Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-8bljj Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-06-20T08:42:06.309Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Elite Women and the Italian Wars, 1494–1559

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  11 January 2024

Susan Broomhall
Affiliation:
Australian Catholic University, Melbourne
Carolyn James
Affiliation:
Monash University, Victoria

Summary

The Element analyses the critical importance of elite women to the conflict conventionally known as the Italian Wars that engulfed much of Europe and the Mediterranean between 1494 and 1559. Through its considered attention to the interventions of women connected to imperial, royal and princely dynasties, the authors show the breadth and depth of the opportunities, roles, impact, and influence that certain women had to shape the course of the conflict in both wartime activities and in peace-making. The work thus expands the ways in which the authors can think about women's participation in war and politics. It makes use of a wide range of sources such as literature, art and material culture, as well as more conventional text forms. Women's voices and actions are prioritized in making sense of evidence and claims about their activities.
Get access
Type
Element
Information
Online ISBN: 9781009415972
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication: 11 April 2024

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

Bibliography

Primary Sources

of France, Anne, Lessons for My Daughter, trans. and ed. S. L. Janson (Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 2012).Google Scholar
Baschet, A., La diplomatie vénitienne: Les princes de l’Europe au XVIe siècle (Paris: Plon, 1862).Google Scholar
Bauer, W., and Lacroix, R. (eds.), Die Korrespondenz Ferdinands I, 4 vols. (Vienna: Adolf Holzhausen, 1912–38).Google Scholar
Bergh, L. P. van den, Correspondance de Marguerite d’Autriche, gouvernante des Pays-Bas, avec ses amis, sur les affaires des Pays-Bas de 1506–1528, 2 vols. (Leiden: S. et J. Luchtmans, 1845–7).Google Scholar
Boom, G. de (ed.), Correspondance de Marguerite d’Autriche et de ses ambassadeurs à la cour de France concernant l’exécution du traité de Cambrai, 1529–1530 (Brussels: Maurice Lamertin, 1935).Google Scholar
Bradford, W. (ed.), Correspondence of the Emperor Charles V and His Ambassadors at the Courts of England and France from the Original Letters in the Imperial Family Archives at Vienna with a Connecting Narrative and Biographical Notes of the Emperor and of Some of the Most Distinguished Officers of His Army and Household together with the Emperor’s Itinerary from 1519–1551 (London: R. Bentley, 1850).Google Scholar
Brewer, J. S. (ed.), Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, 12 vols. (London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1862–1910), vol. III (1867): ‘1519–1523’. British History Online. www.british-history.ac.uk/letters-papers-hen8/vol3.Google Scholar
Brown, R. (ed.), Calendar of State Papers relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice 1509–1519, 38 vols. (London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1864–1947), vol. II (1867): ‘1509–1519’. British History Online. www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/venice/vol2.Google Scholar
Cerretani, B., Ricordi, ed. Berti, G. (Florence: Olschki, 1993).Google Scholar
Champollion-Figeac, A. (ed.), Poésies, et correspondance intime du roi avec Diane de Poitiers et plusieurs autres dames de la cour du roi François Ier, de Louise de Savoie, duchesse d’Angoulême, de Marguerite, reine de Navarre (Geneva: Slatkine, 1847, 1970).Google Scholar
Collett, B., A Long and Troubled Pilgrimage: The Correspondence of Marguerite d’Angoulême and Vittoria Colonna, 1540–1545 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton Theological Seminary, 2000).Google Scholar
Chazaud, M. A. (ed.), Les enseignements d’Anne de France, duchesse de Bourbonnois et d’Auvergne, à sa fille Susanne de Bourbon (Moulins: Desrosiers, 1878).Google Scholar
Fernández Álvarez, M. (ed.), Corpus Documental de Carlos V, 5 vols. (Salamanca: Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca, 1973–81).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gairdner, J. (ed.), Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, 12 vols. (London, 1862–1910), vol. VI (1882): ‘1533’. British History Online. www.british-history.ac.uk/letters-papers-hen8/vol6.Google Scholar
Ghirardo, D. Y. (ed.), Lucrezia Borgia Lettere 1494–1519 (Mantua: Direzione generale Archivi, Tre Lune Edizioni, 2020).Google Scholar
Gorter-van Royen, L. V. G., and Hoyois, J.-P. (eds.), Correspondance de Marie de Hongrie avec Charles Quint et Nicolas de Granvelle, 2 vols. (Turnhout: Brepols, 2009–18).Google Scholar
Guasti, C., Scritti storici (Prato: Stefano-Belli, 1894).Google Scholar
Hatvani, M. (ed.), Magyar Történelmi okmánytár a Brusseli orszagos levéltárból és a burgundi könyvtárbol, 4 vols. (Pest: Monumenta hungarica historica, 1857–8).Google Scholar
Inventari der Pressburgishn clainater’, Jahrbuch der Kunsthistorischen Sammlungen des Allerhöchsten Kaiserhauses, 3 (1885), cxli–ii, nos. 3005–7.Google Scholar
König Ferdinand I. schreibt wegen der Pressburger Kleinodien an der Räthe der neiderösterreichischen Raitkammer’, Jahrbuch der Kunsthistorischen Sammlungen des Allerhöchsten Kaiserhauses, 3 (1885), cxl, no. 3003.Google Scholar
Lambert, Abbé C.-F. (ed.), ‘Journal de Louise de Savoie, duchesse d’Angoulesme, d’Anjou et de Valois, mère du grand roi François premier’, in Petitot, M. et al. (eds.), Collection complète des mémoires relatifs à l’histoire de France, 131 vols. (Paris: Foucault, 1819–29), vol. XVI (1826), pp. 383408.Google Scholar
Landucci, L., Diario fiorentino dal 1450 al 1516, ed. del Badia, Iodoco (Florence: Studio Biblos, 1969).Google Scholar
Le Glay, A.-J.-G. (ed.), Correspondance de l’empereur Maximilien Ier et de Marguerite d’Autriche, sa fille, gouvernante des Pays Bas, de 1507–1519, 2 vols. (Paris: J. Renouard et Cie, 1839).Google Scholar
Le Glay, A.-J.-G. (ed.), Négociations diplomatiques entre la France et l’Autriche durant les trente premières années du XVIe siècle, 2 vols. (Paris: Imprimerie royale, 1845).Google Scholar
Macchiavelli, N., The Prince, trans. Bull, G. (London: Penguin Books, 2004).Google Scholar
Margaret of Navarre, The Heptameron of the Tales of Margaret, Queen of Navarre, 5 vols. (London: Gibbings and Company [1898]).Google Scholar
Marguerite de Navarre, The Heptameron, trans. Chilton, P. A. (London: Penguin, 1984, 2004).Google Scholar
Mary of Hungary, Testament 3 December 1555, Jahrbuch der Kunsthistorischen Sammlungen des Allerhöchsten Kaiserhauses, 11 (1890), lxvii, no. 6477.Google Scholar
Mercati, A., Lettere di Elisabetta e di Leonora Gonzaga a Francesco Maria della Rovere (Mantua: Reale Accademia Virgiliana di Mantova, 1941).Google Scholar
Modesti, J., ‘Il miserando sacco dato alla terra di Prato dagli Spagnoli l’anno 1512’, Archivio Storico Italiano, 1 (1842), 233–51.Google Scholar
Quinsonas, E. de, Matériaux pour server à l’histoire de Marguerite d’Autriche, 3 vols. (Paris: Delaroque Frères, 1809).Google Scholar
Robin, D., and Westwater, L. (eds.), Duchess and Hostage in Renaissance Naples: Letters and Orations, Ippolita Sforza (Toronto: Iter Press, 2017).Google Scholar
Romei, D. (ed.), Scritti di Pietro Aretino nel codice Marciano IT.XI 66 (=6730) (Florence: F. Cesati, 1987).Google Scholar
Spielman, D. C., and Thomas, C., ‘Quellen zur Jugend Erzherzog Ferdinands I. in Spanien: Bisher unbekannte Briefe Karls V. an seinen Bruder (1514–1517)’, Mitteilungen des Österreichischen Staatsarchiv, 37 (1984), 134.Google Scholar
Tommaseo, N. (ed.), Relations des ambassadeurs vénitiens sur les affaires de France au XVIe siècle, 2 vols. (Paris: Imprimerie royale, 1838).Google Scholar
Viaud, A. (ed.), Lettres des souverains portugais à Charles-Quint et à l’Impératrice (1528–1532) (Lisbon: Centre Culturel Calouste Gulbenkian, 1994).Google Scholar
Weiss, C. (ed.), Papiers d’Etat du Cardinal de Granvelle, 9 vols. (Paris: Imprimerie nationale, 1841–52).Google Scholar
Zambotti, B., Diario ferrarese dall’anno 1476 sino al 1504, ed. Pardi, G. (Modena: Zanichelli, 1934).Google Scholar

Secondary Sources

Abulafia, D., The French Descent into Italy, 1494–5: Antecedents and Effects (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1995).Google Scholar
Adams, T., and Adams, C., The Creation of the French Royal Mistress: From Agnès Sorel to Madame Du Barry (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2020).Google Scholar
Akkerman, N., and Houben, B. (eds.), The Politics of Female Households: Ladies-in-Waiting across Early Modern Europe (Leiden: Brill, 2014).Google Scholar
Alvar Ezquerra, A., La Emperatriz (Madrid: La Esfera de los Libros, 2012).Google Scholar
Ames-Lewis, F., Isabella and Leonardo: The Artistic Relationship between Isabella d’Este and Leonardo da Vinci (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2012).Google Scholar
Andersson, C., ‘Harlots and camp followers: Swiss Renaissance drawings of young women circa 1520’, in Cohen, E. S. and Reeves, M. (eds.), The Youth of Early Modern Women (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2018), pp. 117–34.Google Scholar
Attreed, L., ‘Gender, patronage, and diplomacy in the early career of Margaret of Austria (1480–1530)’, Mediterranean Studies, 20.1 (2012), 327.Google Scholar
Barthe, P., French Encounters with the Ottomans, 1510–1560 (London: Routledge, 2016).Google Scholar
Beer, M., Diamanti, D., and Ivaldi, C. (eds.), Guerre in ottava rima, 4 vols. (Modena: Edizioni Panini, 1989), vol. II: ‘Guerre d’Italia (1483–1527)’.Google Scholar
Bendall, S. A., ‘Adorning masculinities? The commissioning and wearing of hat badges during the Habsburg–Valois Italian Wars’, Sixteenth Century Journal, 52.3 (2021), 539–70.Google Scholar
Bendall, S. A., ‘Female personifications and masculine forms: Gender, armour and allegory in the Habsburg–Valois conflicts of sixteenth-century Europe’, Gender & History, 35.1 (2023), 4267.Google Scholar
Bokody, P., ‘Images of wartime sexual violence in the chronicles of Giovanni Villani and Giovanni Sercambi’, Renaissance Studies, 36.4 (2021), 565–89.Google Scholar
Boom, G. de, Archiduchesse Éléonore, reine de France; soeur de Charles Quint (Brussels: Le Cri, 1943).Google Scholar
Bourne, M., Francesco II Gonzaga: The Soldier-Prince As Patron (Rome: Bulzoni, 2008).Google Scholar
Bourne, M., ‘Mail humour and male sociability: Sexual innuendo in the epistolary domain of Francesco II Gonzaga’, in Matthews-Grieco, S. F. (ed.), Erotic Cultures of Renaissance Italy (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2010), pp. 199221.Google Scholar
Bowd, S. D., Renaissance Mass Murder: Civilians and Soldiers during the Italian Wars (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018).Google Scholar
Bowd, S., Cockram, S., and Gagné, J. (eds.), Shadow Agents of Renaissance War: Suffering, Supporting, and Supplying Conflict in Italy and Beyond (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2023).Google Scholar
Brioist, P., Fagnart, L., and Michon, C. (eds.), Louise de Savoie (1476–1531) (Tours: Presses universitaires François-Rabelais, 2015).Google Scholar
Broomhall, S., ‘Alter egos: Mediterranean agents negotiating identity at the dawn of the Franco–Ottoman alliance’, in Rohr, Z. E. and Spangler, J. W. (eds.), Significant Others: Aspects of Deviance and Difference in Premodern Europe (London: Routledge, 2021), pp. 81109.Google Scholar
Broomhall, S., ‘Corresponding romances: Henri II and the last campaigns of the Italian Wars’, in Downes, S., Lynch, A., and O’Loughlin, K. (eds.), Writing War in Britain and France, 1370–1854: A History of Emotions (London: Routledge, 2018), pp. 107–25.Google Scholar
Broomhall, S. (ed.), Women and Power at the French Court, 1483–1563 (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2018).Google Scholar
Broomhall, S., and Van Gent, J., Dynastic Colonialism: Gender, Materiality and the Early Modern House of Orange-Nassau (London: Routledge, 2016).Google Scholar
Broomhall, S., and Van Gent, J., Gender, Power and Identity in the Early Modern House of Orange-Nassau (London: Routledge, 2016).Google Scholar
Brown, C. J. (ed.), The Cultural and Political Legacy of Anne de Bretagne: Negotiating Convention in Books and Documents (Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 2010).Google Scholar
Burckhardt, J., Die Kultur der Renaissance in Italien (Vienna: Phaidon, 1860).Google Scholar
Campbell, S., The Cabinet of Eros: Renaissance Mythological Painting and the Studiolo of Isabella d’Este (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2004).Google Scholar
Champollion-Figeac, A., Captivité du roi François Ier (Paris: Imprimerie royale, 1847).Google Scholar
Cholakian, P., Rape and Writing in the Heptaméron of Marguerite de Navarre (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1991).Google Scholar
Cockram, S., Isabella d’Este and Francesco Gonzaga: Power Sharing at the Renaissance Court (Farnham: Ashgate 2013).Google Scholar
Cockram, S., ‘Isabella d’Este’s sartorial politics’, in Griffey, E. (ed.), Sartorial Politics in Early Modern Europe: Fashioning Women (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2019), pp. 3556.Google Scholar
Crawford, P., ‘Women’s published writings 1600–1700’, in Prior, M. (ed.), Women in English Society, 1500–1800 (London: Routledge, 1985), pp. 211–31.Google Scholar
Cremonini, P., ‘Missive ingannevoli e verità nascoste: Vero e verosimile svelati da un cifrario di Lucrezia Borgia d’Este conservato nell’archivio di stato di Modena’, in Ghirardo, D. (ed.), Lucrezia Borgia Lettere 1494–1519 (Mantua: Direzione generale Archivi, Tre Lune Edizioni, 2020), pp. xviixxxi.Google Scholar
Croizat, Y. C., ‘“Living dolls”: François Ier dresses his women’, Renaissance Quarterly, 60.1 (2007), 94130.Google Scholar
Cruz, A. J., and Stampino, M. Galli (eds.), Early Modern Habsburg Women: Transnational Contexts, Cultural Conflicts, Dynastic Continuities (London: Routledge, 2013).Google Scholar
Daybell, J., and Norrhem, S. (eds.), Gender and Political Culture in Early Modern Europe (London: Routledge, 2017).Google Scholar
Dialeti, A., ‘Defending women, negotiating masculinity in early modern Italy’, Historical Journal, 54.1 (2011), 123.Google Scholar
Doyle, D. R., ‘The sinews of Habsburg governance in the sixteenth century: Mary of Hungary and political patronage’, Sixteenth Century Journal, 31.2 (2000), 349–60.Google Scholar
Dumont, J., Fagnart, L., Le Roux, N., and Girault, P.-G. (eds.), Les Paix des Dames, 1529: Diplomatie, genre et symbolique du pouvoir à la Renaissance (Tours: Presses universitaires François-Rabelais, 2021).Google Scholar
Dupont-Pierrart, N., Claire de Gonzague Comtesse de Bourbon-Montpensier (1464–1503): Une princesse italienne à la cour de France (Lille: Septentrion, 2017).Google Scholar
Earenfight, T., ‘Without the persona of the prince: Kings, queens, and the idea of monarchy in late medieval Europe’, Gender & History, 19.1 (2007), 121.Google Scholar
Eichberger, D., ‘The culture of gifts: A courtly phenomenon from a female perspective’, in Eichberger, D. (ed.), Women of Distinction: Margaret of York and Margaret of Austria (Turnhout: Brepols, 2005), pp. 286–95.Google Scholar
Eichberger, D., ‘Margaret of Austria’s portrait collection: Female patronage in the light of dynastic ambitions and artistic quality’, Renaissance Studies, 10.2 (1996), 259–79.Google Scholar
Eichberger, D., and Beaven, L., ‘Family members and political allies: The portrait collection of Margaret of Austria’, Art Bulletin, 77.2 (1995), 225–48.Google Scholar
Fagel, R., ‘Don Fernando en Flandes (1518–1521): Un príncipe sin tierra’, in Alvar, A. and Edelmayer, F. (eds.), Fernando I, 1503–1564: Socialización, vida privada y actividad pública de un Emperador del renacimiento (Madrid: Sociedad Estatal de Conmemoraciones Culturales, 2004), pp. 253–71.Google Scholar
Feci, S., ‘Signore di curia: Rapporti di potere ed esperienze di governo nella Roma papale (metà XV–metà XVI secolo)’, in Arcangeli, L. and Peyronel, S. (eds.), Donne di potere nel Rinascimento (Rome: Viella, 2008), pp. 195222.Google Scholar
Federinov, B., and Docquier, G. (eds.), Marie de Hongrie: Politique et culture sous la renaissance aux Pays-Bas. Actes du Colloque tenu au Musée royal de Mariemont les 11 et 12 novembre 2005 (Mariemont: Collections monographies du Musée royal de Mariemont, 2008).Google Scholar
Ferguson, G., and McKinley, M. B., ‘The Heptaméron: Word, spirit, world’, in Ferguson, G. and McKinley, M. B. (eds.), A Companion to Marguerite de Navarre (Leiden: Brill, 2013), pp. 323–71.Google Scholar
Fichtner, P. S., ‘Dynastic marriage in sixteenth-century Habsburg diplomacy and statecraft: An interdisciplinary approach’, American Historical Review, 81.2 (1976), 243–65.Google Scholar
Fisher, S., ‘Queens consort, gender and diplomacy: Catherine of Aragon, Claude of France and the Field of Cloth of Gold’, Gender & History 35.2 (2022), 387407.Google Scholar
Fletcher, C., ‘The Ladies’ Peace revisited: Gender, counsel and diplomacy’, in Matheson-Pollack, H., Paul, J., and Fletcher, C. (eds.), Queenship and Counsel in Early Modern Europe (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2018), pp. 111–33.Google Scholar
Fornaciari, A., Gaeta, R., Minozzi, S., and Giuffra, V., ‘Syphilis in Maria Salviati (1499–1543), wife of Giovanni de’ Medici of the Black Bands’, Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26.6 (2020), 1274–82.Google Scholar
Fuchs, M., and Réthelyi, O. (eds.), Maria von Ungarn (1505–1558): Eine Renaissancefürstin (Muenster: Achendorff, 2007).Google Scholar
Gachard, L. P. (ed.), Retraite et mort de Charles-Quint au monastère de Yuste, 3 vols. (Brussels: M. Hayez, 1854–5).Google Scholar
Gagné, J., ‘Collecting women: Three French kings and manuscripts of empire in the Italian Wars’, I Tatti Studies in the Italian Renaissance, 20.1 (2017), 127–84.Google Scholar
Gagné, J., Milan Undone: Contested Sovereignties in the Italian Wars (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2021).Google Scholar
Geevers, L., ‘The Danish Habsburgs: Hans, Dorothea and Christina of Denmark as part of the Habsburg dynasty’, in Bodensten, E., Brilkman, K., Heidenblad, D. L., and Sanders, H. (eds.), Nordens Historiker: En vänbok till Harald Gustafsson (Lund: Historiska institutionen, Lunds Universitet, 2018), pp. 273–86.Google Scholar
Geevers, L., and Marini, M. (eds.), Dynastic Identity in Early Modern Europe: Rulers, Aristocrats and the Formation of Identities (London: Routledge, 2016).Google Scholar
Ghirardo, D. Y., ‘Lucrezia Borgia as entrepreneur’, Renaissance Quarterly, 61.1 (2008), 5391.Google Scholar
Gonzaga, M., Imperatriz Isabel de Portugal (Lisbon: Bertrand Editora, 2012).Google Scholar
Gorter-van Royen, L. V. G., Maria von Hongarije, regentes der Nederlanden: Een politieke analyse op basis van haar regentschapsordonnaties en haar corespondentie met Karel V (Leiden: Hilversum, 1995).Google Scholar
Gschwend, A. J., ‘Ma meilleur soeur: Leonor of Austria, queen of Portugal and France’, in Cremades, F. Checa (ed.), Los Inventarios de Carlos V y la Familia Imperial, 3 vols. (Madrid: Fernando Villaverde, 2010), vol. III, pp. 2569–92.Google Scholar
Güttner-Sporzyński, D. von, ‘Contextualising the marriage of Bona Sforza to Sigismund I of Poland: Maximilian I’s diplomacy in Italy and Central Europe’, Folia Historica Cracoviensia, 2 (2021), 6990.Google Scholar
Güttner-Sporzyński, D. von, ‘Daughter, mother, widow: The making of the identities of Isabella d’Aragona’, Gender & History, early view (2023). https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-0424.12683.Google Scholar
Hackenbroch, Y., Enseignes: Renaissance Hat Jewels (Florence: Studio per Edizioni Scelte, 1996).Google Scholar
Hackenbroch, Y., ‘Some portraits of Charles V’, Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, 27.6 (1969), 323–32.Google Scholar
Hauser, H., ‘Le Journal de Louise de Savoie’, Revue historique, 86 (1904), 280303.Google Scholar
Hill, H. (ed.), Architecture and the Politics of Gender in Early Modern Europe (Farnham: Ashgate, 2003).Google Scholar
Hurlburt, H. S., The Dogaressa of Venice, 1200–1500: Wife and Icon (Houndsmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006).Google Scholar
Iongh, J. de (ed.), Margaret of Austria: Regent of the Netherlands (New York: W. W. Norton, 1953).Google Scholar
Iongh, J. de, Mary of Hungary: Second Regent of the Netherlands, trans. Norton, M. D. Herter (New York: W. W. Norton, 1958).Google Scholar
Isom-Verhaaren, I., Allies with the Infidel: The Ottoman and French Alliance in the Sixteenth Century (London: Bloomsbury, 2013).Google Scholar
James, C., ‘The diplomacy of Clara Gonzaga, countess of Montpensier-Bourbon: Gendered perspectives of family duty, honour and female agency’, Renaissance Studies, 35.3 (2020), 486502.Google Scholar
James, C., ‘Florence and Ferrara: Dynastic marriage and politics’, in Black, R. and Law, J. E. (eds.), The Medici: Citizens and Masters (Florence: Villa I Tatti, Harvard University Center for Italian Renaissance Studies, 2015), pp. 365–78.Google Scholar
James, C., ‘Political image making in portraits of Isabella d’Este’, Gender & History, 35.1 (2023), 2041.Google Scholar
James, C., A Renaissance Marriage: The Political and Personal Alliance of Isabella d’Este and Francesco, 1490–1519 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2020).Google Scholar
Jiménez Zamora, I., ‘La actuación política de la Emperatriz Isabel (1528–1538)’, Espacio, tiempo y forma, serie IV: Historia Moderna 29 (2016), 163–85.Google Scholar
Jiménez Zamora, I., ‘La Emperatriz Isabel de Portugal y el Gobierno de la Monarquía Hispánica en tiempos de Carlos V (1526–1539)’, unpublished PhD thesis, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (2015).Google Scholar
Kaplan, P. H. D., ‘Giorgione’s assault: War and rape in Renaissance Venice’, in Baskins, C. and Rosenthal, L. (eds.), Early Modern Visual Allegory: Embodying Meaning (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007), pp. 7790.Google Scholar
Knecht, R. J., ‘Eléonore d’Autriche (1498–1558)’, in Michon, C. (ed.), Les Conseillers de François Ier (Rennes: Presses universitaires de Rennes, 2011), pp. 401–14. https://books.openedition.org/pur/120045?lang=en.Google Scholar
Koenigsberger, H. G., Monarchies, States Generals and Parliaments: The Netherlands in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001).Google Scholar
Konstam, A., Pavia 1525: The Climax of the Italian Wars (Oxford: Osprey, 1996).Google Scholar
Long, K. (ed.), High Anxiety: Masculinity in Crisis in Early Modern France (Kirksville, MO: Truman State University Press, 2002).Google Scholar
Luzio, A., ‘Federico Gonzaga ostaggio alla corte di Giulio II’, Archivio della Società Romana di Storia Patria, 9 (1886), 509–82.Google Scholar
Luzio, A., La Galleria dei Gonzaga venduta all’Inghilterra nel 1627–28 (Milan: Cogliati, 1913).Google Scholar
Luzio, A., La Galleria dei Gonzaga venduta all’Inghilterra nel 1627–28 (Milan: Cogliati, 1913).Google Scholar
Luzio, A., ‘Isabella d’Este di fronte a Giulio II negli ultimi tre anni del suo pontificato’, Archivio storico lombardo, 17 (1912), 245334, and 18 (1912), 55–144 and 393–456.Google Scholar
Luzio, A., and Renier, R., ‘Il lusso di Isabella d’Este, Marchesa di Mantova’, Nuova Antologia, s. 4, 63 (1896), 441–69.Google Scholar
Luzio, A., and Renier, R., Mantova e Urbino: Isabella d’Este ed Elisabetta Gonzaga nelle relazioni familiari e nelle vicende politiche (Turin: Roux, 1893).Google Scholar
MacDonald, D., ‘Collecting a new world: The ethnographic collections of Margaret of Austria’, Sixteenth Century Journal, 33.3 (2002), 649–63.Google Scholar
Mallett, M., ‘The transformation of war, 1494–1530’, in Shaw, C. (ed.), Italy and the European Powers: The Impact of War, 1500–1530 (Leiden: Brill, 2006), pp. 321.Google Scholar
Mansfield, L., ‘The art of conjugal discord: A satirical double portrait of Francis I and Eleanor of Austria, c. 1530–1535’, in Sherlock, P. and Cassidy-Welch, M. (eds.), Practices of Gender in Late Medieval and Early Modern Europe (Turnhout: Brepols, 2008), 117–35.Google Scholar
Mansfield, L., Representations of Renaissance Monarchy: Francis I and the Image-Makers (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2016).Google Scholar
Marzahl, P., ‘Communication and control in the political system of Emperor Charles V: The first regency of Empress Isabella’, in Blockman, W. and Mout, N. (eds.), The World of Emperor Charles V (Amsterdam: Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, 2004), pp. 8396.Google Scholar
Mazarío Coleto, M. del C., Isabel de Portugal, Emperatriz y Reina de España (Madrid: Escuela de Historia Moderna, 1951).Google Scholar
Michelet, J., Histoire de France au seizième siècle (Paris: Chamerot, 1855).Google Scholar
Milligan, G., Moral Combat: Women, Gender, and War in Italian Renaissance Literature (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2018).Google Scholar
O’Leary, J., Elite Women As Diplomatic Agents in Italy and Hungary, 1470–1510 (Leeds: ARC Humanities Press, 2022).Google Scholar
O’Leary, J., ‘Politics, pedagogy, and praise: Three literary texts dedicated to Eleonora d’Aragona’, I Tatti Studies in the Italian Renaissance, 19.2 (2016), 285307.Google Scholar
Parker, G., Emperor: A New Life of Charles V (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2019).Google Scholar
Patrouch, J. F., ‘“Bella gerant alli”: Laodamia’s sisters, Habsburg brides. Leaving home for the sake of the house’, in Cruz, A. J. and Stampino, M. Galli (eds.), Early Modern Habsburg Women: Transnational Contexts, Cultural Conflicts, Dynastic Continuities (Farnham: Ashgate, 2013), pp. 2540.Google Scholar
Pearson, A. (ed.), Women and Portraits in Early Modern Europe: Gender, Agency, Identity (London: Routledge, 2016).Google Scholar
Peebles, K. D., and Scarlatta, G. (eds.), Representing the Life and Legacy of Renée de France: From Fille de France to Dowager Duchess (Cham: Springer, 2021).Google Scholar
Pélissier, L. G., ‘Les relations de François de Gonzague, marquis de Mantoue avec Ludovic Sforza et Louis XII, notes additionnelles et documents’, Annales de la Faculté de lettres de Bordeaux, 15 (1893), 5096.Google Scholar
Pellegrini, M., Le guerre d’Italia 1494–1530 (Bologna: il Mulino, 2009).Google Scholar
Perez, N. G. (ed.), Mary of Hungary, Renaissance Patron and Collector: Gender, Art and Culture (Turnhout: Brepols, 2020).Google Scholar
Pesman, R., Pier Soderini and the Ruling Class in Renaissance Florence (Goldbach: Keip, 2002).Google Scholar
Piqueras Villaldea, M. I., Carlos V y la Emperatriz Isabel (Madrid: Actas, 2000).Google Scholar
Pitkin, H. F., Fortune Is a Woman: Gender and Politics in the Thought of Niccolò Machiavelli (Berkeley: California University Press, 1984).Google Scholar
Potter, D., ‘Politics and faction at the court of Francis I: The Duchesse d’Étampes, Montmorency and the Dauphin Henri’, French History, 21.2 (2007), 127–46.Google Scholar
Potter, D., Renaissance France at War (Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 2008).Google Scholar
Prisco, V., Eleonora d’Aragona: Pratiche di potere e modelli culturali nell’ Italia del Rinascimento (Rome: Viella, 2022).Google Scholar
Ray, M. Writing Gender in Women’s Letter Collections of the Italian Renaissance (Toronto: Toronto University Press, 2009).Google Scholar
Reder Gadow, M., ‘Isabel de Portugal, Gobernadora De Los Reines de Espana y su proyección de Málaga’, Cuardernos de historia moderna, 43.2 (2018), 395423.Google Scholar
Reid, E., ‘Female representation and violence in the ceremonial entries of the Italian Wars’, Renaissance Studies, 36.5 (2022), 750–68.Google Scholar
Reid, E., ‘Gendering political relationships in Genoese ceremonial entries’, Sixteenth Century Journal, 52.1 (2021), 79110.Google Scholar
Reid, J. A., King’s Sister – Queen of Dissent: Marguerite of Navarre (1492–1549) and Her Evangelical Network, 2 vols. (Leiden: Brill, 2009).Google Scholar
Réthelyi, O., Romhányi, B. F., Spekner, E., and Végh, A. (eds.), Mary of Hungary: The Queen and Her Court 1521–1531, trans. Harmath, A., Romhányi, B. F., and Trostovszky, G. (Budapest: Budapest History Museum, 2005–6).Google Scholar
Richardson, G., The Field of Cloth of Gold (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2013).Google Scholar
Rocke, M., Forbidden Friendships, Homosexuality and Male Culture in Renaissance Florence (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996).Google Scholar
Rodriguez-Salgado, M. J., ‘Charles V and the dynasty’, in Soly, H. (ed.), Charles V 1500–1558 and His Time (Antwerp: Mercartorfonds, 1999), pp. 27111.Google Scholar
Ross, S. G., The Birth of Feminism: Woman As Intellect in Renaissance Italy and England (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009).Google Scholar
Rubio Aragonés, M. J., ‘Isabel de Portugal (1503–1539)’, Reinas de Espana, Las Austrias: Siglos XV–XVIII. De Isabel la Cátolica a Marian de Neoburgo (Madrid: Esfera de los Libros, 2015), pp. 65108.Google Scholar
Seco Serrano, C., La Emperatriz Isabel (Madrid: Real Academia de la Historia, 2006).Google Scholar
Shaw, C., Isabella d’Este: A Renaissance Princess (London: Routledge, 2019).Google Scholar
Shaw, C. (ed.), Italy and the European Powers: The Impact of War (Leiden: Brill: 2006).Google Scholar
Shaw, C., and Mallet, M., The Italian Wars 1494–1559: War, State and Society in Early Modern Europe (London: Routledge, 2014).Google Scholar
Sluga, G., and James, C. (eds.), Women, Diplomacy and Politics since 1500 (London: Routledge, 2016).Google Scholar
Stephenson, B., The Power and Patronage of Marguerite de Navarre (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2004).Google Scholar
Swain, E. W., ‘“My excellent and most singular lord”: Marriage in a noble family of fifteenth-century Italy’, Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 16 (1986), 171–95.Google Scholar
Syson, L., ‘Reading faces: Gian Cristoforo Romano’s medal of Isabella d’Este’, in Mozzarelli, C., Oresko, R., and Venturi, L. (eds.), La corte di Mantova nell’età di Andrea Mantegna: 1450–1550 (Rome: Bulzoni, 1997), pp. 281–94.Google Scholar
Taylor, F. L. The Art of War in Italy, 1494–1529 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1921).Google Scholar
Tomas, N., ‘Alfonsina Orsini de’ Medici and the “problem” of a female ruler in early sixteenth century Florence’, Renaissance Studies, 14.1 (2000), 7090.Google Scholar
Tomas, N., ‘Eleonora di Toledo, regency and state formation in Tuscany’, in Benadusi, G. and Brown, J. C. (eds.), Medici Women: The Making of a Dynasty in Grand Ducal Tuscany (Toronto: Centre for Reformation and Renaissance Studies, 2015), pp. 5989.Google Scholar
Tomas, N., The Medici Women, Gender and Power in Renaissance Florence (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2003).Google Scholar
Tracy, J. D., Emperor Charles V, Impresario of War: Campaign Strategy, International Finance, and Domestic Politics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002).Google Scholar
Tylus, J., and Milligan, G. (eds.), The Poetics of Masculinity in Early Modern Italy and Spain (Toronto: Toronto University Press, 2010).Google Scholar
Villacorta Baños-García, A., La Emperatriz Isabel (Madrid: Actas, 2009).Google Scholar
Wilson-Chevalier, K., and Pascal, E. (eds.), Patronnes et mécènes en France à la Renaissance (Sainte-Etienne: Presses universitaires de Saint-Etienne, 2007).Google Scholar
Winn, C. H., Approaches to Teaching Marguerite de Navarre’s Heptaméron (Berkeley, CA: Modern Language Association, 2007).Google Scholar
Woodacre, E., Dean, L. H. S., Jones, C., Rohr, Z. E., and Martin, R. E. (eds.), The Routledge History of Monarchy, 4 vols. (London: Routledge, 2019).Google Scholar
Ylä-Anttila, T., ‘Habsburg female regents in the early sixteenth century’, unpublished PhD thesis, University of Helsinki (2019).Google Scholar

Save element to Kindle

To save this element to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Elite Women and the Italian Wars, 1494–1559
Available formats
×

Save element to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Elite Women and the Italian Wars, 1494–1559
Available formats
×

Save element to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Elite Women and the Italian Wars, 1494–1559
Available formats
×