Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-544b6db54f-zts5g Total loading time: 0.343 Render date: 2021-10-21T13:17:18.185Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Dry Creek Revisited: New Excavations, Radiocarbon Dates, and Site Formation Inform on the Peopling of Eastern Beringia

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 January 2017

Kelly E. Graf
Affiliation:
Center for the Study of the First Americans, Department of Anthropology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4352 (kgraf@tamu.edu)
Lyndsay M. DiPietro
Affiliation:
Department of Geology, Baylor University, Waco, TX 76798
Kathryn E. Krasinski
Affiliation:
Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Fordham University, Rose Hill Campus, Bronx, NY 10458
Angela K. Gore
Affiliation:
Center for the Study of the First Americans, Department of Anthropology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4352 (kgraf@tamu.edu)
Heather L. Smith
Affiliation:
Center for the Study of the First Americans, Department of Anthropology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4352 (kgraf@tamu.edu)
Brendan J. Culleton
Affiliation:
Human Paleoecology and Isotope Geochemistry Lab, Department of Anthropology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802
Douglas J. Kennett
Affiliation:
Human Paleoecology and Isotope Geochemistry Lab, Department of Anthropology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802
David Rhode
Affiliation:
Desert Research Institute, 2215 Raggio Parkway, Reno, NV 89512

Abstract

The multicomponent Dry Creek site, located in the Nenana Valley, central Alaska, is arguably one of the most important archaeological sites in Beringia. Original work in the 1970s identified two separate cultural layers, called Components 1 and 2, thought to date to the terminal Pleistocene and suggesting that the site was visited by Upper Paleolithic huntergatherers between about 13,000 and 12,000 calendar years before present (cal B.P.). The oldest of these became the typeassemblage for the Nenana complex. Recently, some have questioned the geoarchaeological integrity of the site's early deposits, suggesting that the separated cultural layers resulted from natural postdepositional disturbances. In 2011, we revisited Dry Creek to independently assess the site's age and formation. Here we present our findings and reaffirm original interpretations of clear separation of two terminal Pleistocene cultural occupations. For the first time, we report direct radiocarbon dates on cultural features associated with both occupation zones, one dating to 13,485-13,305 and the other to 11,060-10,590 cal B.P.

Résumé

Résumé

El sitio de múltiples componentes de Dry Creek ubicado en el valle de Nenana, Alaska central, es sin duda uno de los sitios arqueológicos mas importantes de Beringia. En el trabajo original se identificaron dos capas culturales independientes, los componentes 1 y2 , que datan del Pleistoceno Terminal y se estableció que el sitio fue visitadopor cazadores-recolectores del Paleolítico superior hace aproximadamente 13.000 y 12.000 años calendáricos antes delpresente (cal a.P.). Desde entonces varios investigadores han puesto en duda la integridad geoarqueológica de los depósitos tempranos del sitio, y sugirieron que la separación de las capas culturales es el resultado de procesos postdeposicionales. En 2011 volvimos a visitor Dry Creek para llevar a cabo un estudio integral de las fechas y de los procesos de formación del sitio. En este trabajo presentamos nuestras conclusiones y reafirmamos las interpretaciones originates acerca de la existencia de una clara separación de dos ocupaciones culturales del Pleistoceno terminal. Por primera vez, se presentan fechas directas de radiocarbono sobre los rasgos culturales asociados con cada uno de estos dos eventos de ocupación, uno datado en 13,485-13,305 y el otro de 11,060-10,590 cal a.P.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © The Society for American Archaeology 2015

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Anderson, Patricia M., Edwards, Mary E., and Brubaker, Linda B. 2004 Results and Paleoclimate Implications of 35 Years of Paleoecological Research in Alaska. Development in Quaternary Science 1:427440.Google Scholar
Bever, Michael R. 2001 An Overview of Alaskan Late Pleistocene Archaeology: Historical Themes and Current Perspectives. Journal of World Prehistory 15:125191.Google Scholar
Bever, Michael R. 2006 Too Little, Too Late? The Radiocarbon Chronology of Alaska and the Peopling of the New World. American Antiquity 71:595620.Google Scholar
Bigelow, Nancy H., and Edwards, Mary E. 2001 A 14,000 Yr Paleoenvironmental Record from Windmill Lake, Central Alaska: Lateglacial and Holocene Vegetation in the Alaska Range. Quaternary Science Reviews 20:203215.Google Scholar
Bigelow, Nancy H., and Roger Powers, W. 1994 New AMS Dates From the Dry Creek Paleoindian Site, Central Alaska. Current Research in the Pleistocene 11:114116.Google Scholar
Bigelow, Nancy H., and Roger Powers, W. 2001 Climate, Vegetation, and Archaeology 14,000–9000 Cal Yr B.P. in Central Alaska. Arctic Anthropology 38:171195.Google Scholar
Bowers, Peter M., Bonnichsen, Robson, and Hoch, David M. 1983 Flake Dispersal Experiments: Noncultural Transformation of the Archaeological Record. American Antiquity 48:553572.Google Scholar
Bronk Ramsey, Christopher 2009 Bayesian Analysis of Radiocarbon Dates. Radiocarbon 51:33760.Google Scholar
Bronk Ramsey, Christopher 2013 OxCal v.4.2.4, https://cl4.arch.ox.ac.uk/embed.php?file=.
Colinvaux, Paul A., and West, Frederick H. 1984 The Beringian Ecosystem. Quarterly Review of Archaeology 5(3): 1016.Google Scholar
Davis, Stanley D. 1996 Hidden Falls. In American Beginnings: The Prehistory and Palaeoecology of Beringia, edited by Frederick H. West, pp. 413423. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Dikov, Nikolai N. 1977 Arkheologicheskie Pamiatniki Kamchatki, Chukotki i Verkhnei Kolymy. Nauka, Moscow.
Dortch, Jason M., Owen, Lewis A., Caffee, Marc W., Li, Dewen, and Lowell, Thomas V. 2010 Beryllium-10 Surface Exposure Dating of Glacial Successions in the Central Alaska Range. Journal of Quaternary Science 25:12591269.Google Scholar
Dumond, Don E. 1980 The Archaeology of Alaska and the Peopling of America. Science 209:984991.Google Scholar
Dumond, Don E. 2001 The Archaeology of Eastern Beringia: Some Contrasts and Connections. Arctic Anthropology 38(2):196205.Google Scholar
Feder, Kenneth L. 2013 The Past in Perspective: An Introduction to Human Prehistory. 6th ed. Oxford University Press, New York.
Fu, Qiaomei, Mittnik, Alissa, Johnson, Philip L. F., Bos, Kirsten, Lari, Martina, Bollogino, Ruth, Sun, Chengkai, Giemsch, Liane, Schmitz, Ralf, Burger, Joachim, Ronchitelli, Anna Maria, Martini, Fabio, Cremonesi, Renata G., Svoboda, Jiri, Bauer, Peter, Caramelli, David, Castellano, Sergi, Reich, David, Pääbo, Svante, and Krause, Johannes 2013 A Revised Timescale for Human Evolution Based on Ancient Mitochondrial Genomes. Current Biology 23:553559.Google Scholar
Gaines, Edmund P., Yeske, Kate S., Shirar, Scott J., Johnson, William C., and Kunesh, James F. 2011 Pleistocene Archaeology of the Tanana Flats, Eastern Beringia. Current Research in the Pleistocene 28:4244.Google Scholar
Goebel, Ted 1990 Early Paleoindian Technology in Beringia. Unpublished Master’s thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Alaska, Fairbanks.
Goebel, Ted, and Bigelow, Nancy 1996 Panguingue Creek. In American Beginnings: The Prehistory and Palaeoecology of Beringia, edited by Frederick H. West, pp. 366370. University Chicago Press, Chicago.
Goebel, Ted, and Buvit, Ian 2011 Introducing the Archaeological Record of Beringia. In From the Yenisei to the Yukon: Interpreting Lithic Assemblage Variability in Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene Beringia, edited by Ted Goebel and Ian Buvit, pp. 130. Texas A&M University Press, College Station.
Goebel, Ted, Roger Powers, W., and Bigelow, Nancy H. 1991 The Nenana Complex of Alaska and Clovis Origins. In Clovis Origins and Adaptations, edited by Robson Bonnichsen and Karen Turnmire, pp. 4970. Center for the Study of the First Americans, Corvallis, Oregon.
Goebel, Ted, Roger Powers, W., Bigelow, Nancy H., and Higgs, Andrew S. 1996 Walker Road. In American Beginnings: The Prehistory and Palaeoecology of Beringia, edited by Frederick H. West, pp. 356363. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Goebel, Ted, Slobodin, Sergei B., and Waters, Michael R. 2010 New Dates from Ushki-1, Kamchatka, Confirm 13,000 cal BP Age for Earliest Paleolithic Occupation. Journal of Archaeological Science 37:26402649.Google Scholar
Goebel, Ted, Waters, Michael R., and Dikova, Margarita 2003 The Archaeology of Ushki Lake, Kamchatka, and the Pleistocene Peopling of the Americas. Science 301:501505.Google Scholar
Goebel, Ted, Waters, Michael R., and Meshcherin, Mikhail N. 2000 Masterov Kluich and the Early Upper Paleolithic of the Transbaikal, Siberia. Asian Perspectives 39:4770.Google Scholar
Gómez-Coutouly, Yan Axel 2011 Identifying Pressure Flaking Modes at Diuktai Cave: A Case Study of the Siberian Upper Paleolithic Microblade Tradition. In From the Yenisei to the Yukon: Interpreting Lithic Assemblage Variability in Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene Beringia, edited by Ted Goebel and Ian Buvit, pp. 7590. Texas A&M University Press, College Station.
Gore, Angela K., and Graf, Kelly E. 2015 Human Response to Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene Environmental Change in Central Alaska. Manuscript on file, Center for the Study of the First Americans, Department of Anthropology, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas.
Graf, Kelly E. 2010 Hunter-Gatherer Dispersals in the Mammoth-Steppe: Technological Provisioning and Land-Use in the Enisei River Valley, South-Central Siberia. Journal of Archaeological Science 37:210223.Google Scholar
Graf, Kelly E., and Bigelow, Nancy H. 2011 Human Response to Climate during the Younger Dryas Chronozone in Central Alaska. Quaternary International 242:434451.Google Scholar
Graf, Kelly E., and Goebel, Ted 2009 Upper Paleolithic Toolstone Procurement and Selection across Beringia. In Lithic Materials and Paleolithic Societies, edited by Brian Adams and Brooke S. Blades, pp. 5577. Blackwell Publishing, West Sussex.
Guthrie, R. Dale 1983 Paleoecology of the Site and its Implications for Early Hunters. In Dry Creek: Archeology and Paleoecology of a Late Pleistocene Alaskan Hunting Camp, edited by W. Roger Powers, R. Dale Guthrie, and John F. Hoffecker, pp. 209287. U.S. National Park Service, Washington, D.C.
Hansen, Robert M., and Morris, M. J. 1968 Movement of Rocks by Northern Pocket Gophers. Journal of Mammalogy 49:391399.Google Scholar
Haynes, C. Vance 1987 Clovis Origin Update. Kiva 52:8393.Google Scholar
Haynes, Gary 2002 The Early Settlement of North America: The Clovis Era. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Hoffecker, John F. 1983 Human Activity at the Dry Creek Site: A Synthesis of the Artifactual, Spatial and Environmental Data. In Dry Creek: Archeology and Paleoecology of a Late Pleistocene Alaskan Hunting Camp, edited by W. Roger Powers, R. Dale Guthrie, and John F. Hoffecker, pp. 182208. U.S. National Park Service, Washington, D.C.
Hoffecker, John F. 1988 Applied Geomorphology and Archaeological Survey Strategy for Sites of Pleistocene Age: An Example From Central Alaska. Journal of Archaeological Science 15:683ȃ713.Google Scholar
Hoffecker, John F., and Elias, Scott A. 2007 Human Ecology of Beringia. Columbia University Press, New York.
Hoffecker, John. F., Roger Powers, W., and Goebel, Ted 1993 The Colonization of Beringia and Peopling of the New World. Science 259:4653.Google Scholar
Hoffecker, John F., Roger Powers, W., and Bigelow, Nancy H. 1996 Dry Creek. In American Beginnings: The Prehistory and Palaeoecology of Beringia, edited by Frederick H. West, pp. 343352. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Holmes, Charles E. 2001 Tanana River Valley Archaeology circa 14,000 to 9000 BP. Arctic Anthropology 38:154170.Google Scholar
Holmes, Charles E. 2011 The Beringian and Transitional Periods in Alaska: Technology of the East Beringian Tradition as Viewed from Swan Point. In From the Yenisei to the Yukon: Interpreting Lithic Assemblage Variability in Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene Beringia, edited by Ted Goebel and Ian Buvit, pp. 179191. Texas A&M University Press, College Station.
Holmes, Charles E., Reuther, Joshua D., and Bowers, Peter 2010 The Eroadaway Site: Early Holocene Lithic Technological Variability in the Central Alaska Range. Paper Presented at the 37th Annual Meeting of the Alaska Anthropological Association, Anchorage.
Holmes, Charles E., Vanderhoek, Richard, and Dilley, Thomas E. 1996 Swan Point. In American Beginnings: The Prehistory and Palaeoecology of Beringia, edited by Frederick H. West, pp. 319322. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Johnson, Donald L. 1989 Subsurface Stone Lines, Stone Zones, Artifact-Manuport Layers, and Biomantles Produced by Bioturbation via Pocket Gophers (Thomomys Bottae). American Antiquity 54:370389.Google Scholar
Johnson, Donald L., and Hansen, Kenneth L. 1974 The Effects of Frost-Heaving on Objects in Soils. Plains Anthropologist 19:8198.Google Scholar
Johnson, Donald. L., Muhs, Daniel R., and Barnhardt, Michael L. 1977 The Effects of Frost-Heaving on Objects in Soils, II: Laboratory Experiments. Plains Anthropologist 22:133147.Google Scholar
Johnson, Donald L., and Watson-Stegner, Donna 1990 The Soil-Evolution Model as a Framework for Evaluating Pedoturbation in Archaeological Site Formation. In Archaeological Geology of North America, Centennial Special Vol. 4, edited by Norman P. Lasca and Jack Donahue, pp. 541560. Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado.
Klein, Richard G. 2009 The Human Career: Human Biological and Cultural Origins. 3rd ed. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Krasinski, Kathryn E. 2010 Broken Bones and Cutmarks: Taphonomic Analyses and Implications for the Peopling of North America. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology. University of Nevada, Reno.
Krasinski, Kathryn E., and Yesner, David R. 2008 Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene Site Structure in Beringia: A Case Study from the Broken Mammoth Site, Interior Alaska. Alaska Journal of Anthropology 6:2742.Google Scholar
Lively, Ralph A. 1996 Chugwater. In American Beginnings: The Prehistory and Palaeoecology of Beringia, edited by Frederick H. West, pp. 308311. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Lloyd, Andrea, H., Edwards, Mary E., Finney, Bruce P., Lynch, Jason A., Barber, Valerie, and Bigelow, Nancy H. 2006 Holocene Development of the Alaskan Boreal Forest. In Alaska’s Changing Boreal Forest, edited by F. Stuart Chapin, III, Mark W. Oswood, Keith Van Cleve, Leslie A. Viereck, and David L. Verbyla, pp. 6278. Oxford University Press, New York.
Odess, Daniel, and Shirar, Scott 2007 New Evidence of Microblade Technology in the Nenana Complex Type Site at Dry Creek, Central Alaska. Current Research in the Pleistocene 24:129131.Google Scholar
Pearson, George A. 1999 Early Occupations and Cultural Sequence at Moose Creek: A Late Pleistocene Site in Central Alaska. Arctic 52:332345.Google Scholar
Pearson, George A. 2000 Late Pleistocene and Holocene Microblade Industries at the Moose Creek Site. Current Research in the Pleistocene 17:6465.Google Scholar
Pitulko, Vladimir V., Basilyan, Aleksandr E., and Pavlova, Elena Y. 2014 The Berelekh Mammoth “Graveyard”: New Chronological and Stratigraphical Data from the 2009 Field Season. Geoarchaeology 29:277299.Google Scholar
Pitulko, Vladimir V., Nikolskiy, Pavel, Basilyan, Aleksandr, and Pavlova, Elena 2014 Human Habitation in Arctic Western Beringia Prior to the LGM. In Paleoamerican Odyssey, edited by Kelly E. Graf, Caroline V. Ketron, and Michael R. Waters, pp. 1314. Texas A&M University Press, College Station.
Potter, Ben A. 2008 Radiocarbon Chronology of Central Alaska: Technological Continuity and Economic Change. Radiocarbon 50:181204.Google Scholar
Potter, Ben A., Holmes, Charles E., and Yesner, David R. 2014 Technology and Economy among the Earliest Prehistoric Foragers in Interior Eastern Beringia. In Paleoamerican Odyssey, edited by Kelly E. Graf, Caroline V Ketron, and Michael R. Waters, pp. 81103. Texas A&M University Press, College Station.
Powers, William R., Dale Guthrie, R., and Hoffecker, John F. 1983 Dry Creek: Archeology and Paleoecology of a Late Pleistocene Alaskan Hunting Camp. U.S. National Park Service, Washington, D.C.
Powers, William R., and Hamilton, Thomas D. 1978 Dry Creek: A Late Pleistocene Human Occupation in Central Alaska. In Early Man in America from a Circum-Pacific Perspective, edited by Alan L. Bryan, pp. 7277. Occasional Papers No.1. Department of Anthropology, University of Alberta, Edmonton.
Powers, William R., and Hoffecker, John F. 1989 Late Pleistocene Settlement in the Nenana Valley, Central Alaska. American Antiquity 54:263287.Google Scholar
Raghavan, Maanasa, Skoglund, Pontus, Graf, Kelly E., Metspalu, Mait, Albrechtsen, Anders, Moltke, Ida, Rasmussen, Simon, Stafford, Ludovic Jr, Orlando, Thomas W., Metspalu, Ene, Karmin, Monika, Tambets, Kristiina, Rootsi, Siiri, Magi, Reedik, Campos, Paula F., Balanovska, Elena, Balanovsky, Oleg, Khusnutdinova, Elza, Litvinov, Sergey, Osipova, Ludmila P., Federova, Sardana A., Voevoda, Mikhail I., DeGiorgio, Michael, Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas, Brunak, Søren, Demeshchenko, Svetlana, Kivisild, Toomas, Villems, Richard, Nielsen, Rasmus, Jakobsson, Mattias, and Willerslev, Eske 2014 Upper Paleolithic Siberian Genome Reveals Dual Ancestry of Native Americans. Nature 505:8791.Google Scholar
Rasmussen, Morten, Anzick, Sarah L., Waters, Michael R., Skoglund, Pontus, DeGeorgio, Michael, Stafford, Simon Jr., Rasmussen, Thomas W., Moltke, Ida, Albrechtsen, Anders, Doyle, Shane M., David Poznik, G., Gundmund-stottir, Valborg, Yadav, Rachita, Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo, White, Morten E. V, Allentoft, Samuel Stockton, Cornejo, Omar E., Tambets, Kristiina, Eriksson, Anders, Heintzman, Peter D., Karmin, Monika, Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand, Meltzer, David J., Pierre, Tracey L., Stenderup, Jesper, Saag, Lauri, Warmuth, Vera M., Lopes, Margarida C., Malhi, Ripan S., Brunak, Søren, Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas, Barnes, Ian, Collins, Matthew, Orlando, Ludovic, Balloux, Francois, Manica, Andrea, Gupta, Ramneek, Metspalu, Mait, Bustamante, Carlos D., Jakobsson, Mattias, Nielsen, Rasmus, and Willerslev, Eske 2014 The Genome of a Late Pleistocene Human from a Clovis Burial Site in Western Montana. Nature 506:225229.Google Scholar
Reimer, Paula J., Bard, Edouard, Bayliss, Alex, Warren Beck, J., Blackwell, Paul G., Ramsey, Christopher Bronk, Buck, Caitlin E., Cheng, Hai, Lawrence Edwards, R., Friedrich, Michael, Grootes, Pieter M., Guilderson, Thomas P., Haflidason, Haflidi, Hajdas, Irka, Hatte, Christine, Heaton, Timothy J., Hoffmann, Dirk L., Hogg, Alan G., Hughen, Konrad A., Felix Kaiser, K., Kromer, Bernd, Manning, Stuart W., Niu, Mu, Reimer, Ron W., Richards, David A., Marian Scott, E., Southon, John R., Staff, Richard A., Turney, Christian S. M., and van der Plicht, Johannes 2013 Intcal 13 and Marine 13 Radiocarbon Age Calibration Curves 0–50,000 Years Cal BP. Radiocarbon 55:18691887.Google Scholar
Ritter, Dale F. 1982 Complex River Terrace Development in the Nenana Valley Near Healy, Alaska. Geological Society of America Bulletin 93:346356.Google Scholar
Sattler, Robert A., Gillispie, Thomas E., Easton, Norman A., and Grooms, Michael 2011 Linda’s Point: Results from a New Terminal-Pleistocene Human Occupation at Healy Lake, Alaska. Current Research in the Pleistocene 28:7578.Google Scholar
Schweger, Charles E. 1985 Geoarchaeology of Northern Regions: Lessons from Cryoturbation at Onion Portage, Alaska. In Archaeological Sediments in Context, edited by Julie K. Stein and William R. Farand, pp. 127141. Center for the Study of Early Man, Institute for Quaternary Studies, University of Maine, Orono.
Schweger, Charles E., Matthews, David M. Jr., Hopkins, John V., and Young, Steven B. 1982 Beringian Paleoecology—A Synthesis. In Pakoecology of Beringia, edited by David M. Hopkins, John V. Matthews, Charles E. Schweger, and Steven B. Young, pp. 425444. Academic Press, New York.
Smith, Tim A. 1985 Spatial Analysis of the Dry Creek Archaeological Site. National Geographic Research Reports 19:611.Google Scholar
Stanford, Dennis J., and Bradley, Bruce A. 2012 Across Atlantic Ice: the Origin of America’s Clovis Culture. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Stuiver, Minze, and Polach, Henry A. 1977 Discussion: Reporting of C-14 Data. Radiocarbon 19:355363.Google Scholar
Tamm, Erika, Kivisild, Toomas, Reidla, Maere, Metspalu, Mait, Smith, David Glenn, Mulligan, Connie J., Bravi, Claudio M., Rickards, Olga, Martinez-Labarga, Cristina, Khusnutdinova, Elsa K., Federova, Sardana A., Golubenko, Maria V., Stepanov, Vadim A., Gubina, Marina A., Zhadanov, Sergey I., Ossipova, Ludmila P., Damba, Larisa, Voevoda, Mikhail I., Dipierri, Jose E., Villems, Richard, and Malhi, Ripan S. 2007 Beringian Standstill and Spread of Native American Founders. Plos One 2(9):E829.Google Scholar
Thorson, Robert M. 1986 Late Cenozoic Glaciation of the Northern Nenana Valley. In Glaciation in Alaska: The Geologic Record, edited by Thomas D. Hamilton, Kafherine M. Reed, and Robert M. Thorson, pp. 99121. Alaska Geological Society, Anchorage.
Thorson, Robert M. 1990 Geologic Contexts of Archaeological Sites in Beringia. In Archaeological Geology of North America, Centennial Special Vol. 4, edited by Norman P. Lasca and Jack Donahue, pp. 399420. Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado.
Thorson, Robert M. 2006 Artifact Mixing at the Dry Creek Site, Interior Alaska. Anthropological Papers of the University of Alaska, New Series 4:110.Google Scholar
Thorson, Robert M., and Hamilton, Thomas D. 1977 Geology of the Dry Creek Site: A Stratified Early Man Site in Interior Alaska. Quaternary Research 7:149176.Google Scholar
Tinner, Willy, Hu, Feng Sheng, Beer, Ruth, Kaltenrieder, Petra, Scheurer, Brigitte, and Krähenbühl, Urs 2006 Postglacial Vegetational and Fire History: Pollen, Plant Macrofossil and Charcoal Records from Two Alaskan Lakes. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 15:279293.Google Scholar
Van Vliet-Lanoë, Bridget 2010 Frost Action. In Interpretation of Micromorphological Features of Soils and Regoliths, edited by George Stoops, Vera Marcelino, and Florias Mees, pp. 81108. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
Wahrhaftig, Clyde 1958 Quaternary Geology of the Nenana River Valley and Adjacent Parts of the Alaska Range. In Quaternary and Engineering Geology in the Central Part of the Alaska Range. Geological Survey Professional Paper 293-A, edited by Clyde Wahrhaftig, pp. 168. United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
Ward, Greame K., and Wilson, S. R. 1978 Procedures for Comparing and Combining Radiocarbon Age Determinations: A Critique. Archaeometry 20:1931.Google Scholar
Waters, Michael R., and Stafford, Thomas W. 2007 Redefining the Age of Clovis: Implications for the Peopling of the Americas. Science 315:11221126.Google Scholar
West, Frederick H. 1967 The Donnelly Ridge Site and the Definition of an Early Core and Blade Complex in Central Alaska. American Antiquity 32:360382.Google Scholar
West, Frederick H. 1981 The Archaeology ofBeringia. Columbia University Press, New York.
West, Frederick H. 1996a The Archaeological Evidence. In American Beginnings: The Prehistory and Palaeoecology of Beringia, edited by Frederick H. West, pp. 537560. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
West, Frederick H. 1996b Donnelly Ridge. In American Beginnings: The Prehistory and Palaeoecology ofBeringia, edited by Frederick H. West, pp. 302307. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
West, Frederick H., Robinson, Brian S., and Curran, Mary Lou 1996 Phipps Site. In American Beginnings: The Prehistory and Palaeoecology of Beringia, edited by Frederick H. West, pp. 381385. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
West, Frederick H., Robinson, Brian S., and Greg Dixon, R. 1996 Sparks Point. In American Beginnings: The Prehistory and Palaeoecology of Beringia, edited by Frederick H. West, pp. 394398. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Wood, W. Raymond, and Johnson, Donald L. 1978 A Survey of Disturbance Processes in Archaeological Site Formation. In Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory, Vol. 1, edited by Michael B. Schiffer, pp. 315381. Academic Press, New York.
Yesner, David R. 1996 Human Adaptation at the Pleistocene-Holocene Boundary (circa 13,000 to 8,000 BP) in Eastern Beringia. In Humans at the End of the Ice Age, edited by Lawrence G. Straus, Berit V. Eriksen, Jon M. Erlandson, and David R. Yesner, pp. 255276. Plenum Press, New York.
Yesner, David R. 2001 Human Dispersal into Interior Alaska: Antecedent Conditions, Mode of Colonization, and Adaptations. Quaternary Science Reviews 20:315327.Google Scholar
Yesner, David R. 2007 Faunal Extinction, Hunter-Gatherer Foraging Strategies, and Subsistence Diversity among Eastern Beringian Paleoindians. In Foragers of the Terminal Pleistocene in North America, edited by Renee B. Walker and Boyce N. Driskell, pp. 1531. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln.
Yesner, David R., Holmes, Charles E., and Crossen, Kristine J. 1992 Archaeology and Paleoecology of the Broken Mammoth Site, Central Tanana Valley, Interior Alaska, USA. Current Research in the Pleistocene 9:12.Google Scholar
Supplementary material: PDF

Graf et al. Supplementary Material

Supplementary Material

Download Graf et al. Supplementary Material(PDF)
PDF 91 KB
Supplementary material: File

Graf et al. Supplementary Material

Supplementary Material

Download Graf et al. Supplementary Material(File)
File 13 KB
Supplementary material: File

Graf et al. Supplementary Material

Supplementary Material

Download Graf et al. Supplementary Material(File)
File 33 MB
Supplementary material: File

Graf et al. Supplementary Material

Supplementary Material

Download Graf et al. Supplementary Material(File)
File 55 MB
20
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Dry Creek Revisited: New Excavations, Radiocarbon Dates, and Site Formation Inform on the Peopling of Eastern Beringia
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Dry Creek Revisited: New Excavations, Radiocarbon Dates, and Site Formation Inform on the Peopling of Eastern Beringia
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Dry Creek Revisited: New Excavations, Radiocarbon Dates, and Site Formation Inform on the Peopling of Eastern Beringia
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *