Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-747cfc64b6-rxvp8 Total loading time: 0.381 Render date: 2021-06-15T23:49:17.419Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true }

Time, Oral Tradition, and Archaeology at Xakwnoowú, A Little Ice Age Fort in Southeastern Alaska

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 January 2017

Aron L. Crowell
Affiliation:
Arctic Studies Center (Alaska Office), National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Anchorage, Alaska 99510 (croweIla@si.edu)
Wayne K. Howell
Affiliation:
Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Gustavus, Alaska 99826 (wayne_howell@nps.gov)
Corresponding

Abstract

As a linguistic medium, oral tradition conveys rich and specific detail about past events but is also subject to alteration in the course of transmission between generations. As a source for indigenous history, spoken heritage is characteristically specific in geographic attribution and thus definitive of cultural landscapes, but it is temporally under-defined because it is unconstrained by calendrical dates. We consider these qualities in relation to Tlingit oral accounts that refer to Xak-wnoowú, an 850-year-old fort in the Glacier Bay region of southeastern Alaska. The site is narratively linked to the origins of Tlingit warfare and of the Kaagwaantaan clan, and remains a landmark of historical consciousness for contemporary descendants. We apply archaeological and geological evidence to date and verify key oral narratives, finding substantial convergence with scientific data and a complementarity of perspective that potentiates fuller understandings of both Tlingit history and environmental change during the Little Ice Age. We conclude that the historicity of oral tradition—a topic of wide current debate—is clearly demonstrated at Xakwnoowú, although instances of chronological compression are revealed by the analysis.

Resumen

Resumen

La tradición oral es un medio lingüístico que permite la transmisión de acontecimientos pasados con gran detalle y especificidad, pero a la vez está sujeta a modificaciones de estos detalles de una generación a otra. La herencia oral como fuente de conocimientos históricos indígenas es muy precisa en cuanto a información geográfica y por lo tanto define el panorama cultural, pero presenta poca precisión en cuanto a los detalles temporales debido a que no está atada a un calendario de fechas. En este trabajo, tomamos en consideración estas cualidades en relación a los relatos orales Tlingit que hacen referencia a Xakwnoowú, un fuerte de 850 años de antigüedad de la región de la Bahía de los Glaciares del sureste de Alaska. El sitio está vinculado enforma narrativa a los orígenes de las batallas Tlingit y del clan Kaagwaantaan, y sigue siendo un hito de la conciencia histórica de los descendientes contemporáneos. Para esto, presentamos evidencia arqueológica y geológica con la cuál damos validez a narraciones orales clave, al encontrar que existe una convergencia sustancial entre estas y los datos científicos disponibles hasta la fecha así como perspectivas complementarias que dan como resultado un entendimiento más completos tanto de la historia Tlingit como del cambio ambiental durante la Pequeña Edad de Hielo. Concluimos que la auntenticidad histórica de la tradición oral—un tema de amplio debate—queda claramente demostrada en Xakwnoowú, a pesar de que el análisis revela casos de compresión cronológica.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © 2013 by the Society for American Archaeology.

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Ackerman, Robert E. 1964 Archaeological Survey, Glacier Bay National Monument, Southeastern Alaska (Part I). Report of Investigations No. 28. Laboratory of Anthropology, Washington State University, Pullman.
Ackerman, Robert E. 1965 Archaeological Survey, Glacier Bay National Monument, Southeastern Alaska (Part II). Report of Investigations No. 36. Laboratory of Anthropology, Washington State University, Pullman.
Ackerman, Robert E. 1968 The Archaeology of the Glacier Bay Region, Southeastern Alaska. Final Report of the Archaeological Survey of the Glacier Bay National Monument. Report of Investigations No. 44. Laboratory of Anthropology, Washington State University, Pullman.
Anyon, Roger, Ferguson, T. J., Jackson, Loretta, Lane, Lillie, and Vicenti, Philip 1997 Native American Oral Tradition and Archaeology: Issues of Structure, Relevance, and Respect. In Native Americans and Archaeologists, Stepping Stones to Common Ground, edited by Nina Swidler, Kurt E. Dongoske, Roger Anyon, and Alan S. Downer, pp. 7787. AltaMira Press, Walnut Creek, California.
Barnes, Frank C. 2006 Cartridges of the World. Revised 11th ed. Edited by Stan Skinner. Gun Digest Books, Iola, Wisconsin.
Black, Bruce W. 1957 History of Glacier Bay National Monument, Alaska. Manuscript on file, National Park Service Archives, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Gustavus, Alaska.
Clark, Donald W. 1992 “Only a Skin Boat Load or Two”: The Role of Migration in Kodiak Prehistory. Arctic Anthropology 29(1):217.Google Scholar
Colwell-Chanthaphonh, Chip, and Ferguson, T. J. 2006 Memory Pieces and Footprints: Multivocality and the Meanings of Ancient Times and Ancestral Places among the Zuni and Hopi. American Anthropologist 108:148162.Google Scholar
Connor, Cathy, Streveler, Greg, Post, Austin, Monteith, Daniel, and Howell, Wayne 2009 The Neoglacial Landscape and Human History of Glacier Bay, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Southeast Alaska, USA. The Holocene 19:381393.Google Scholar
Crowell, Aron L. 2009 Archaeology of a Borderland: Prince William Sound and Cook Inlet, Southern Alaska Coast. In Archaeology in America, Vol. 4, West Coast and Arctic/Subarctic, edited by Francis P. McManamon, Linda S. Cordell, Kent G. Light-foot, and George R. Milner, pp. 258260. Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut.
Crowell, Aron L., and Luhrmann, Sonja 2001 Alutiiq Culture: Views from Archaeology, Anthropology, and History. In Looking Both Ways: Heritage and Identity of the Alutiiq People, edited by Aron L. Crowell, Amy F. Steffian, and Gordon L. Pullar, pp. 2172. University of Alaska Press, Fairbanks.
Crowell, Aron L., Howell, Wayne K., Mann, Daniel H., and Streveler, Gregory P. 2013 The Hoonah Tlingit Cultural Landscape in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve: An Archaeological and Geological Study. National Park Service, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Gustavus, Alaska.
Cruikshank, Julie 1981 Legend and Landscape: Convergence of Oral and Scientific Traditions in the Yukon Territory. Arctic Anthropology 18(2):6793.Google Scholar
Cruikshank, Julie 1990 Getting the Words Right: Perspectives on Naming and Places in Athapaskan Oral History. Arctic Anthropology 27(1):5265.Google Scholar
Cruikshank, Julie 2001 Glaciers and Climate Change: Perspectives from Oral Tradition. Arctic 54(4): 377393.Google Scholar
Cruikshank, Julie 2005 Do Glaciers Listen? Local Knowledge, Colonial Encounters, and Social Imagination. UBC Press, Vancouver and University of Washington Press, Seattle.
Dauenhauer, Nora M., and Dauenhauer, Richard 1987 Haa Shuka, Our Ancestors: Tlingit Oral Narratives. University of Washington Press, Seattle and Sealaska Heritage Foundation, Juneau.
Davis, Stanley D. 1989 The Hidden Falls Site, Baranof Island, Alaska. Anthropological Association Monograph Series Vol. 5. Alaska Anthropological Association, Anchorage.
Davis, Stanley D. 1990 Prehistory of Southeastern Alaska. In Northwest Coast, edited by Wayne Suttles, pp. 197202. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 7, William C. Sturtevant, general editor, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
De Laguna, Frederica 1956 Chugach Prehistory: The Archaeology of Prince William Sound, Alaska. University of Washington Press, Seattle.
De Laguna, Frederica 1960 The Story of a Tlingit Community (Angoon): A Problem in the Relationship between Archaeological, Ethnological, and Historical Methods. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 172. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
De Laguna, Frederica 1972 Under Mount Saint Elias: The History and Culture of the Yakutat Tlingit. Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology, Vol. 7 (3 parts). Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
De Laguna, Frederica 1990 Tlingit. In Northwest Coast, edited by Wayne Suttles, pp. 203228. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 7, William C. Sturtevant, general editor, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
De Laguna, Frederica, Riddell, Francis A., McGeein, Donald F., Lane, Kenneth S., Arthur Freed, J., and Osborne, Carolyn 1964 Archaeology of the Yakutat Bay Area, Alaska. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 192, Smithsonian Institution. U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
Dixon, George 1789 A Voyage Round the World; But More Particularly to the North-West Coast of America: Performed in 1785, 1786, 1787, and 1788 in The King George and Queen Charlotte, Captains Portlock and Dixon. George Goulding, London.
Dods, Robert Robin 2004 Knowing Ways / Ways of Knowing: Reconciling Science and Tradition. World Archaeology 36:547557.Google Scholar
Dumond, Don E. 1987 A Reexamination of Eskimo-Aleut Prehistory. American Anthropologist 89:3256.Google Scholar
Echo-Hawk, Roger C. 2000 Ancient History in the New World: Integrating Oral Traditions and the Archaeological Record in Deep Time. American Antiquity 65:267290.Google Scholar
Emmons, George T. c. 1916 Tlingit tribes and families. Emmons Collection, Reel A0176, Box 60, File 7. British Columbia Archives, Royal BC Museum, Victoria.
Emmons, George T. 1991 The Tlingit Indians. Edited with additions by Frederica De Laguna. University of Washington Press, Seattle.
Fike, Richard E. 1987 The Bottle Book: A Comprehensive Guide to Historic Embossed Medicine Bottles. Peregrine Smith Books, Salt Lake City, Utah.
Friesen, T. Max 2002 Analogues at Iqaluktuuq: The Social Context of Archaeological Inference in Nunavut, Arctic Canada. World Archaeology 34:330345.Google Scholar
Goldschmidt, Walter R., and Haas, Theodore H. 1998 Haa Aaní: Our Land. Tlingit and Haida Land Rights and Use. Edited by Thomas F. Thornton. University of Washington Press, Seattle and Sealaska Heritage Foundation, Juneau.
Goody, Jack, and Watt, Ian 1968 The Consequences of Literacy. In Literacy in Traditional Societies, edited by Jack Goody, pp. 2768. Cambridge University Press, New York.
Gulløv, Hans C. 1995 ‘Olden Times’ in Southeast Greenland: New Archaeological Investigations and the Oral Tradition. Études/Inuit/Studies 19(1): 336.Google Scholar
Hall, George A. 1962 Report of a Visit to Hoonah, Alaska, july 1960 for the Purpose of Acquiring Tlingit Indian Legends of Glacier Bay. Manuscript on file, National Park Service Archives, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Gustavus, Alaska.
Henige, David P. 1974 The Chronology of Oral Tradition, Quest for a Chimera. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
Hodder, Ian 1999 The Archaeological Process. Blackwell, Oxford.
Holmberg, Heinrich J. 1985 Holmberg’s Ethnographic Sketches. Edited by Marvin W. Falk. Translated by Fritz Jaensch. University of Alaska Press, Fairbanks.
Hoonah Indian Association 2006 Tlingit Place Names of the Huna Kdawu [map]. Hoonah Indian Association, Hoonah, Alaska.
Hrdlička, Aleš 1945 The Aleutian and Commander Islands and Their Inhabitants. Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, Philadelphia.
Hunt, William J. Jr 2010 Alpine Rock Cairns on Chichagofand Baranof Islands, Tongass National Forest, Alaska. Technical Report No. 122. Midwest Archaeological Center, Lincoln, Nebraska.
Hymes, Dell 1990 Mythology. In Northwest Coast, edited by Wayne Suttles, pp. 593601. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 7, William C. Sturtevant, general editor, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
Ingold, Tim 2000 The Perception of the Environment. Routledge, London.
Jacoby, Gordon C., Workman, Karen W., and D’Arrigo, Rosanne D. 1999 Laki Eruption of 1783, Tree Rings, and Disaster for Northwest Alaska Inuit. Quaternary Science Reviews 18:13651371.Google Scholar
James, Susie (Kaasgeiy X’eidax) 1973 Sít’ Kaa Káx Kana .áa Kaasgéiy X'éidax Sh Kalneek. Glacier Bay History. Edited and transcribed by Nora Florendo. Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska, Fairbanks.
Kari, James, and Fall, James A. 2003 Shem Pete’s Alaska: The Territory of the Upper Cook Inlet Dena’aina. 2nd ed. Alaska Native Language Center, Fairbanks.
Knecht, Rick, Haakanson, Sven, and Dickson, Shawn 2002 Awa’uq: Discovery and Excavation of an 18th Century Alutiiq Refuge Rock in the Kodiak Archipelago. In To the Aleutians and Beyond: The Anthropology of William S. Laughlin, edited by Bruno Frohlich, Albert B. Harper, and Rolf Gilberg, pp. 177191. National Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen.
Krause, Aurel 1956 The Tlingit Indians: Results of a Trip to the Northwest Coast of America and the Bering Straits. Translated by Ema Gunther. American Ethnological Society and the University of Washington Press, Seattle.
Krupnik, Igor, Mason, Rachel, and Horton, Tonia W. (editors) 2004 Northern Ethnographic Landscapes: Perspectives from Circumpolar Nations. Arctic Studies Center, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
La Pérouse, Jean-François de Galaup de 1994 The Journal of Jean-François de Galaup de la Perouse, 1785–1788. Hakluyt Society, London.
Larsen, Christopher R., Motyka, Roman J., Freymuller, Jeffrey T., Echelmeyer, Keith A., and Ivins, Erik R. 2004 Rapid Uplift of Southern Alaska Caused by Recent Ice Loss. Geophysical Journal International 158:11181133.Google Scholar
Larsen, Christopher F., Motyka, Roman J., Freymuller, Jeffrey T., Echelmeyer, Keith A., and Ivins, Erik R. 2005 Rapid Viscoelastic Uplift in Southeast Alaska Caused by Post-Little Ice Age Glacial Retreat. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 237:548560.Google Scholar
Lawson, Daniel, Wiles, Greg, and Wiesenberg, Nicholas 2010 Paleoclimate of the Last 10,000 Years, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve: Progress Understanding Climate Change in Southeast Alaska. Annual Report 2010. Prepared for the National Park Service, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve.
Litke, Frederic 1987 A Voyage around the World 1826–1829, Vol. 1, To Russian America and Siberia. Translated by Renée Marshall. Edited by Richard A. Pierce. The Limestone Press, Kingston, Ontario.
Lowie, Robert 1917 Oral Tradition and History. Journal of American Folklore 30:161167.Google Scholar
McLaren, Duncan 2003 Uncovering Historical Sequences in Central Coast Salish Narratives. In Archaeology of British Columbia: Essays in Honour of Professor Philip M. Hobler, edited by Roy L. Carlson, pp. 175188. Archaeology Press, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, B.C.
McMillan, Alan D., and Hutchinson, Ian 2002 When the Mountain Dwarfs Danced: Aboriginal Traditions of Paleoseismic Events along the Cascadia Sub-duction Zone of Western North America. Ethnohistory 49:4168.Google Scholar
Mann, Daniel H., and Hamilton, Thomas D. 1995 Late Pleistocene and Holocene Paleoenvironments of the North Pacific Coast. Quaternary Science Reviews 14:449171.Google Scholar
Mann, Daniel H., and Streveler, Gregory P. 1997 Final Report on Geological Investigations Associated with 1995 SAIP Survey in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve. Manuscript on file, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Gustavus, Alaska.
Mann, Daniel H., and Streveler, Gregory P. 2008 Post-Glacial Relative Sea Level, Isostasy, and Glacial History in Icy Strait, Southeast Alaska, USA. Quaternary Research 69:210216.Google Scholar
Marsden, Susan 2001 Defending the Mouth of the Skeena: Perspectives on Tsimshian Tlingit Relations. In Perspectives on Northern Northwest Coast Prehistory, edited by Jerome S. Cybulski, pp. 61106. Mercury Series Paper 160. Canadian Museum of Civilization, Archaeological Survey of Canada, Hull, Quebec.
Martindale, Andrew 2006 Methodological Issues in the Use of Tsimshian Oral Traditions (Adawx) in Archaeology. Canadian Journal of Archaeology 30:158192.Google Scholar
Maschner, Herbert D. G., and Reedy-Maschner, Katherine L. 1998 Raid, Retreat, Defend (Repeat): The Archaeology and Ethnohistory of Warfare on the North Pacific Rim. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 17:1951.Google Scholar
Mason, Ronald J. 2000 Archaeology and Native North American Oral Traditions. American Antiquity 65:239266.Google Scholar
Menzies, Archibald 1993 The Alaska Travel Journal of Archibald Menzies, 1793–1794. University of Alaska Press, Fairbanks.
Monteith, Daniel, Connor, Cathy, Streveler, Gregory P., and Howell, Wayne 2007 Geology and Oral History—Complementary Views of a Former Glacier Bay Landscape. In Proceedings of the Fourth Glacier Bay Science Symposium, October 26–28, 2004, Juneau, Alaska, edited by John F. Piatt and Scott M. Gende, pp. 5053. Scientific Investigations Report 2007-5047. U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Moodie, D. Wayne, Catchpole, A. J. W., and Abel, Kerry 1992 Northern Athapaskan Oral Traditions and the White River Volcano. Ethnohistory 39:148170.Google Scholar
Morphy, Howard 1995 Landscape and the Reproduction of the Ancestral Past. In The Anthropology of Landscape: Perspectives on Place and Space, edited by Eric Hirsch and Michael O’Hanlon, pp. 184209. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
Moss, Madonna 1998 Northern Northwest Coast Regional Overview. Arctic Anthropology 35(1):88111.Google Scholar
Moss, Madonna, and Eriandson, Jon M. 1992 Forts, Refuge Rocks, and Defensive Sites: The Antiquity of Warfare along the North Pacific Coast of North America. Arctic Anthropology 29(2):7390.Google Scholar
Moss, Madonna, Eriandson, Jon M., and Stuckenrath, Robert P. 1989 The Antiquity of Tlingit Settlement on Admiralty Island, Southeast Alaska. American Antiquity 54:534543.Google Scholar
Motyka, Roman J., Larsen, Christopher F., Freymueller, Jeffrey T., and Echelmeyer, Keith A. 2007 Post Little Ice Age Rebound in the Glacier Bay Region. In Proceedings of the Fourth Glacier Bay Science Symposium, October 26–28, 2004, Juneau, Alaska, edited by John F. Piatt and Scott M. Gende, pp. 5759. Scientific Investigations Report 2007–5047. U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Niblack, Albert P. 1890 The Coast Indians of Southern Alaska and Northern British Columbia; Based on the Collections in the US. National Museum, and on the Personal Observation of the Writer in Connection with the Survey of Alaska in the Seasons of 1885, 1886, and 1887. Annual Report of the U.S. National Museum, Washington, D.C.
Oliver, Jeff 2010 Landscapes and Social Transformations on the Northwest Coast: Colonial Encounters in the Fraser Valley. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.
Olson, Ronald L. 1967 Social Structure and Social Life of the Tlingit in Alaska. Anthropological Records Vol. 26. University of California, Berkeley.
Patrik, Linda E. 1985 Is There an Archaeological Record? Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory 8:2762.Google Scholar
Reimer, Paula J., Baillie, Mike G., Bard, Edouard, Bayliss, Alex, Warren Beck, J., Bertrand, Chanda J., Blackwell, Paul G., Buck, Caitlin E., Burr, George S., Cutler, Kirsten B., Damon, Paul E., Lawrence Edwards, R., Fairbanks, Richard G., Friedrich, Michael, Guilderson, Thomas P., Hogg, Alan G., Hughen, Konrad A., Kromer, Bernd, McCormac, Gerry, Manning, Sturt, Ramsey, Christopher Bronk, Reimer, Ron W., Remmele, Sabine, Soufhon, John R., Stuiver, Minze, Talamora, Sahra, Taylor, F. W., van der Plicht, Johannes, and Weyhenmeyer, Constanze E. 2004 IntCal04 Terrestrial Radiocarbon Age Calibration, 0-26 Cal KYR BP. Radiocarbon 46:10291058.Google Scholar
Schaepe, David M. 2006 Rock Fortifications: Archaeological Insights Into Precontact Warfare and Sociopolitical Organization Among the Sto:lo of the Lower Fraser River Canyon, B.C. American Antiquity 71:671705.Google Scholar
Schiffer, Michael Brian 1987 Formation Processes of the Archaeological Record. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.
Schiffer, Michael Brian 1995 Behavioral Archaeology: First Principles. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.
Corporation, Sealaska 1975 Native Cemetery and Historic Sites of Southeast Alaska (Preliminary Report). Wilsey and Ham, Inc., Consultants. Seattle, Washington.
Sterritt, Neil J. 1998 Tribal Boundaries in the Nass Watershed. UBC Press, Vancouver.
Stewart, Andrew M., Keith, Darren, and Joan Scottie 2004 Caribou Crossing and Cultural Meanings: Placing Traditional Knowledge and Archaeology in Context in an Inu-it Landscape. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 11:183211.Google Scholar
Swanton, John Reed 1908 Social Conditions, Beliefs, and Linguistic Relationship of the Tlingit Indians. Bureau of American Ethnology 26th Annual Report, pp. 39185. Washington, D.C.
Swanton, John Reed 1909 Tlingit Myths and Texts. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
Thom, Brian 2003 The Anthropology of Northwest Coast Oral Traditions. Arctic Anthropology 40(1): 128.Google Scholar
Thornton, Thomas F. 1995 Tlingit and Euro-American Toponymies in Glacier Bay. In Proceedings of the Third Glacier Bay Science Symposium, 1993, edited by Daniel R. Engstrom, pp. 294301. National Park Service, Anchorage.
Thornton, Thomas F. 1997 Know Your Place: The Organization of Tlingit Geographic Knowledge. Ethnology 36:295307.Google Scholar
Thornton, Thomas F. 2008 Being and Place among the Tlingit. University of Washington Press, Seattle and Sealaska Heritage Institute, Juneau.
Thornton, Thomas F. (editor) 2012 Haa Léelk’w Hás Aaní Saax’ú: Our Grandparents’ Names on the Land. Sealaska Heritage Institute, Juneau and University of Washington Press, Seattle.
Tonkin, Elizabeth 1992 Narrating Our Pasts: The Social Construction of Oral History. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Toulouse, Julian H. 1971 Bottle Makers and Their Marks. Blackburn Press, Caldwell, New Jersey.
Townsend, Joan 1980 Ranked Societies of the North Pacific Rim. In Alaska Native Cultures and History, edited by Y. Kotani and William B. Workman,pp. 123156. Senri Ethnological Series 4. National Museum of Ethnology, Osaka.
Vansina, Jan 1985 Oral Tradition as History. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison.
Veniaminov, Ivan 1984 Notes on the Islands of the Unalashka District. Translated by Lydia T. Black and Robert H. Geoghegan. Edited by Richard A. Pierce. The Limestone Press, Kingston, Ontario.
Whitely, Peter M. 2002 Archaeology and Oral Tradition: The Scientific Importance of Dialogue. American Antiquity 67:40515.Google Scholar
Whitridge, Peter 2004 Landscapes, Houses, Bodies, Things: “Place” and the Archaeology of Inuit Imaginaries. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 11:213250.Google Scholar
2
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Time, Oral Tradition, and Archaeology at Xakwnoowú, A Little Ice Age Fort in Southeastern Alaska
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Time, Oral Tradition, and Archaeology at Xakwnoowú, A Little Ice Age Fort in Southeastern Alaska
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Time, Oral Tradition, and Archaeology at Xakwnoowú, A Little Ice Age Fort in Southeastern Alaska
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *