Repeated exposure of rats to cocaine, amphetamine, opiates, nicotine and alcohol causes a very long-lasting (months) increase in the behavioral effects of these addictive drugs and drug-associated environmental stimuli (sensitization). This hypersensitivity is associated with persistent changes in the reactivity of neurons of the motivational (mesocorticolim-bic) system in the brain. Using an animal model for relapse, recent studies in our laboratory show that relapse to drug-seeking behavior (following extinction of intravenous cocaine or heroin self-administration) depends on the occurrence of sensitization. Accordingly, sensitization and conditioning seem to be more important for the persistence of drug and alcohol addiction then the occurrence of withdrawal phenomena. Biochemical research on the molecular and cellular basis of behavioral sensitization and behavioral studies on readjustment of stimulus responsiveness in rats, is of great importance for the development of an adequate pharmacotherapy of addiction.