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Prosecutor v. Omar Hassan Ahmed Al Bashir

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  27 February 2017

Johan D. van der Vyver*
Affiliation:
Emory University School of Law

Abstract

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Type
International Decisions
Copyright
Copyright © American Society of International Law 2010

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References

1 Prosecutor v. Al Bashir, Case No. ICC–02/05–01/09–3, Decision on the Prosecutor’s Application for a Warrant of Arrest Against Omar Hassan Ahmed Al Bashir (Mar. 4, 2009). Materials on ICC situations, including that in Darfur, Sudan, are available at http://www.icc–cpi.int/Menus/ICC/Situations–l–and–l–Cases/Situations/.

2 See Prosecutor v. Al Bashir, Case No. ICC–02/05–01 /09–12, Prosecution’s Application for Leave to Appeal the “Decision on the Prosecutor’s Application for a Warrant of Arrest Against Omar Hassan Ahmed Al Bashir” Dated 4 March 2009 (Mar. 13, 2009); Prosecutor v. Al Bashir, Case No. ICC–02/05–01/09–21, Prosecution’s Application for Leave to Appeal the “Decision on the Prosecutor’s Application for Leave to Appeal the ‘Decision on the Prosecutor’s Application for a Warrant of Arrest Against Omar Hassan Ahmed Al Bashir’ “ (June 24, 2009).

3 Prosecutor v. Al Bashir, Case No. ICC–02/05–01/09–73, Judgment on the Appeal of the Prosecutor Against the “Decision on the Prosecution’s Application for a Warrant of Arrest Against Omar Hassan Ahmed Al Bashir” (Feb. 3, 2010).

4 The ICC’s basic legal texts, including the Elements of Crimes, are available at http://www.icc–cpi.int/Menus/ICC/Legal+Texts+and+Tools/.

5 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, July 17, 1998, 2187 UNTS 3.

6 See also Prosecutor v. Bemba, Case No. ICC–01/05–01/08–424, Decision Pursuant to Article 61(7) (a) of the Rome Statute on the Charges of the Prosecutor Against Jean–Pierre Bemba Gombo, para. 27 (June 15, 2009).

7 Fourmy, Olivier Powers of the Pre–trial Chambers, in 2 The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court: a Commentary 1607, 1219 (Cassese, Antonio Gaeta, Paola & Jones, John R. W. D. eds., 2002)Google Scholar. Fourmy notes that the language of the ICC Statute is almost identical to that of Rule 47 of the ICTY Rules of Procedure and Evidence, but that the ICTY Rules again speak of “a suspect,” whereas the ICTY Statute refers to “the person.” Id. This difference in language, according to Fourmy, indicates that “a lesser degree of conviction” is required for issuing an ICC arrest warrant. Id. at 1219–20.

8 European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, Nov. 4, 1950, Art. 5(1)(c), ETS No. 5, 213 Unts 222.

9 Fox v. United Kingdom, 13 Eur. Ct. H.R. (Ser. A) 157, para. 32 (1990); K–F v. Germany, 1997–VII Eur. Ct. H.R., para. 57; O’Harav. United Kingdom, 2001–XEur. Ct. H.R., para. 34.

10 Prosecutor v. Delalić, Case No. IT–96–21–A, para. 458 (Feb. 20, 2001); see also Prosecutor v. Krnojelać, Case No. IT–97–25–T, paras. 67, 83 (Mar. 15, 2002); Prosecutor v. Vasiljević, Case No. IT–98–32–T, para. 68 (Nov. 29, 2002); Prosecutor v.Vasiljević,Case No.IT–98–32–A, paras. 120, 128, 131 (Feb.25, 2004);Prosecutor v.Brdjanin, Case No. IT–99–36–T, para. 997 (Sept. 1, 2004); Prosecutor v. Strugar, Case No. IT–01–42–T, para. 333 (Jan. 31, 2005); Prosecutor v. Halilović, Case No. IT–01–48–T, para. 15 (Nov. 16, 2005); Prosecutor v. Stakic, Case No. IT–97–24–A, para. 219 (Mar. 22, 2006); Prosecutor v. Halilović, Case No. IT–01–48–A, para. 119 (Oct. 16, 2007); Prosecutor v. Milutinović, Case No. IT–05–87–T, para. 39 (Feb. 26, 2009); Prosecutor v. Fofana, Case No. SCSL– 04–14–A, para. 200 (Spec. Ct. Sierra Leone May 28, 2008).

11 See generally Verdirame, Guglielmo The Genocide Definition in the Jurisprudence of the Ad Hoc Tribunals, Int’l & Comp. L.Q. 578, 58486 (2000)Google Scholar.

12 Prosecutor v. Jelisić, Case No. IT–95–10–A, para. 47 (July 5, 2001); Prosecutor v. Kayishema, Case No. ICTR– 95–1–A, para. 159 (June 1, 2001); Rutaganda v. Prosecutor, Case No. ICTR–96–3–A, para. 525 (May 26, 2003); see Schabas, William A. The Crime of Genocide in the Jurisprudence of the International Criminal Tribunals for the Former Yugoslavia and Rwanda, in International and National Prosecution of Crimes Under International Law: Current Developments 447, 457 (Fischer, Horst, Kreß, Claus & Rolf Lüder, Sascha eds., 2001)Google Scholar.

13 Prosecutor v. Karadzić, Case No. IT–95–5–R61, para. 94 (July 11, 1996).

14 Prosecutor v. Jean–Paul Akayesu, Case No. ICTR–96–4–A, para. 522 (June 1, 2001); see also Prosecutor v. Rutaganda, Case No. ICTR–96–3–T, para. 61 (Dec. 6, 1999); Prosecutorv. Musema, Case No. ICTR–96–13–T, para. 166 (Jan. 27, 2000); Prosecutor v. Baglishema, Case No. ICTR–95–1A–T, para. 62 (June 7, 2001); Prosecutor v. Semanza, Case No. ICTR–97–20–A, para. 313 (May 15, 2003).

15 Prosecutor v. Kayishema, Case No. ICTR–95–1–T, para. 93 (May 21, 1999).

16 Prosecutor v. Nikolić, Case No. IT–94–2–R61, para. 34 (Oct. 20, 1995).

17 Id.

18 Rutaganda, Case No. ICTR–96–3–T, para. 63; Musema, para. 167; see generally Prosecutor v. Nahimana, Case No. ICTR–99–55–T, paras. 957–69 (Dec. 3, 2003).

19 Jelisić, para. 47; see also Rutaganda, Case No. ICTR–96–3–A, para. 525.

20 Prosecutor v. Jelisić, Case No. IT–95–10–T, para. 82; (Dec. 14, 1999); see also Prosecutor v. Sirica, Case No. IT–95–8–T, para. 77 (Sept. 3, 2001).

21 Prosecutor v. Al Bashir, Case No. ICC–02/05–01 /09–3, paras. 228 –34.

22 Id, para. 223.

23 Gacumbitsi v. Prosecutor, Case No. ICTR–2001–64–A, Sep. Op. Schomberg, J., para. 18 (July 7, 2006).

24 Prosecutor v. Katanga, Case No. ICC–01/04–01/07–717, Decision on Confirmation of Charges, para. 514 (Sept. 30, 2008); see also Al Bashir, supra note 1, at paras. 211, 213; ICC Statute, Art. 25(3)(a).

25 See Prosecutor v. Al Bashir, Prosecutor v. Al Bashir, Case No. ICC–02/05–01/09–3, Decision on the Prosecutor’s Application for a Warrant of Arrest Against Omar Hassan Ahmed Al Bashir, paras. 55, 79 (Mar. 4, 2009).

26 Id., paras. 110–11.

27 Prosecutor v. Krnojelać, Case No. IT–97–25–A, para. 171 (Sept. 17, 2003); see also Prosecutor v. Sesay, Case No. SCSL–04–15–T, para. 298 (Spec. Ct. Sierra Leone Mar. 2, 2009).

28 Triffterer, Otto Causality, a Separate Element of the Doctrine of Superior Responsibility as Expressed in Article 28 Rome Statute? 15 Leiden J. Int’l L. 179, 189 Google Scholar.

29 Id.

30 See Schabas, William A. Genocide, in The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court 107, 109 (Otto Triffterer ed., 1999)Google Scholar; Ambos, Kai General Principles of Criminal Law in the Rome Statute, 10 CR. L.F. 1, 19 (1999)Google Scholar; Schabas, William A. The Jelisić Case and the Mens Rea of the Crime of Genocide, 14 Leiden J. Int’l L. 125, 13233 (2001)Google Scholar.

31 Prosecutor v. Ntagerura, Case No. ICTR–99–46–T, paras. 653–54, 694–95 (Feb. 25, 2004).

32 Prosecutor v. Brdjanin, Case No. IT–99–36–T, para. 715 (Sept. 1, 2004); see also Ntagerura, paras. 719–20.

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