Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-568f69f84b-gcfkn Total loading time: 0.282 Render date: 2021-09-20T09:07:48.607Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Article contents

Branched-chain volatile fatty acids and folic acid accelerated the growth of Holstein dairy calves by stimulating nutrient digestion and rumen metabolism

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  16 December 2019

Y. R. Liu
Affiliation:
Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu030801, Shanxi Province, P. R. China
H. S. Du
Affiliation:
Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu030801, Shanxi Province, P. R. China
Z. Z. Wu
Affiliation:
Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu030801, Shanxi Province, P. R. China
C. Wang
Affiliation:
Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu030801, Shanxi Province, P. R. China
Q. Liu*
Affiliation:
Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu030801, Shanxi Province, P. R. China
G. Guo
Affiliation:
Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu030801, Shanxi Province, P. R. China
W. J. Huo
Affiliation:
Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu030801, Shanxi Province, P. R. China
Y. L. Zhang
Affiliation:
Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu030801, Shanxi Province, P. R. China
C. X. Pei
Affiliation:
Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu030801, Shanxi Province, P. R. China
S. L. Zhang
Affiliation:
Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu030801, Shanxi Province, P. R. China
*Corresponding
Get access

Abstract

The combined addition of branched-chain volatile fatty acids (BCVFAs) and folic acid (FA) could improve growth performance and nutrient utilization by stimulating ruminal microbial growth and enzyme activity. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of BCVFA and FA addition on growth performance, ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, microbial enzyme activity, microflora and excretion of urinary purine derivatives (PDs) in calves. Thirty-six Chinese Holstein weaned calves (60 ± 5.4 days of age and 107 ± 4.7 kg of BW) were assigned to one of four groups in a randomized block design. Treatments were control (without additives), FA (with 10 mg FA/kg dietary DM), BCVFA (with 5 g BCVFA/kg dietary DM) and the combined addition of FA and BCVFA (10 mg/kg DM of FA and 5 g/kg DM of BCVFA). Supplements were hand-mixed into the top one-third of total mixed ration. Dietary concentrate to maize silage ratio was 50 : 50 on a DM basis. Dietary BCVFA or FA addition did not affect dry matter intake but increased average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion efficiency. Ruminal pH and ammonia N were lower, and total volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentration was higher for BCVFA or FA addition than for control. Dietary BCVFA or FA addition did not affect acetate proportion but decreased propionate proportion and increased acetate to propionate ratio. Total tract digestibility of DM, organic matter, CP and NDF was higher for BCVFA or FA addition than for control. Dietary BCVFA or FA addition increased activity of carboxymethyl cellulase and cellobiase, population of total bacteria, fungi, Ruminococcus albus, R. flavefaciens, Fibrobacter succinogenes and Prevotella ruminicola as well as total PD excretion. Ruminal xylanase, pectinase and protease activity and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens population were increased by BCVFA addition, whereas population of protozoa and methanogens was increased by FA addition. The BCVFA × FA interaction was significant for acetate to propionate ratio, cellobiase activity and total PD excretion, and these variables increased more with FA addition in diet without BCVFA than in diet with BCVFA. The data indicated that supplementation with BCVFA or FA increased ADG, nutrient digestibility, ruminal total VFA concentration and microbial protein synthesis by stimulating ruminal microbial growth and enzyme activity in calves.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
© The Animal Consortium 2019

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Agarwal, N, Kamra, DN, Chaudhary, LC, Agarwal, I, Sahoo, A and Pathak, NN 2002. Microbial status and rumen enzyme profile of crossbred calves fed on different microbial feed additives. Letters in Applied Microbiology 34, 329336.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Andries, JI, Buysse, FX, Debrabander, DL and Cottyn, BG 1987. Isoacids in ruminant nutrition: their role in ruminal and intermediary metabolism and possible influences on performances: a review. Animal Feed Science and Technology 18, 169180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Association of Official Analytical Chemists 1997. Official methods of analysis, 16th edition. AOAC, Gaithersburg, MD, USA.Google Scholar
Association of Official Analytical Chemists 2000. Official methods of analysis, 17th edition. AOAC, Arlington, VA, USA.Google Scholar
Bailey, LB and Gregory, JF 1999. Folate metabolism and requirements. Journal of Nutrition 129, 779782.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Balaghi, M and Wagner, C 1995. Folate deficiency inhibits pancreatic amylase secretion in rats. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 61, 9096.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cummins, KA and Papas, AH 1985. Effect of isocarbon 4 and isocarbon 5 volatile fatty acids on microbial protein synthesis and dry matter digestibility in vitro. Journal of Dairy Science 68, 25882595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dehority, BA, Scott, HW and Kowaluk, P 1967. Volatile fatty acid requirements of cellulolytic rumen bacteria. Journal of Bacteriology 94, 537543.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Graulet, B, Matte, JJ, Desrochers, A, Doepel, L, Palin, MF and Girard, CL 2007. Effects of dietary supplements of folic acid and vitamin B12 on metabolism of dairy cows in early lactation. Journal of Dairy Science 90, 34423455.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
International Atomic Energy Agency 1997. Estimation of rumen microbial protein production from purine derivatives in urine. INIS Clearinghouse, IAEA, Wagramerstrasse, Vienna, Austria.Google Scholar
Kongmun, P, Wanapat, M, Pakdee, P and Navanukraw, C 2010. Effect of coconut oil and garlic powder on in vitro fermentation using gas production technique. Livestock Science 127, 3844.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
La, SK, Li, H, Wang, C, Liu, Q, Guo, G, Huo, WJ, Zhang, YL, Pei, CX and Zhang, SL 2019. Effects of rumen-protected folic acid and dietary protein level on growth performance, ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility and hepatic gene expression of dairy calves. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 103, 10061014.Google ScholarPubMed
Liu, Q, Wang, C, Guo, G, Huo, WJ, Zhang, YL, Pei, CX, Zhang, SL and Wang, H 2018. Effects of branched-chain volatile fatty acids supplementation on growth performance, ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, hepatic lipid content and gene expression of dairy calves. Animal Feed Science and Technology 237, 2734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liu, Q, Wang, C, Zhang, YL, Pei, CX, Zhang, SL, Wang, YX, Zhang, ZW, Yang, WZ, Wang, H, Guo, G and Huo, WJ 2016. Effects of isovalerate supplementation on growth performance and ruminal fermentation in pre- and post-weaning dairy calves. Journal of Agricultural Science 154, 14991508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Longnecker, DS 2002. Abnormal methyl metabolism in pancreatic toxicity and diabetes. Journal of Nutrition 132, 2373S2376S.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McCollum, FT, Kim, YK and Owens, FN 1987. Influence of supplemental four- and five-carbon volatile fatty acids on forage intake and utilization by steers. Journal of Animal Science 65, 16741679.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Miller, GL 1959. Use of dinitrosalisylic acid reagent for determination of reducing sugar. Analytical Chemistry 31, 426428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miura, H, Horiguchi, M and Matsumoto, T 1980. Nutritional interdependence among rumen bacteria, Bacteroides amylophilus, Megasphaera elsdenii, and Ruminococcus albus. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 40, 294300.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Noziere, P, Glasser, F and Sauvant, D 2011. In vivo production and molar percentages of volatile fatty acids in the rumen: a quantitative review by an empirical approach. Animal 5, 403414.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
National Research Council 2001. Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle, 7th revised edition. National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Washington, DC, USA.Google Scholar
Ragaller, V, Lebzien, P, Bigalke, W, Südekum, KH, Hüther, L and Flachowsky, G 2010. Effects of folic acid supplementation to rations differing in the concentrate to roughage ratio on ruminal fermentation, nutrient flow at the duodenum, and on serum and milk variables of dairy cows. Archives of Animal Nutrition 64, 484503.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reynolds, CK and Kristensen, NB 2008. Nitrogen recycling through the gut and the nitrogen economy of ruminants: an asynchronous symbiosis. Journal of Animal Science 86, E293E305.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Russell, JB and Wilson, DB 1996. Why are ruminal cellulolytic bacteria unable to digest cellulose at low pH? Journal of Dairy Science 79, 15031509.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Statistics Analysis System 2002. User’s guide: statistics, Version 9 Edition. Statistical Analysis Systems Institute, Cary, NC, USA.Google Scholar
Schwab, EC, Schwab, CG, Shaver, RD, Girard, CL, Putnam, DE and Whitehouse, NL 2006. Dietary forage and nonfiber carbohydrate contents influence B-vitamin intake, duodenal flow, and apparent ruminal synthesis in lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 89, 174187.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Slyter, LL and Weaver, JM 1977. Tetrahydrofolate and other growth requirements of certain strains of Ruminococcus flavefaciens. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 33, 363369.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Van Soest, PJ, Robertson, JB and Lewis, BA 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science 74, 35833597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vtk, T and Orskov, ER 2006. Causes of differences in urinary excretion of purine derivatives in buffaloes and cattle. Animal Science 82, 355358.Google Scholar
Wang, C, Liu, Q, Guo, G, Huo, WJ, Ma, L, Zhang, YL, Pei, CX, Zhang, SL and Wang, H 2016. Effects of rumen-protected folic acid on ruminal fermentation, microbial enzyme activity, cellulolytic bacteria and urinary excretion of purine derivatives in growing beef steers. Animal Feed Science and Technology 221, 185194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wang, C, Liu, Q, Zhang, YL, Pei, CX, Zhang, SL, Guo, G, Huo, WJ, Yang, WZ and Wang, H 2017. Effects of isobutyrate supplementation in pre- and post-weaned dairy calves diet on growth performance, rumen development, blood metabolites and hormone secretion. Animal 11, 794801.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wang, C, Wu, XX, Liu, Q, Guo, G, Huo, WJ, Zhang, YL, Pei, CX, Zhang, SL and Wang, H 2019. Effects of folic acid on growth performance, ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility and urinary excretion of purine derivatives in post-weaned dairy calves. Archives of Animal Nutrition 73, 1829.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yang, CMJ 2002. Response of forage fiber degradation by ruminal microorganisms to branched-chain volatile fatty acids, amino acids, and dipeptides. Journal of Dairy Science 85, 11831190.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yu, Z and Morrison, M 2004. Improved extraction of PCR-quality community DNA from digesta and fecal sample. Bio-Techniques 36, 808812.Google Scholar
Supplementary material: File

Liu et al. supplementary material

Liu et al. supplementary material

Download Liu et al. supplementary material(File)
File 62 KB

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Branched-chain volatile fatty acids and folic acid accelerated the growth of Holstein dairy calves by stimulating nutrient digestion and rumen metabolism
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Branched-chain volatile fatty acids and folic acid accelerated the growth of Holstein dairy calves by stimulating nutrient digestion and rumen metabolism
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Branched-chain volatile fatty acids and folic acid accelerated the growth of Holstein dairy calves by stimulating nutrient digestion and rumen metabolism
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *