of dietary protein level on carcass traits and meat properties of Cinta Senese pigs. Animal 8, 19871995.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smith, SB, Gracia, DK and Anderson, DB 1989. Elevation of a specific mRNA in longissimus muscle of steers fed ractopamine. Journal of Animal Science 67, 34953502.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Van Soest, PJ and Robertson, JB 1985. Analysis of forages and fibrous foods. Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA.Google Scholar
Van Soest, PJ, Robertson, JB and Lewis, BA 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science 74, 35833597.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vestergaard, M, Sejrsen, K and Klastrup, S 1994. Growth, composition and eating quality of longissimus dorsi from young bulls fed the β-agonist cimaterol at consecutive developmental stages. Journal of Meat Science 38, 5566.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Walker, DK, Titgemeyer, EC, Drouillard, JS, Loe, ER, Depenbusch, BE and Webb, AS 2006. Effects of ractopamine and protein source on growth performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot heifers. Journal of Animal Science 84, 27952800.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wheeler, TL, Shackelford, SD and Koohmaraie, M 2001. Shear force procedures for meat tenderness measurement. Retrieved April 16, 2014, from http://www.ars.usda.gov/SP2UserFiles/Place/30400510/protocols/ShearForceProcedures.pdf.Google Scholar
Yang, YT and McElligott, MA 1989. Multiple actions of the β-adrenergic agonists on skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Biochemical Journal 261, 112.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride and dietary protein content on performance, carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore bulls
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride and dietary protein content on performance, carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore bulls
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride and dietary protein content on performance, carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore bulls
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *