Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-tn8tq Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-06-17T11:47:50.708Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Borna disease virus and deficit schizophrenia

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  24 June 2014

Yong-Ku Kim*
Department of Psychiatry
Sang-Hyun Kim
Department of Microbiology, Institute for Viral Diseases, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul
Chang-Su Han
Department of Psychiatry
Heon-Jeong Lee
Department of Psychiatry
Hyung-Seob Kim
Yong-In Mental Hospital, Yong-In Institute, Kyunggido
Sung-Chul Yoon
Keyo Mental Hospital
Dai-Jin Kim
Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, The Catholic University, Seoul, Korea
Ki-Joon Song
Department of Microbiology, Institute for Viral Diseases, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul
Michael Maes
Department of Psychiatry, University of Maastricht, Maastricht, the Netherlands
Jin-Won Song
Department of Microbiology, Institute for Viral Diseases, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul
Department of Psychiatry, Korea University Medical Center Ansan Hospital, 516, Go-Jan Dong, Ansan city, Kyunggi Province, 425–070, Korea. Tel: + 82-31-412-5140; Fax: + 82-31-412-5144; E-mail:



It is controversial whether Borna disease virus (BDV) infects humans and causes psychiatric disorders.


The relationship between BDV infection and schizophrenia with deficit syndrome was investigated.

Study design:

Using the Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome, 62 schizophrenic in-patients were selected from three psychiatric hospitals. RNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and analyzed using nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction with primers to detect BDV p24 and p40.

Results and conclusions:

BDV transcripts were not detected in samples from any of the 62 schizophrenic patients. These data do not support an etiologic association between BDV infection and the deficit form of schizophrenia.

Research Article
Copyright © 2003 Blackwell Munksgaard

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Carbone, KM. Borna disease virus and human disease. Clin Microbiol Rev 2001;14: 513527.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ikuta, K, Ibrahim, MS, Kobayashi, T, Tomonaga, K. Borna disease virus and infection in humans. Front Biosci 2002;7: d470495.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lieb, K, Staeheli, P. Borna disease virus – does it infect humans and cause psychiatric disorders? J Clin Virol 2001;21: 119127.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Taieb, O, Baleyte, JM, Mazet, P, Fillet, AM. Borna disease virus and psychiatry. Eur Psychiatry 2001;16: 310.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kim, YK, Kim, SH, Choi, SHet al. Failure to demonstrate Borna disease virus genome in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from psychiatric patients in Korea. J Neurovirol 1999;5: 196199.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lieb, K, Hallensleben, W, Czygan, M, Stitz, L, Staeheli, P. No Borna disease virus-specific RNA detected in blood from psychiatric patients in different regions of Germany. The Bornavirus Study Group. Lancet 1997;350: 1002.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Richt, JA, Alexander, RC, Herzog, Set al. Failure to detect Borna disease virus infection in peripheral blood leukocytes from humans with psychiatric disorders. J Neurovirol 1997;3: 174178.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Selten, JP, Van Vliet, K, Pleyte, W, Herzog, S, Hoek, HW, Van Loon, AM. Borna disease virus and schizophrenia in Surinamese immigrants to the Netherlands. Med Microbiol Immunol (Berl) 2000;189: 5557.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tsuji, K, Toyomasu, K, Imamura, Y, Maeda, H, Toyoda, T. No association of borna disease virus with psychiatric disorders among patients in northern Kyushu, Japan. J Med Virol 2000;61: 336340.3.0.CO;2-P>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bode, L, Zimmermann, W, Ferszt, R, Steinbach, F, Ludwig, H. Borna disease virus genome transcribed and expressed in psychiatric patients. Nat Med 1995;1: 232236.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chen, Ch, Chiu, YL, Shaw, CK, Tsai, MT, Hwang, AL, Hsiao, KJ. Detection of Borna disease virus RNA from peripheral blood cells in schizophrenic patients and mental health workers. Mol Psychiatry 1999;4: 566571.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Igata-Yi, R, Yamaguchi, K, Yoshiki, Ket al. Borna disease virus and the consumption of raw horse meat. Nat Med 1996;2: 948949. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kishi, M, Nakaya, T, Nakamura, Yet al. Demonstration of human Borna disease virus RNA in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. FEBS Lett 1995;364: 293297.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Planz, O, Rentzsch, C, Batra, Aet al. Pathogenesis of borna disease virus: granulocyte fractions of psychiatric patients harbor infectious virus in the absence of antiviral antibodies. J Virol 1999;73: 62516256.Google ScholarPubMed
Sauder, C, Muller, A, Cubitt, Bet al. Detection of Borna disease virus (BDV) antibodies and BDV RNA in psychiatric patients: evidence for high sequence conservation of human blood-derived BDV RNA. J Virol 1996;70: 77137724.Google ScholarPubMed
Iwahashi, K, Watanabe, M, Nakamura, Ket al. Borna disease virus infection and negative syndromes in Japanese schizophrenia patients. Psychiatr Clin Neurosci 1998;52: 119. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Iwahashi, K, Watanabe, M, Nakamura, Ket al. Positive and negative syndromes, and Borna disease virus infection in schizophrenia. Neuropsychobiol 1998;37: 5964. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Waltrip, RW, Buchanan, RW, Carpenter, WT Jret al. Borna disease virus antibodies and the deficit syndrome of schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 1997;23: 253257.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carpenter, WT Jr,Heinrichs, DW, Wagman, AM. Deficit and nondeficit forms of schizophrenia: the concept. Am J Psychiatry 1988;145: 578583.Google Scholar
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, 1994. Google ScholarPubMed
First, M, Spitzer, RL, Gibbon, M, William, JB. Structured clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorder – Patient Edition (SCID-I/P), Version 2.0. New York: Biometrics Research Department, New York State Psychiatric Institute, 1998. Google Scholar
Kirkpatrick, B, Buchanan, RW, McKenney, PD, Alphs, LD, Carpenter, WT Jr.The Schedule for the Deficit syndrome: an instrument for research in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res 1989;30: 119123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sauder, C, De La Torre, JC. Sensitivity and reproducibility of RT-PCR to detect Borna disease virus (BDV) RNA in blood: implications for BDV epidemiology. J Virol Meth 1998;71: 229245. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tokunaga, K, Taniguchi, H, Yoda, K, Shimizu, M, Sakiyama, S. Nucleotide sequence of a full-length cDNA for mouse cytoskeletal beta-actin mRNA. Nucl Acids Res 1986;14: 2829. CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schwemmle, M. Borna disease virus infection in psychiatric patients: are we on the right track? Lancet Infect Dis 2001;1: 4652.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Billich, C, Sauder, C, Frank, Ret al. High-avidity human serum antibodies recognizing linear epitopes of Borna disease virus proteins. Biol Psychiatry 2002; 51: 979987.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Czygan, M, Hallensleben, W, Hofer, Met al. Borna disease virus in human brains with a rare form of hippocampal degeneration but not in brains of patients with common neuropsychiatric disorders. J Infect Dis 1999;180: 16951699.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nakamura, Y, Takahashi, H, Shoya, Yet al. Isolation of Borna disease virus from human brain tissue. J Virol 2000;74: 46014611.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schwemmle, M, Jehle, C, Formella, S, Staeheli, P. Sequence similarities between human bornavirus isolates and laboratory strains question human origin. Lancet 1999;354: 19731974.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed