Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-768dbb666b-6zkrn Total loading time: 1.221 Render date: 2023-02-07T22:36:05.177Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

The Empire at the Opéra

Theatre, Power and Music in Second Empire Paris

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  14 January 2021

Mark Everist
Affiliation:
University of Southampton

Summary

Although nineteenth-century legislation had tried to ensure a precise separation between genre and institution for Parisian music in the theatre, it had inadvertently laid out a field on which the politics of genre could be played out as agents and actors of all types deployed various forms of artistic power. During the Second Empire, from 1854 until 1870, the state took over day-to-day control of the Opéra in ways that were without precedent. Every element of the Opéra's activity was subjugated to the exigency of Empire; the selection or artists, works and more general questions of artistic policy were handed over to politicians. The Opéra effectively became a branch of government. The result was a stagnation of the Opéra's repertory, and beneficiaries were the composers of larger-scale works for competing organisations: the Opéra Comique and the Théâtre Lyrique.
Get access
Type
Element
Information
Online ISBN: 9781108909815
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication: 21 January 2021

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Primary Sources

Secondary Sources

Adam, Juliette. Mes premières armes littéraires et politiques (Paris: Lemerre, 1904).Google Scholar
Ageron, Charles-Robert. De l’Algérie ‘française’ à l’Algérie algérienne (Paris: Bouchène, 2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ameil, Gilbert, Nathan, Isabelle and Soutou, Georges-Henri, eds. Le congrès de Paris (1856): un événement fondateur – colloque international organisé par le Ministère des affaires étrangères et européennes, l’Université Paris IV et l’Association des amis de Napoléon III, Paris, Musée d’Orsay, 24–25 mars 2006 (Brussels: Lang, 2009).Google Scholar
d’Angio-Barros, Agnès. Morny: le théâtre du pouvoir (Paris: Belin, 2012).Google Scholar
Arendt, Rebekah, Ferraguto, Mark and Mahiet, Damien, eds. Music and Diplomacy from the Early Modern Era to the Present (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baumgart, Winfried. The Crimean War, 1853–1856. Modern Wars (London: Arnold, 1999).Google Scholar
de Bernardy, Françoise. Alexandre Walewski: 1810–1868, le fils polonais de Napoléon. Presence de l’histoire (Paris: Perrin, 1976).Google Scholar
Biedermann, Zoltán, Gerritsen, Anne and Riello, Giorgio, eds. Global Gifts: The Material Culture of Diplomacy in Early Modern Eurasia. Studies in Contemporary World History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018).Google Scholar
Blaszkeiwicz, Jacek. ‘Listening to the Old City: Street Cries and Urbanization in Paris, ca. 1860’, Journal of Musicology 37 (2020), 123–57.Google Scholar
Bornecque-Winandy, Édouard. Achille Fould, ministre de Napoléon III (Paris: Téqui, 1989).Google Scholar
Boym, Svetlana. The Future of Nostalgia (New York: Basic Books, 2001).Google Scholar
de Brabant, Jacques. Achille Fould et son temps (1800–1867): l’homme clef du Second Empire (Pau: Cairn, 2001).Google Scholar
Brittsan, Zachary. Popular Politics and Rebellion in Mexico: Manuel Lozada and La Reforma, 1855–1876 (Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press, 2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brzoska, Matthias. ‘Die französischen Opern Poniatowskis’, Deutsche Musik im Wegekreuz zwischen Polen und Frankreich: zum Problem musikalischer Wechselbeziehungen im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert, ed. Mahling, Christoph-Helmut and Pfarr, Kristina (Tutzing: Schneider, 1996), 4555.Google Scholar
Chinn, Genevieve. ‘The Académie Impériale de Musique: A Study of Its Administration and Repertory from 1862–1870’ (PhD diss., Columbia University, 1969).Google Scholar
Colas, Damien. ‘Questioning the Frenchness of Le comte Ory’, Opera and Nation: An International Conference to Commemorate the Bicentenary of Ferenc Erkel’s Birth (December 2011), special issue of Studia musicologica 52 (2011), 373–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Collot, Claude. Les institutions de l’Algérie durant la période coloniale (1830–1962) (Paris: Éditions du CNRS, 1987).Google Scholar
Corti, Egon Caesar. Maximilian and Charlotte of Mexico, 2 vols., trans. Catherine Alison Phillips (New York: Knopf, 1928; reprinted 1968).Google Scholar
Cruz, Gabriela. ‘L’africaine’s Savage Pleasures: Operatic Listening and the Portuguese Historical Imagination’, Revista portuguesa de musicologia 10 (2000), 151–80.Google Scholar
Cruz, Gabriela. ‘Giacomo Meyerbeer’s L’Africaine and the End of Grand Opera’ (PhD diss., Princeton University, 1999).Google Scholar
Cruz, Gabriela. ‘Laughing at History: The Third Act of Meyerbeer’s L’africaine’, Cambridge Opera Journal 11 (1999), 3176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cunningham, Michele. Mexico and the Foreign Policy of Napoleon III (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dempwolff, Carl A., ed. Felicita von Vestvali: Pallas Athene, Memoiren einer Künstlerin (Munich: Merhoff, 1873).Google Scholar
Deschamps, Viviane. ‘Histoire de administration de l’Opéra de Paris (Second Empire – Troisième République)’, 2 vols. (PhD diss., Université de Paris IV, 1987).Google Scholar
Duprez, Gilbert. Souvenirs d’un chanteur (Paris: Calmann Lévy, 1880).Google Scholar
Eugène Rouher: actes des journées d’étude de Riom et Clermont-Ferrand des 16 et 17 mars 1984, no ed. Institut d’Études du Massif Central 28 (Aurillac: Imprimerie Moderne, 1984).Google Scholar
Everist, Mark. ‘Cosmopolitanism and Music for the Theatre: Europe and Beyond, 1800–1870’, Music History and Cosmopolitanism, ed. Belina, Anastasia, Kilpio, Kaarina and Scott, Derek (London: Routledge, 2019), 1332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Everist, Mark. ‘Donizetti and Wagner: Opéra de genre at the Théâtre de la Renaissance’. Giacomo Meyerbeer and 19th-Century Parisian Music Drama. Variorum Collected Studies Series CS805 (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2005), 309–41.Google Scholar
Everist, Mark. Genealogies of Musical Memory: Gluck in the Nineteenth-Century Parisian Imagination (New York: Oxford University Press, 2021).Google Scholar
Everist, Mark. ‘Grand OpéraPetit Opéra: Parisian Opera and Ballet from the Restoration to the Second Empire’, 19th-Century Music 33 (2010), 195231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Everist, Mark. ‘Jacques Offenbach: The Music of the Past and the Image of the Present’, Music, Theater and Cultural Transfer: Paris, 1830–1914, ed. Everist, Mark and Fauser, Annegret (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 2009), 7298.Google Scholar
Everist, Mark. Music Drama at the Paris Odéon, 1824–1828 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Everist, Mark. ‘The Music of Power: Parisian Opera and the Politics of Genre, 1806-1864’. Journal of the American Musicological Society 67 (2014), 685734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Everist, Mark. ‘Music, Theatre and Diplomacy: The Paris Opéra during the Second Empire’, forthcoming.Google Scholar
Everist, Mark. ‘Opera, Soft Power, and Anglo-French Relations in the Crimea (1855–1856)’, Opera As Institution: Networks and Professions (1700–1914), ed. Scuderi, Cristina and Zechner, Ingeborg (Berlin: LIT-Verlag, 2019), 95118.Google Scholar
Everist, Mark. ‘Wagner and Paris: The Case of Rienzi (1869)’, 19th-Century Music 41 (2017), 330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fauquet, Joël-Marie. ‘Reber, Napoléon-Henri’, Dictionnaire de la musique en France au xixe siècle, ed. Fauquet, Joël-Marie (Paris: Fayard, 2003), 1039–40.Google Scholar
Fétis, François-Joseph. Biographie universelle des musiciens et bibliographie générale de la musique, 8 vols. (2nd ed. [with supplement in 2 vols.] Paris: Firmin Didot, 1860–5).Google Scholar
Fiori, Ruth. L’invention du vieux Paris: naissance d’une conscience patrimoniale dans la capitale (Wavre: Mardaga, 2012).Google Scholar
Fulcher, Jane F. The Nation’s Image: French Grand Opera As Politics and Politicized Art (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987).Google Scholar
Gartioux, Hervé, ed. La réception de Verdi en France: anthologie de la presse, 1845–1894. La musique en France au xixème siècle 4 (Weinsberg: Music-Edition Lucie Galland, 2001).Google Scholar
Gautier, Alphonse. Études sur la liste civile en France (Paris: Plon, 1882).Google Scholar
Gibbons, William. Building the Operatic Museum: Eighteenth-Century Opera in Fin-de-siècle France. Eastman Studies in Music (Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press, 2013).Google Scholar
Gienow-Hecht, Jessica C. E. Sound Diplomacy: Music and Emotions in Transatlantic Relations, 1850–1920 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gossett, Philip. ‘Music at the Théâtre Italien’, Music in Paris in the Eighteen-Thirties, ed. Bloom, Peter. La Vie musicale en France au xixe siècle 4 (Stuyvesant, NY: Pendragon, 1987), 327–64.Google Scholar
Gouttman, Alain. La guerre de Crimée, 1853–1856: la première guerre moderne (Paris: Perrin, 2006).Google Scholar
Granger, Catherine. L’empereur et les arts: la liste civile de Napoléon III. Mémoires et documents de l’École des Chartes 79 (Paris: l’École des Chartes, 2005).Google Scholar
Hazareesingh, Sudhir. La Saint-Napoléon: quand le 14 juillet se fêtait le 15 août (Paris: Tallandier, 2007).Google Scholar
Hibberd, Sarah. French Grand Opera and the Historical Imagination (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009).Google Scholar
Howard, Tony. Women As Hamlet; Performance and Interpretation in Theatre, Film and Literature (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007).Google Scholar
Huebner, Steven. ‘Opera Audiences in Paris 1830–1870’, Music and Letters 70 (1989), 206–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jansson, Maija. Art and Diplomacy: Seventeenth-Century English Decorated Royal Letters to Russia and the Far East (Leiden: Brill, 2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnson, Janet L.The Théâtre Italien and Opera and Theatrical Life in Restoration Paris’, 3 vols. [paginated consecutively] (PhD diss., University of Chicago, 1988).Google Scholar
Johnson, Janet L. ‘“Vieni a veder Montecchi e Cappulletti”: Bellini’s Roméo et Juliette, grand opéra’ (paper presented at the international symposium ‘The Institutions of Opera in Paris from the July Revolution to the Dreyfus Affair’, Duke University and University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 24–26 September 2004.Google Scholar
Kendall, John Smith. History of New Orleans, 3 vols. (Chicago: Lewis Publishing Company, 1922).Google Scholar
Kopchick Spencer, Helena. ‘Sémiramis (1860) at the Paris Opéra in the Age of Romantic Archaeology’; paper read at the Annual Meeting of the American Musicological Society, San Antonio, 1–4 November 2018.Google Scholar
Lacombe, Hervé. ‘Baden-Baden vu de Paris, ou Berlioz et ses compatriotes à Bade’, Hector Berlioz: ein franzose in Deutschland, ed. Brzoska, Matthias, Hofer, Hermann and Strohmann, Nicole K. (Laaber: Laaber, 2005), 192–3.Google Scholar
Lacombe, Hervé. ‘L’Opéra sous le Second Empire’, Les spectacles sous le Second Empire, ed. Yon, Jean-Claude (Paris: Armand Colin, 2010), 159–72.Google Scholar
Laffont, Pierre. Histoire de la France en Algérie (Paris: Plon, 1979).Google Scholar
Lambert, Andrew. The Crimean War: British Grand Strategy against Russia, 2nd ed. (Farnham: Ashgate, 2011).Google Scholar
Lanthenay, Maurice. ‘Comte Walewski, homme d’État français (1810–1868)’, Les contemporains, 14 November 1909. R as Comte Walewski, homme d’état français (1810–1868) (Paris: Les Contemporains, 1909).Google Scholar
Larousse, Pierre. Grand Dictionnaire universel du xixe siècle français, historique, géographique, biographique, mythologique, bibliographique, littéraire, artistique, scientifique, etc., 17 vols. (Paris: Grand Dictionnaire Universel, 1866).Google Scholar
Lawton, David, ed. Le trouvère, Works of Giuseppe Verdi 1:18B (Chicago: University of Chicago Press; Milan: Ricordi, forthcoming).Google Scholar
Letellier, Robert. ‘Storia, mito, e musica sul tema dell’esplorazione: alcune riflessioni sul linguaggio musicale e drammatico dell’ Africaine di Meyerbeer’, Musica/realtà: rivista quadrimestrale 25 (2004), 7798.Google Scholar
Lo, Shih-Lung. La Chine sur la scène française au XIXe siècle. Spectaculaire | Théâtre (Rennes: Presses universitaires de Rennes, 2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Loewenberg, Alfred. Annals of Opera: 1597–1940, 3rd ed. revised and corrected (London: Calder, 1978).Google Scholar
MacDonald, Hugh, ‘ … And Politics’ [review of Jane F. Fulcher, The Nation’s Image: French Grand Opera As Politics and Politicized Art (Cambridge, etc.: Cambridge University Press, 1987)], Musical Times 129 (1988), 405–6.Google Scholar
Malglaive, Alain. Eugène Rouher, 1814–1884: biographie ([Broût-Vernet]: Association Azi la Garance, 2005).Google Scholar
Marchisio, Emma Gorin. Le sorelle Marchisio (Milan: Amici del Museo teatrale alla Scala, 1930).Google Scholar
Marvin, Roberta Montemorra. The Politics of Verdi’s ‘Cantica’. Royal Musical Association Monographs 24 (Farnham: Ashgate, 2014).Google Scholar
Masson, Frédéric, ed. Second Empire. Notes et souvenirs (Paris: Crès, 1921).Google Scholar
Mauduit, Xavier. ‘Le ministère du faste: la Maison de l’Empereur Napoléon III’, Parlement[s], Revue d’histoire politique 4 (2008), 6983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maurain, Jean. Baroche, ministre de Napoléon III: d’après ses papiers inédits: un bourgeois français au XIXe siècle (Paris: Alcan, 1936).Google Scholar
Music and Diplomacy’, special issue of Early Music 40 (2012).Google Scholar
Newark, Cormack. ‘Metaphors for Meyerbeer’, Journal of the Royal Musical Association 127 (2002). 2343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nora, Pierre, ed. Les lieux de mémoire, 3 vols. Bibliothèque illustrée des histoires (Paris: Gallimard, 1984–97), translated (abridged) by Arthur Goldhammer as Realms of Memory: Rethinking the French Past, 3 vols. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1996–8).Google Scholar
Ollivier, Émile. Journal: 1846–1869, ed. Zeldin, Theodore and Troisier de Diaz, Anne, 2 vols. (Paris: Julliard, 1961).Google Scholar
Parr, Sean. ‘Caroline Carvalho and Nineteenth-Century Coloratura’, Cambridge Opera Journal 23 (2012), 83117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Poniatowska, Irena. ‘Poniatowski, Józef’, Grove Music Online. 2001, consulted 8 January 2020. www.oxfordmusiconline.com/grovemusic/view/10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.001.0001/omo-9781561592630-e-0000022077CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rehding, Alexander. Music and Monumentality: Commemoration and Wonderment in Nineteenth Century Germany (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Richardson, Joanna. Princesse Mathilde (London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1968).Google Scholar
Robert, Adolphe, and Cougny, Gaston. Dictionnaire des parlementaires français, 5 vols. (Paris: Bourloton, 1889–91).Google Scholar
Robert, Christopher. Le duc de Morny: ‘empereur’ des Français sous Napoléon III (Paris: Hachette, 1951).Google Scholar
Robert, Frédéric. ‘Reber, Henri’, Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, Oxford University Press, consulted 29 November 2017. www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/article/grove/music/23006Google Scholar
Roberts, John. ‘The Genesis of Meyerbeer’s L’Africaine’ (PhD diss., University of California at Berkeley, 1977).Google Scholar
Roberts, John. ‘Meyerbeer: Le Prophète and L’Africaine’, The Cambridge Companion to Grand Opera, ed. Charlton, David (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), 208–32.Google Scholar
Roman d’Amat, Jean-Charles, and Prévost, Michel, eds. Dictionnaire de biographie française, 22 vols. to date (Paris: Letouzey et Ané, 1932–).Google Scholar
Sanson, Rosemonde. ‘Le 15 août: fête nationale du Second Empire’, Les usages politiques des fêtes aux XIXe–XXe siècles, ed. Corbin, Alain, Gérôme, Noëlle and Tartakowsky, Danielle (Paris: Publications de la Sorbonne, 1994), 117–36.Google Scholar
Schmusch, Rainer. ‘Das französische Repertoire in Baden-Baden zur Zeit von Berlioz’, Hector Berlioz: ein franzose in Deutschland, ed. Brzoska, Matthias, Hofer, Hermann and Strohmann, Nicole K. (Laaber: Laaber, 2005), 197220.Google Scholar
Schneider, Herbert. Chronologisch-thematisches Verzeichnis samtlicher Werke von Daniel Francois Esprit Auber (AWV), 2 vols. Musikwissenschatliche Publikationen 1 (Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1994).Google Scholar
Schnerb, Robert. Rouher et le Second Empire (Paris: Colin, 1949).Google Scholar
Sheppard, Edgar, ed. George, Duke of Cambridge: A Memoir of His Private Life Based on the Journals and Correspondence of His Royal Highness, 2 vols. (London: Longmans, Green, 1906).Google Scholar
Slatin, Sonia. ‘Opera and Revolution: La muette de Portici and the Belgian Revolution of 1830 Revisited’, Journal of Musicological Research 3 (1979), 4562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Soubies, Albert. Histoire du Théâtre-Lyrique (1851–1870) (Paris: Fischbacher, 1899).Google Scholar
Soubies, Albert. Soixante-neuf ans à l’Opéra-Comique en deux pages de la première de ‘La dame blanche’ à la millième de ‘Mignon’ (1825–1894) (Paris: Fischbacher, 1894).Google Scholar
Soubies, Albert. Soixante-sept ans à l’Opéra en une page du ‘Siège de Corinthe’ à ‘La Walkyrie’ (1826–1893) (Paris: Fischbacher, 1893).Google Scholar
Soubies, Albert. Le Théâtre-Italien de 1801 à 1913 (Paris: Fischbacher, 1913).Google Scholar
Tegani, Ulderico. Cantanti di una volta: le brute e belle sorelle Marchisio (Milan: Valsecchi, 1945).Google Scholar
Toscani, Claudio, ed. Vincenzo Bellini: I Capuleti e i Montecchi; tragedia lirica in due atti di Felice Romani, 3 vols. Edizione critica delle opera di Vincenzo Bellini 6 (Milan: Ricordi, 2003).Google Scholar
Turbow, Gerald. ‘Art and Politics: Wagnerism in France’, Wagnerism in European Culture and Politics, ed. Large, David C. and Weber, William (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1984), 140–52.Google Scholar
Wagner, Richard. Quatre poèmes d’opéras traduits en prose française précédés d’une lettre sur la musique: le vaisseau fantôme, Tannhæuser, Lohengrin, Tristan et Iseult (Paris: Librairie Nouvelle; Bourdilliat, 1861).Google Scholar
Walsh, Thomas Joseph. Second Empire Opera: The Théâtre Lyrique, Paris, 1851–1870. The History of Opera (London: Calder; New York: Riverrun, 1981).Google Scholar
White, Kimberly. ‘The Cantatrice and the Profession of Singing at the Paris Opéra and Opéra Comique, 1830–1848’ (PhD diss., McGill University, 2012).Google Scholar
White, Kimberly. Female Singers on the French Stage, 1830–1848. Cambridge Studies in Opera (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wild, Nicole. Dictionnaire des théâtres parisiens (1807–1914). Collection Perpetuum mobile (Lyon: Symétrie, 2012).Google Scholar
Wild, Nicole. Dictionnaire des théâtres parisiens au xixe siècle: les théâtres et la musique (Paris: Amateurs des Livres, 1989).Google Scholar
Yon, Jean-Claude. ‘En marge des négociations: mondanités et spectacles pendant le congrès de Paris’, Le congrès de Paris (1856): un événement fondateur – colloque international organisé par le Ministère des affaires étrangères et européennes, l’Université Paris IV et l’Association des amis de Napoléon III, Paris, Musée d’Orsay, 24–25 mars 2006, ed. Ameil, Gilbert, Nathan, Isabelle and Soutou, Georges-Henri (Brussels: Lang, 2009), 171–84.Google Scholar
Zieziula, Grzegorz. ‘Kulisy “błyskotliwego zwycięstwa” w przededniu klęski Tannhäusera: Pierre de Médicis Józefa Poniatowskiego na scenie paryskiej Opery (1860)’, Muzyka 54 (2009), 73101.Google Scholar
5
Cited by

Save element to Kindle

To save this element to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

The Empire at the Opéra
  • Mark Everist, University of Southampton
  • Online ISBN: 9781108909815
Available formats
×

Save element to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

The Empire at the Opéra
  • Mark Everist, University of Southampton
  • Online ISBN: 9781108909815
Available formats
×

Save element to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

The Empire at the Opéra
  • Mark Everist, University of Southampton
  • Online ISBN: 9781108909815
Available formats
×