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Shifting Communities: Demographic Profiles of Early Village Population Growth and Decline in the Central American Bottom

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 January 2017

Casey R. Barrier
Affiliation:
Department of Anthropology, Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, PA 19010 (cbarrier@brynmawr.edu)
Timothy J. Horsley
Affiliation:
Department of Anthropology, North Illinois University, De Kalb, IL 60115; Horsley Archaeological Prospection, LLC (timhorsley@gmail.com)

Abstract

The growth and decline of large village communities is a topic of considerable interest for archaeologists studying the development of complex regional polities. In this article, demographic information is presented for the transitional Mississippian period Washausen mound center located in the American Bottom region of west-central Illinois. Population estimates are calculated based on data for residential architecture collected in 2011 during an extensive geophysical survey and excavations at the site. A magnetometer survey was conducted over 8 ha and produced a relatively complete site map revealing numerous household clusters organized around a central, earthen mound-and-plaza complex. Population estimates and site spatial information for Washausen are compared with similar data for earlier village communities located nearby, as well as other global village sequences, producing a demographic profile demonstrating a pattern of village growth and decline in the area after the onset of sedentism and agricultural intensification. Information from the region and elsewhere suggests that the development of larger communities through time resulted in part through frequent population movements as village segments fissioned and aggregated to form new communities. This research finding has the potential to inform models for the growth of much larger American Bottom centers such as Pulcher and Cahokia.

Resumen

Resumen

El crecimiento y la disminución de grandes pueblos es un tópico de interés para los arqueólogos estudiando el desarrollo de complejos gobiernos regionales. En este articulo presentamos información demográfica del centro montifico Washuasen durante el periodo transicional “Mississipian,” localizada en la región “America Bottom” en centro-oeste Illinois. Calculamos estimados de población basados en el data de arquitectura residencial que colectamos en el 2011 durante una extensiva investigación geofisica y excavaciones en ese sitio. Conductamos una investigación magnometrica sobre ocho hectáreas y producimos un mapa detallando varios grupos de hogares organizados al rededor de un complejo montifico-y-plaza. Tambien comparamos estimados de población e información sitio-espacial de Washuasen con pueblos similares y cercanos de temporadas anteriores y también con comunidades globales. Producimos una descripción demográfica que demuestra un modelo de crecimiento y disminución en el área después del comienzo de sedentarismo e intensificación agricultural. Información de la región y otras localidades sugieren que el desarrollo de comunidades más grandes es debido al movimiento frecuente de poblaciones en forma de pueblos segmentados y fisionados que se agregan a nuevas comunidades. Los encuentros de este sitio tiene el potencial de informar modelos de crecimiento a centros más grandes del “American Bottom” como Pulcher y Cahokia.

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Articles
Copyright
Copyright © The Society for American Archaeology 2014

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