Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-cf9d5c678-9z9qw Total loading time: 0.331 Render date: 2021-07-27T09:12:10.978Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Beyond SES: A Resource Model of Political Participation

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 September 2013

Henry E. Brady
Affiliation:
University of California, Berkeley
Sidney Verba
Affiliation:
Harvard University
Kay Lehman Schlozman
Affiliation:
Boston College

Abstract

This paper develops a resource model of political participation. The resources considered are time, money, and civic skills—those communications and organizational capacities that are essential to political activity. These skills are not only acquired early in life but developed in the nonpolitical institutional settings of adult life: the workplace, organizations, and churches and synagogues. These resources are distributed differentially among groups defined by socioeconomic status. A two-stage least squares analysis shows these resources have powerful effects on overall political activity, thus explaining why socioeconomic status has traditionally been so powerful in predicting participation. We disaggregate overall activity into three kinds of acts: those that involve giving time, those that entail donating money, and voting. Each requires a different configuration of resources resulting in different patterns of stratification across various political acts.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © American Political Science Association 1995

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Achen, Christopher H. 1982. Interpretation and Analysis of Regressions. Beverly Hills: Sage.Google Scholar
Achen, Christopher H. 1986. The Statistical Analysis of Quasi-Experiments. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Almond, Gabriel A., and Verba, Sidney. 1963. The Civic Culture. Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alwin, Duane F. 1991. “Family of Origin and Cohort Differences in Verbal Ability.” American Sociological Review 56:625–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anderson, Barbara A., and Silver, Brian D., 1986. “Measurement and Mismeasurement of the Validity of the Self-reported Vote.” American Journal of Political Science 30:771–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barnes, Samuel H., Kaase, Max. 1979. Political Action: Mass Participation in Five Western Democracies. Beverly Hills: Sage.Google Scholar
Becker, Gary S. 1965. “A Theory of the Allocation of Time.” Economics Journal 75:493517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Becker, Gary S. 1975. Human Capital. 2d ed.Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Becker, Gary S. 1976. The Economic Approach to Human Behavior. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Bendix, Reinhard, and Lipset, Seymour Martin, eds. 1966. Class, Status, and Power: Social Stratification in Comparative Perspective. 2d ed.New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
Bennett, Stephen Earl, and Bennett, Linda L. M.. 1986. “Political Participation.” In Annual Review of Political Science, vol. I, ed. Long, Samuel. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing.Google Scholar
Brady, Henry E. 1986. “The Perils of Survey Research: Interpersonally Incomparable Responses.” Political Mdhodology 11(3–4):269291.Google Scholar
Cahalan, Don. 1968. “Correlates of Respondent Accuracy in the Denver Validity Survey.” Public Opinion Quarterly 32:607–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Conway, M. Margaret. 1991. Political Participation in the United States. 2d ed.Washington: CQ Press.Google Scholar
Downs, Anthony. 1957. An Economic Theory of Democracy. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
Duncan, Otis Dudley. 1984. Notes on Social Measurement: Historical and Critical. New York: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
Granger, C. W. J., ed. 1990. Modelling Economic Series. Oxford: Clarendon.Google Scholar
Hanushek, Eric A., and Jackson, John E.. 1977. Statistical Methods for Social Scientists. Orlando, FL: Academic.Google Scholar
Hill, Kim Quaile, and Hurley, Patricia A., 1984. “Nonvoters in Voters' Clothing: The Impact of Voting Behavior Misreporting on Voting Behavior Research.” Social Science Quarterly 65:199206.Google Scholar
Hill, Martha S. 1985. “Patterns of Time Use.” In Time, Goods and Well-Being, ed. Thomas Juster, F. and Stafford, Frank P.. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research.Google Scholar
Huckfeldt, Robert, and Sprague, John. 1993. “Citizens, Contexts, and Politics.” In Political Science: The State of the Discipline II, ed. Finifter, Ada W.. Washington: American Political Science Association.Google Scholar
Judge, George G., Griffiths, W. E., Carter Hill, R., Lütkepohl, Helmut, Lee, Tsoung-chao. 1985. The Theory and Practice of Econometrics. 2d ed.New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
Kaase, Max, and Marsh, Alan. 1979. “Political Action Repertory: Changes over Time and a New Topology.” In Political Action, ed. Barnes, Samuel, Kaase, Max et al. Beverly Hills: Sage.Google Scholar
Katosh, John P., and Traugott, Michael W.. 1981. “The Consequences of Validated and Self-reported Voting Measures.” Public Opinion Quarterly 45:519–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Learner, Edward E. 1990. “Sensitivity Analyses Would Help.” In Modelling Economic Series, ed. Granger, C. W. J.. Oxford: Clarendon.Google Scholar
Leege, David C. 1988. “Catholics and Civic Order: Parish Participation, Politics, and Civic Participation.” Review of Politics 50:704–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McCarthy, John D., and Zald, Mayer N.. 1977. “Resource Mobilization and Social Movements: A Partial Theory.” American Sociological Review 82:1212–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Michael, Robert T. 1973. “Education in Nonmarket Production.” Journal of Political Economy 81(pt. 1): 305–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Michael, Robert T., and Becker, Gary S.. 1973. “On the New Theory of Consumer Behavior.” Swedish Journal of Economics 75:378–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Milbrath, Lester W., and Goel, M. L.. 1977. Political Participation. 2d ed.Chicago: Rand McNally.Google Scholar
Mincer, Jacob. 1962. “Labor Force Participation of Married Women: A Study of Labor Supply.” In Aspects of Labor Economics, by National Bureau of Economic Research. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Nagel, Jack H. 1987. Participation. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
Olsen, Marvin E. 1982. Participatory Pluralism. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.Google Scholar
Rosenstone, Steven J., and Hansen, John Mark. 1993. Mobilization, Participation, and Democracy in America. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
Sharp, Clifford. 1981. The Economics of Time. Oxford: Martin Robinson.Google Scholar
Silver, Brian D., Abramson, Paul R., and Anderson, Barbara A.. 1986. “The Presence of Others and Overreporting of Voting in American National Elections.” Public Opinion Quarterly 50:228–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Silver, Brian D., Anderson, Barbara A., and Abramson, Paul R.. 1986. “Who Overreports Voting?American Political Science Review 80:613–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sorauf, Frank J. 1988. Money in American Elections. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman and Little Brown.Google Scholar
Stigler, George J., and Becker, Gary S.. 1977. “De gustibus non est disputandum.” American Economic Review 67:7690.Google Scholar
Strate, John M., Parrish, Charles J., Elder, Charles D., and Ford, Coit III. 1989. “Life Span Civic Development and Voting Participation.” American Political Science Review 83:445–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Teixeira, Ruy A. 1992. The Disappearing American Voter. Washington: Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
Thorndike, Robert L., and Gallup, George H.. 1944. “Verbal Intelligence of the American Adult.” Journal of General Psychology 30:7585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Verba, Sidney, and Nie, Norman H.. 1972. Participation in America. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
Verba, Sidney, Nie, Norman H., and Kim, Jae-on. 1978. Participation and Political Equality: A Seven Nation Comparison. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Verba, Sidney, Schlozman, Kay Lehman, and Brady, Henry E.. 1995. Voice and Equality: Civic Voluntarism in American Politcs. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Verba, Sidney, Schlozman, Kay L., Brady, Henry E., and Nie, Norman. 1993. “Citizen Activity: Who Participates? What Do They Say?American Political Science Review 87: 303–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Volgy, Thomas J., and Schwarz, John E., 1984. “Misreporting and Vicarious Political Participation at the Local Level.” Public Opinion Quarterly 48:757–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wald, Kenneth D. 1992. Religion and Politics in the United States. 2d ed.; Washington: CQ Press.Google Scholar
Weiss, Carol H. 1968. “Validity of Welfare Mothers' Interview Responses.” Public Opinion Quarterly 32:622–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wolfinger, Raymond E., and Rosenstone, Steven J.. 1980. Who Votes? New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Wright, Erik Olin. 1985. Classes. London: Verso.Google Scholar
1184
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Beyond SES: A Resource Model of Political Participation
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Beyond SES: A Resource Model of Political Participation
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Beyond SES: A Resource Model of Political Participation
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *