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Objective: Increased impulsivity has been shown to be a trait feature of adults with bipolar disorder (BD), yet impulsivity has received little study in adolescents with BD. Thus, it is unknown whether it is a trait feature that is present early in the course of the disorder. We tested the hypotheses that self-reported impulsiveness is increased in adolescents with BD, and that it is present during euthymia, supporting impulsiveness as an early trait feature of the disorder.
Methods: Impulsiveness was assessed in 23 adolescents with BD and 23 healthy comparison (HC) adolescents using the self-report measure of impulsivity, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), comprised by attentional, motor and non-planning subscale scores. Effects of subscale scores and associations of scores with mood state and course features were explored.
Results: Total and subscale BIS scores were significantly higher in adolescents with BD than HC adolescents. Total, attentional and motor subscale BIS scores were also significantly higher in the subset of adolescents with BD who were euthymic, compared to HC adolescents. Adolescents with BD with rapid-cycling and chronic mood symptoms had significantly higher total and motor subscale BIS scores than adolescents with BD without these course features.
Conclusion: These results suggest increased self-reported impulsiveness is a trait feature of adolescents with BD. Elevated impulsivity may be especially prominent in adolescents with rapid-cycling and chronic symptoms.
Objectives: Depression and dementia are highly prevalent in the elderly. Language impairment is an inherent component of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which can also be encountered in depressed patients. The aim of this study wasto compare the profiles of language abilities in late-onset depression and mild AD groups.
Methods: We studied 25 patients with late-onset depression (mean age 73.6 ± 6.6 years; schooling 9.1 ± 5.7 years) and 30 patients with mild AD (77.6 ± 5.4 years; 7.5 ± 7.1 years) using the Arizona Battery for Communication Disorders of Dementia (ABCD), compared to a group of 30 controls (73.8 ± 5.8 years; 9.1 ± 5.4 years). Cut-off scores to discriminate between Controls × Depression and Depression × AD were determined.
Results: Depressed patients' scores were similar to AD in confrontation naming, concept definition, following commands, repetition and reading comprehension (sentence). Episodic memory and mental status subtests were useful in differentiating depressed patients from AD, a result that was reproduced when using analysis of covariance to control for the effect of age in the same subtests (p = 0.01 and 0.04, respectively).
Conclusion: Language impairment resembling AD was found in the aforementioned language subtests of the ABCD in elderly depressed patients; the mental status and episodic memory subtests were useful to discriminate between AD and depression. The ABCD has proven to be a suitable tool for language evaluation in this population and should aid in the differentiation of AD and pseudodementia (as that of depression).
Objective: The association between metabolic syndrome (MS) and the risk of cognitive impairment or dementia remains unclear. In this article, we systematically review studies on the risk of cognitive disorders in patients with MS to determine the strength of the association between MS and cognitive decline.
Methods: Electronic databases through December 2009 were searched to identify prospective population-based studies that examined the association between MS and risk of cognitive disorders. Two reviewers used a standardised form to collect data and assess eligibility. The quality of study was assessed by the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale.
Results: We found nine eligible studies that involve 19 876 participants. All studies but two indicate that MS is associated with cognitive decline (from one-fold to more than two-fold increase in risk). It seems that MS may be associated with cognitive impairment (positive results in three of five) and vascular dementia (positive results in two of three), whereas three studies involving patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) did not find the association between MS and AD. When examining the association of the individual risk factors of the MS and cognition in seven eligible studies, glucose (three studies) and hypertension (three studies) showed positive results associated with cognitive decline.
Conclusion: The MS may be associated with cognitive impairment and vascular dementia but not for AD, which need to be further investigated with high-quality studies.