Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-684899dbb8-mhx7p Total loading time: 0.375 Render date: 2022-05-19T19:50:44.722Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true }

Evolution of a Late Prehistoric Winter Village on the Interior Plateau of British Columbia: Geophysical Investigations, Radiocarbon Dating, and Spatial Analysis of the Bridge River Site

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 January 2017

Anna Marie Prentiss
Affiliation:
Department of Anthropology, The University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812
Guy Cross
Affiliation:
Terrascan Geophysics, 4506 West 4th Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, V6R 1R3
Thomas A. Foor
Affiliation:
Department of Anthropology, The University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812
Mathew Hogan
Affiliation:
Rails-to-Trails Conservancy, 1100 17th Street, NW, 10th Floor, Washington D.C. 20036
Dirk Markle
Affiliation:
Department of Anthropology, The University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812
David S. Clarke
Affiliation:
Delaware Department of Transportation 800 Bay Road, P.O. Box 778, Dover, DE 19903

Abstract

A common issue for archaeologists who study intermediate-scale societies is defining scale and complexity of occupations across entire villages or towns. This can be a major problem since an understanding of site-wide inter-household occupation patterns can be crucial for accurate reconstruction of village demographics and socio-economic organization. In this paper we present new research at the Bridge River site, a large complex hunter-gatherer village in British Columbia, designed to develop a site-wide history of household occupation patterns. We accomplish this through broad-scale geophysical investigations, test excavations and an extensive program of radiocarbon dating. Results of the study suggest that the village grew rapidly between ca. 1800 and 1250 cal. B.P. expanding from 7 to at least 29 simultaneously occupied houses. Variability in household spacing and size indicate that social organization may have grown increasingly complex parallel with rising numbers of households.

Résumé

Résumé

Una cuestión común para los arqueólogos que estudian las sociedades de escala intermedia es definir la escala y complejidad de las ocupaciones a través de pueblos y aldeas enteros. Esto puede ser un gran problema porque la comprensión de modelos de ocupación entre las casas y a través de todo el sitio puede ser esencial para una reconstrucción precisa de la demografía y la organización socioeconómica del pueblo. En este artículo presentamos investigaciones nuevas sobre el sitio Bridge River, una aldea grande de cazadores y recolectores en Columbia Británica. Es el propósito de este artículo proponer una historia de los modelos de ocupación de las casas en el sitio. Realizamos la producción de esta historia con varios medios incluyendo investigaciones geofísicas, excavaciones de prueba, y un programa extensivo de fechamiento por radiocarbon. Los resultados de las investigaciones sugieren que el pueblo creció rápidamente entre aproximadamente 1800 y 1250 años antes de presente y además que el número de casas ocupadas simultáneamente aumentó desde 7 hasta por lo menos 29 casas en aquel tiempo. La variabilidad en el espacio entre las casas y el tamaño de las casas puede indicar que la organización social se volvió más compleja al mismo tiempo que el número de casas aumentó.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © The Society for American Archaeology 2008

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Archer, David J. W. 2001 Village Patterns and the Emergence of Rank Society in the Prince Rupert Area. In Perspectives on Northern Northwest Coast Prehistory, edited by J.S. Cybulski, pp. 203222. Mercury Series Archaeological Survey of Canada Paper 160, Canadian Museum of Civilization.Google Scholar
Arnold, Jeanne E. 1993 Labor and the Rise of Complex Hunter-Gatherers. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 12:75119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arnold, Jeanne E. 1996 The Archaeology of Complex Hunter-Gatherers. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 3:77126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arnold, Jeanne E. 2001a The Origins of a Pacific Coast Chiefdom. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.Google Scholar
Arnold, Jeanne E. 2001b The Channel Islands Project: History, Objectives, and Methods. In The Origins of a Pacific Coast Chiefdom, edited by Jeanne E. Arnold, pp. 2152. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.Google Scholar
Binford, Lewis R. 2001 Constructing Frames of Reference. University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
Bochart, Jessica 2005 Interpreting the Past through Faunal Analysis at the Bridge River Site, British Columbia Canada. M.A. thesis, Department of Anthropology, The University of Montana.Google Scholar
Burns, Melisse R. P. 2003 Changing Times, Changing Economics: A Faunal Resource History of Housepit 7 at the Keatley Creek Site. Unpublished M.A. Thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Montana, Missoula.Google Scholar
Carneiro, Robert 1967 On the Relationship between Size of Population and Complexity of Social Organization. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 23:234243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chatters, James C., Butler, Virginia L., Scott, Michael J., Anderson, David M., and Neitzel, Duane A. 1995 A Paleoscience Approach to Estimating the Effects of Climatic Wanning on Salmonid Fisheries of the Columbia Basin. Canadian Special Publication in Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 21:489496.Google Scholar
Chatters, James C., and Leavell, Daniel 1995 Harding Lake: A Study of Fire, Succession, and Sedimentation Since 350AD in the Subalpine Fir Forests of the Yaak River, Northwestern Montana. Applied Paleoscience Research Report P-4, Richland, Washington.Google Scholar
Cross, Guy 2004 Bridge River Archaeological Project: Geophysical Investigations, Phase-I Final Report, Terrascan Geophysics, Vancouver, Canada, Report on File, Department of Anthropology, The University of Montana, Missoula.Google Scholar
Cross, Guy 2005 Bridge River Archaeological Project: Geophysical Investigations, Phase-II Final Report, Terrascan Geophysics, Vancouver, Canada, Report on File, Department of Anthropology, The University of Montana, Missoula.Google Scholar
Dietz, Catherine A. 2004 A Study of Earth Ovens at the Bridge River Site (EeR14) near Lillooet, British Columbia. M.A. thesis, Department of Anthropology, The University of Montana, Missoula.Google Scholar
Finney, Bruce P., Gregory-Eaves, Irene, Douglas, Marianne S. V., and Smol, John P. 2002 Fisheries Productivity in the Northeastern Pacific Ocean over the Past 2,200 Years. Nature 416:729733.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fitzhugh, Ben 2003 Evolution of Complex Hunter-Gatherers: Archaeological Evidence from the North Pacific. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goodale, Nathan B., Prentiss, William C., and Kuijt, Ian 2004 Cultural Complexity: A New Chronology of the Upper Columbia Drainage Area. In Complex Hunter-Gatherers: Evolution and Organization of Prehistoric Communities on the Plateau of Northwestern North America, edited by William C. Prentiss and Ian Kuijt, pp. 3648. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.Google Scholar
Habu, Junko 2004 Ancient Jomon of Japan. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
Hallett, Douglas J., Lepofsky, Dana S., Mathewes, Rolf W., and Lertzman, Ken P. 2003 1l,000 years of Fire History and Climate in the Mountain Hemlock Rainforests of Southwestern British Columbia based on Sedimentary Charcoal. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 33:292312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hallett, Douglas J., and Walker, Robert C. 2000 Paleoecology and its Application to Fire and vegetation Management in Kootenay National Park, British Columbia. Journal of Paleolimnology 24:401414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harris, Lucille E. 2007 A Re-Examination of the Socioeconomic Standing of Small Houses at the Keatley Creek Site, British Columbia. Manuscript in possession of author.Google Scholar
Hayden, Brian 1994 Competition, Labor, and Complex Hunter-Gatherers. In Key Issues in Hunter-Gatherer Research, edited by E. S. Burch and L. J. Ellana, pp. 223239. Berg Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
Hayden, Brian 1995 Pathways to Power: Principles for Creating Socioeconomic Inequalities. In Foundations of Social Inequality, edited by T. D. Price and G. M. Feinman, pp. 1586. Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hayden, Brian 1997 The Pithouses of Keatley Creek. Harcourt Brace College Publishers, Fort Worth.Google Scholar
Hayden, Brian 1998 Practical and Prestige Technologies: The Evolution of Material Systems. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 5:155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hayden, Brian 2000 Dating Deposits at Keatley Creek. In The Ancient Past of Keatley Creek Volume I: Taphonomy, edited by Brian Hayden, pp. 3540. Archaeology Press, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, B.C. Google Scholar
Hayden, Brian 2005 Emergence of Large Villages and Large Residential Corporate Group Structures Among Complex Hunter-Gatherers at Keatley Creek. American Antiquity 70:169174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hayden, Brian, Bakewell, Edward, and Gargett, Robert 1996 World’s Longest-Lived Corporate Group: Lithic Analysis Reveals Prehistoric Social Organization Near Lillooet, British Columbia. American Antiquity 61:341356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hayden, Brian, Eldredge, Morley, Eldredge, Anne, and Cannon, Aubrey 1985 Complex Hunter-Gatherers of Interior British Columbia. In Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherers: The Emergence of Cultural Complexity, edited by T. D. Price and J. A. Brown, pp. 181199. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
Hayden, Brian, and Ryder, June 1991 Prehistoric Cultural Collapse in the Lillooet Area. American Antiquity 56:5065.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hill-Tout, Charles 1905 Report on the Ethnology of the Stlatlumh. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 35:126218.Google Scholar
Hockett, Brian S. 1998 Sociopolitical Meaning of Faunal Remains from Baker Village. American Antiquity 63:289302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnson, Jay K. (editor) 2006 Remote Sensing in Archaeology: An Explicitly North American Perspective. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa.Google Scholar
Kew, Michael 1992 Salmon Availability, Technology, and Cultural Adaptation in the Fraser River Watershed. In A Complex Culture of the British Columbia Plateau, edited by Brian Hayden, pp. 177221. University of British Columbia Press.Google Scholar
Kuijt, Ian 2001 Reconsidering the Cause of Cultural Collapse in the Lillooet Area of British Columbia: A Geoarchaeological Perspective. American Antiquity 66:692703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kuijt, Ian, and Prentiss, William C. 2004 Villages on the Edge: Pithouses, Cultural Change, and the Abandonment of Aggregate Pithouse Villages. In Complex Hunter-Gatherers: Evolution and Organization of Prehistoric Communities on the Plateau of Northwestern North America, edited by William C. Prentiss and Ian Kuijt, pp. 155170. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.Google Scholar
Kvamme, Kenneth L. 2003 Geophysical surveys as landscape archaeology, American Antiquity 68:435458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lenert, Michael 2001 Calibrated Radiocarbon Dates, and Culture Change: Implications for Socio-complexity in the Mid-Fraser Region, British Columbia. Northwest Anthropological Research Notes 35:211228.Google Scholar
Lepofsky, Dana S., Hallett, Douglas, Lertzman, Kenneth P., and Mathewes, Rolf 2005 Climate Change and Culture Change on the Southern Coast of British Columbia 2400–1200 Cal. B.P. An Hypothesis. American Antiquity 70:267294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lepofsky, Dana S., and Peacock, Sandra 2004 A Question of Intensity: Exploring the Role of Plant Foods in Northern Plateau Prehistory. In Complex Hunter-Gatherers: Evolution and Organization of Prehistoric Communities on the Plateau ofNorthwestern North America, edited by William C. Prentiss and Ian Kuijt, pp. 115139. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.Google Scholar
Mackie, Alexander P. and Williamson, Laurie 2003 Nuu-chah-nulth Houses: Structural Remains and Cultural Depressions on Southwest Vancouver Island. In Emerging from the Mist, edited by R. G. Matson, G. Coupland, and Q. Mackie, pp. 105151. UBC Press, Vancouver.Google Scholar
Mason, Owen 1998 The Contest between the Ipiutak, Old Bering Sea, and Birnirk Polities and the Origin of Whaling during the First Millenium A.D. along Bering Strait. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 17:240325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Matson, R. G., and Coupland, Gary 1995 The Prehistory of the Northwest Coast. San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Naroll, Raoul 1956 A Preliminary Index of Social Development. American Anthropologist 58:687715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Prentiss, Anna M., Lyons, Natasha, Harris, Lucille E., Burns, Melisse R. P., and Godin, Terrence M. 2007 The Emergence of Status Inequality in Intermediate Scale Societies: A Demographic and Socio-Economic History of the Keatley Creek Site, British Columbia. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 26:299327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Prentiss, William C., and Kuijt, Ian (editors) 2004 Complex Hunter-Gatherers: Evolution and Organization ofPrehistoric Communities on the Plateau of North-western North America, University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.Google Scholar
Prentiss, William C., Lenert, Michael, Foor, Thomas A., Goodale, Nathan B., and Schlegel, Trinity 2003 Radiocarbon Dating at Keatley Creek: The Chronology of Occupation at a Complex Hunter-Gatherer Village. American Antiquity 68:719736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Prentiss, William C., Dietz, Catherine A., Mandelko, Sierra, Orcholl, Jackie, Wilkerson, Emily, Goodale, Nathan, and Lenert, Michael 2004 Report of the 2003 University of Montana Investigations at the Bridge River Site (EeR14). Report on File, Bridge River Indian Band and Stl’atl’imx Hydro Office, Lillooet, British Columbia.Google Scholar
Prentiss, William C., Lenert, Michael., Foor, Thomas A., and Goodale, Nathan B. 2005 The Emergence of Complex Hunter-Gatherers on the Canadian Plateau: A Response to Hayden. American Antiquity 70:175180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Prentiss, William C., Clarke, David S., Markle, Dirk, Bochart, Jessica, Foss, Jake, and Mandelko, Sierra 2005 Report of the 2004 University of Montana Investigations at the Bridge River Site (EeR14). Report on File at the Bridge River Band and Stl’atl’imx Hydro Offices, Lillooet, British Columbia.Google Scholar
Prentiss, William C., Chatters, James C., Lenert, Michael, Clarke, David S., and O’Boyle, Robert C. 2005 The Archaeology of the Plateau of Northwestern North America During the Late Prehistoric Period (3500–200 B.P.): Evolution of Hunting and Gathering Societies. Journal of World Prehistory 19:47118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Price, T. Douglas and Feinman, Gary M. (editors) 1995 Foundations of Social Inequality. Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reyes, Alberto V. and Clague, John J. 2004 Stratigraphic Evidence for Multiple Advances of Lillooet Glacier, Southern Coast Mountains, British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Earth Science 41:903918.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rousseau, Mike K. 2004 Culture Historic Synthesis and Changes in Human Mobility, Sedentism, Subsistence, Settlement, and Population on the Canadian Plateau. In Complex Hunter-Gatherers: Evolution and Organization of Prehistoric Communities on the Plateau ofNorthwestern North America, edited by William C. Prentiss and Ian Kuijt, pp. 322. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.Google Scholar
Sanger, David 1970 The Archaeology of the Lochnore-Nesikep Locality. Syesis 3 (Supplement 1):1146.Google Scholar
Sassaman, Kenneth E. 2004 Complex Hunter-Gatherers in Evolution and History: A North American Perspective. Journal of Archaeological Research 12:227280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schaepe, David M. 2006 Rock Fortifications: Archaeological Insights into Pre-contact Warfare and Sociopolitical Organization among the Sto:Lo of the Lower Fraser Canyon B.C. American Antiquity 71:671706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scollar, Irwin, Tabbagh, Alain, Hesse, Albert, and Herzog, Irmela 1990 Archaeological prospecting and remote sensing. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
Smith, Craig S. 2003 Hunter-Gatherer Mobility, Storage, and Houses in a Marginal Environment: An Example from the mid-Holocene of Wyoming. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 22:162189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stryd, Arnoud H. 1973 The Later Prehistory of the Lillooet Area, British Columbia. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Archaeology, University of Calgary.Google Scholar
Stryd, Arnoud H. 1974 Lillooet Archaeological Project: 1974 Field Season. Cariboo College Papers in Archaeology 1.Google Scholar
Stryd, Arnoud H. 1980 A Review of Recent Activities Undertaken by the Lillooet Archaeological Project. The Midden 122:520.Google Scholar
Stuiver, Minze, Reimer, Paula J., and Reimer, R. W. 2005 CALIB 5.0. [WWW program and documentation].Google Scholar
Teit, James 1900 The Thompson Indians of British Columbia. Memoirs of the American Museum of Natural History, Jesup North Pacific Expedition 1:63392.Google Scholar
Teit, James 1906 The Lillooet Indians. Memoirs of the American Museum of Natural History, Jesup North Pacific Expedition 2:193300.Google Scholar
Teit, James 1930 The Salishan Tribes of the Western Plateaus. 45th Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology for 1927–1928.Google Scholar
Tunnicliffe, V., O’Connell, J. M., McQuoid, M. R. 2001 A Holocene Record of Marine Fish Remains from the Northeastern Pacific. Marine Geology 174:197210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Turner, Nancy 1992 Plant Resources of the Stl’ atl’imx (Fraser River Lillooet) People: A Window into the Past. In A Complex Culture of the British Columbia Plateau, edited by Brian Hayden, pp. 405469. University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver.Google Scholar
Weymouth, J. W. 1986 Geophysical Methods of Archaeological Site Surveying. Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory 9:311395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wiessner, Polly 2002 The Vines of Complexity: Egalitarian Structures and the Institutionalization of Inequality among the Enga. Current Anthropology 43:233270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
25
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Evolution of a Late Prehistoric Winter Village on the Interior Plateau of British Columbia: Geophysical Investigations, Radiocarbon Dating, and Spatial Analysis of the Bridge River Site
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Evolution of a Late Prehistoric Winter Village on the Interior Plateau of British Columbia: Geophysical Investigations, Radiocarbon Dating, and Spatial Analysis of the Bridge River Site
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Evolution of a Late Prehistoric Winter Village on the Interior Plateau of British Columbia: Geophysical Investigations, Radiocarbon Dating, and Spatial Analysis of the Bridge River Site
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *