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Administrative Naturalization Abroad of Members of the Armed Forces of the United States

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 April 2017

Henry B. Hazard
Affiliation:
U. S. Department of Justice

Extract

The national status of an individual is a matter of importance at all times, and is becoming increasingly so. It assumes special significance during hostilities between states. An extreme case is that of the dual national of two states that are at war with each other.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © American Society of International Law 1952

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References

1 Harvard Law School, Research in International Law, Part I, The Law of Nationality; this Journal, Spec. Supp., Vol. 23 (1929), Appendix No. 1 (An analysis of the nationality laws of various states), pp. 93–94.

2 Ibid., p. 92 (Bk. I, Sec. I, Ch. I, Art. 22, Greek Civil Law, No. 391 of Oct. 29, 1856).

3 See supra, note 1, Appendix No. 1, pp. 101, 104.

4 Table 1, Annual Report of the Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization of the United States for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1950.

5 1 U. S. Statutes at Large 103–104.

6 12 Stat. 597; Sec. 2166, U. S. Revised Statutes.

7 Ibid.

8 40 Stat. 547; 8 U. S. Code 395.

9 Sec. 504, Act of Oct. 14, 1940; 8 U. S. Code 904.

10 28 Stat. 124.

11 Sec. 2, 40 Stat. 547.

12 38 Stat. 395.

13 40 Stat. 546–547.

14 40 Stat. 1.

15 42 Stat. 105.

16 40 Stat. 84.

17 43 Stat. 1081.

18 40 Stat. 340.

19 40 Stat. 545–546; 8 U. S. Code 18.

20 40 Stat. 542–547.

21 41 Stat. 222.

22 41 Stat. 350.

23 The pertinent portion of that section of the Revised Statutes provided for taking an oath or affirmation before a United States legation or consular officer.

24 47 Stat. 165; 8 U. S. C. 392 b.

25 54 Stat. 1137.

26 41 Stat. 222.

27 41 Stat. 350.

28 44 Stat. 654.

29 45 Stat. 1546.

30 47 Stat. 165.

31 49 Stat. 395.

32 49 Stat. 397.

33 50 Stat. 743.

34 53 Stat. 851.

35 See detailed summary, “Naturalization privileges for members and veterans of the Armed Forces [of the United States],” by Reuben Speiser, Attorney, General Counsel’s Office, U. S. Immigration and Naturalization Service, Washington, D. C., in Monthly Review of that Service, Vol. IX, No. 4 (Oct., 1951), pp. 45–48.

36 See Harvard Research in International Law, Appendix No. 1, supra (note 1), pp. 84–86: Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Australia, Austria, Belgian Congo, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, French Indo-China (Cochin China), Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, Iraq (Mesopotamia), Italy, Japan, Latvia, Lithuania, Nicaragua, Norway, Palestine, Panama, Paraguay, Poland, Portuguese East Africa, Rumania, Russia (Soviet Union), Salvador, Siam, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tunis, Turkey, Union of South Africa, Uruguay, Venezuela, and Yugoslavia. See also: Flournoy and Hudson, A Collection of Nationality Laws (New York: Oxford University Press, 1929).

37 Act of March 27, 1790, Vol. 1, Statutes at Large, pp. 103–104.

38 Art. 1, Sec. 8, Cl. 4.

39 “(a) Exclusive jurisdiction to naturalize persons as citizens of the United States is hereby conferred upon the following specified courts: District Courts of the United States now existing, or which may hereafter be established by Congress in any State, District Courts of the United States for the Territories of Hawaii and Alaska, and for the District of Columbia and for Puerto Rico, and the District Court of the “Virgin Islands of the United States; also all courts of record in any State or Territory now existing, or which may hereafter be created, having a seal, a clerk, and jurisdiction in, actions at law or equity, or law and equity, in which the amount in controversy is unlimited.” Sec. 301 (a), Act of Oct. 14, 1940; 54 Stat. 1140; 8 U. S. C. 701.

40 See articles by the author: “The Trend toward Administrative Naturalization,” in The American Political Science Review, Vol. XXI, No. 2 (May, 1927), pp. 342–349; and “Some Administrative Phases of Naturalization in the United States of America,” in Zeitschrift für Völherrecht (Frankfurt, Germany), Bd. XVI, Heft 4/5 (1932), pp. 786–794, especially footnote 8.

41 44 Stat. 709–710.

42 54 Stat. 1156; 8 U. S. C. A. 733 (a).

43 8 U. S. C. A. 733 (b).

44 56 Stat. 182, 187; 8 U. S. C. 1001–1005; as amended by the Act of Dec. 22, 1944 (58 Stat. 886; 8 U. S. C. 1001, 1002).

45 Tutun v. U. S. (1926), 270 U. S. 576–577.

46 For an extensive review by the author of racial restrictions upon naturalization and citizenship of the United States, as of its date, see “Restrictions ethniques à la naturalisation et à l’acquisition de la qualité de citoyen aux Éats-Unis d’Amérique,” in Revue de Droit international et de Législation comparée, 1931, No. 4; 1932, No. 1.

47 A detailed and comprehensive description of this naturalization odyssey is being prepared by the author for publication, under the title “Operation Citizenship.”

48 War Department Circular, No. 193, Aug. 27, 1943, Par. 4 d.

49 Annual Reports of Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization, United States Department of Justice.

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