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We study the distributions of component and system lifetimes under the time-homogeneous load-sharing model, where the multivariate conditional hazard rates of working components depend only on the set of failed components, and not on their failure moments or the time elapsed from the start of system operation. Then we analyze its time-heterogeneous extension, in which the distributions of consecutive failure times, single component lifetimes, and system lifetimes coincide with mixtures of distributions of generalized order statistics. Finally we focus on some specific forms of the time-nonhomogeneous load-sharing model.
Providing optimal strategies for maintaining technical systems in good working condition is an important goal in reliability engineering. The main aim of this paper is to propose some optimal maintenance policies for coherent systems based on some partial information about the status of components in the system. For this purpose, in the first part of the paper, we propose two criteria under which we compute the probability of the number of failed components in a coherent system with independent and identically distributed components. The first proposed criterion utilizes partial information about the status of the components with a single inspection of the system, and the second one uses partial information about the status of component failure under double monitoring of the system. In the computation of both criteria, we use the notion of the signature vector associated with the system. Some stochastic comparisons between two coherent systems have been made based on the proposed concepts. Then, by imposing some cost functions, we introduce new approaches to the optimal corrective and preventive maintenance of coherent systems. To illustrate the results, some examples are examined numerically and graphically.
In the literature of stochastic orders, one rarely finds results characterizing non-comparability of random variables. We prove simple tools implying the non-comparability with respect to the convex transform order. The criteria are used, among other applications, to provide a negative answer for a conjecture about comparability in a much broader scope than its initial statement.
In this paper the behaviour of the failure rate and reversed failure rate of an n-component coherent system is studied, where it is assumed that the lifetimes of the components are independent and have a common cumulative distribution function F. Sufficient conditions are provided under which the system failure rate is increasing and the corresponding reversed failure rate is decreasing. We also study the stochastic and ageing properties of doubly truncated random variables for coherent systems.
We study failure rate monotonicity and generalised convex transform stochastic ordering properties of random variables, with an emphasis on applications. We are especially interested in the effect of a tail-weight iteration procedure to define distributions, which is equivalent to the characterisation of moments of the residual lifetime at a given instant. For the monotonicity properties, we are mainly concerned with hereditary properties with respect to the iteration procedure providing counterexamples showing either that the hereditary property does not hold or that inverse implications are not true. For the stochastic ordering, we introduce a new criterion, based on the analysis of the sign variation of a suitable function. This criterion is then applied to prove ageing properties of parallel systems formed with components that have exponentially distributed lifetimes.
Two definitions of Birnbaum’s importance measure for coherent systems are studied in the case of exchangeable components. Representations of these measures in terms of distribution functions of the ordered component lifetimes are given. As an example, coherent systems with failure-dependent component lifetimes based on the notion of sequential order statistics are considered. Furthermore, it is shown that the two measures are ordered in the case of associated component lifetimes. Finally, the limiting behavior of the measures with respect to time is examined.
We propose a new inference strategy for general population mortality tables based on annual population and death estimates, completed by monthly birth counts. We rely on a deterministic population dynamics model and establish formulas that link the death rates to be estimated with the observables at hand. The inference algorithm takes the form of a recursive and implicit scheme for computing death rate estimates. This paper demonstrates both theoretically and numerically the efficiency of using additional monthly birth counts for appropriately computing annual mortality tables. As a main result, the improved mortality estimators show better features, including the fact that previous anomalies in the form of isolated cohort effects disappear, which confirms from a mathematical perspective the previous contributions by Richards, Cairns et al., and Boumezoued.
We consider coherent systems with independent and identically distributed components. While it is clear that the system’s life will be stochastically larger when the components are replaced with stochastically better components, we show that, in general, similar results may not hold for hazard rate, reverse hazard rate, and likelihood ratio orderings. We find sufficient conditions on the signature vector for these results to hold. These results are combined with other well-known results in the literature to get more general results for comparing two systems of the same size with different signature vectors and possibly with different independent and identically distributed component lifetimes. Some numerical examples are also provided to illustrate the theoretical results.
This paper presents a flexible family which we call the
-mixture of survival functions. This family includes the survival mixture, failure rate mixture, models that are stochastically closer to each of these conventional mixtures, and many other models. The
-mixture is endowed by the stochastic order and uniquely possesses a mathematical property known in economics as the constant elasticity of substitution, which provides an interpretation for
. We study failure rate properties of this family and establish closures under monotone failure rates of the mixture’s components. Examples include potential applications for comparing systems.
A family of generalized ageing intensity functions of univariate absolutely continuous lifetime random variables is introduced and studied. They allow the analysis and measurement of the ageing tendency from various points of view. Some of these generalized ageing intensities characterize families of distributions dependent on a single parameter, while others determine distributions uniquely. In particular, it is shown that the elasticity functions of various transformations of distributions that appear in lifetime analysis and reliability theory uniquely characterize the parent distribution. Moreover, the recognition of the shape of a properly chosen generalized ageing intensity estimate admits a simple identification of the data lifetime distribution.
The signature of a coherent system has been studied extensively in the recent literature. Signatures are particularly useful in the comparison of coherent or mixed systems under a variety of stochastic orderings. Also, certain signature-based closure and preservation theorems have been established. For example, it is now well known that certain stochastic orderings are preserved from signatures to system lifetimes when components have independent and identical distributions. This applies to the likelihood ratio order, the hazard rate order, and the stochastic order. The point of departure of the present paper is the question of whether or not a similar preservation result will hold for the mean residual life order. A counterexample is provided which shows that the answer is negative. Classes of distributions for the component lifetimes for which the latter implication holds are then derived. Connections to the theory of order statistics are also considered.
The mean time to failure (MTTF) function in age replacement is used to evaluate the performance and effectiveness of the age replacement policy. In this paper, based on the MTTF function, we introduce two new nonparametric classes of lifetime distributions with nonmonotonic mean time to failure in age replacement; increasing then decreasing MTTF (IDMTTF) and decreasing then increasing MTTF (DIMTTF). The implications between these classes of distributions and some existing classes of nonmonotonic ageing classes are studied. The characterizations of IDMTTF and DIMTTF in terms of the scaled total time on test transform are also obtained.
The Samaniego signature is a relevant tool for studying the performance of a system whose component lifetimes are exchangeable. It is well known that the stochastic ordering of the signatures of two systems implies the same for the respective system lifetimes. We prove that the reverse claim is not true when the component lifetimes are independent and identically distributed. There exist small proportions of systems with stochastically ordered lifetimes whose signatures are not ordered. We present a simple procedure in order to check whether the system lifetimes are stochastically ordered even if their signatures are not comparable.
The Shannon entropy based on the probability density function is a key information measure with applications in different areas. Some alternative information measures have been proposed in the literature. Two relevant ones are the cumulative residual entropy (based on the survival function) and the cumulative past entropy (based on the distribution function). Recently, some extensions of these measures have been proposed. Here, we obtain some properties for the generalized cumulative past entropy. In particular, we prove that it determines the underlying distribution. We also study this measure in coherent systems and a closely related generalized past cumulative Kerridge inaccuracy measure.
We develop shock model theory in different scenarios for the ℳ-class of life distributions introduced by Klar and Müller (2003). We also study the cumulative damage model of A-Hameed and Proschan (1975) in the context of ℳ-class and establish analogous results. We obtain moment bounds and explore weak convergence issues within the ℳ-class of life distributions.
Mao and Hu (2010) left an open problem about the hazard rate order between the largest order statistics from two samples of n geometric random variables. Du et al. (2012) solved this open problem when n = 2, and Wang (2015) solved for 2 ≤ n ≤ 9. In this paper we completely solve this problem for any value of n.
We study the conditions for unimodality of the lifetime distribution of a coherent system when the ordered component lifetimes in the system are described by generalized order statistics. Results for systems with independent and identically distributed lifetimes of components are included in this setting. The findings are illustrated with some examples for different types of systems. In particular, coherent systems with strictly bimodal density functions are presented in the case of independent standard uniform distributed lifetimes of components. Furthermore, we use the results to derive a sharp upper bound on the expected system lifetime in terms of the mean and the standard deviation of the underlying distribution.
The proportional hazards (PH) model and its associated distributions provide suitable media for exploring connections between the Gini coefficient, Fisher information, and Shannon entropy. The connecting threads are Bayes risks of the mean excess of a random variable with the PH distribution and Bayes risks of the Fisher information of the equilibrium distribution of the PH model. Under various priors, these Bayes risks are generalized entropy functionals of the survival functions of the baseline and PH models and the expected asymptotic age of the renewal process with the PH renewal time distribution. Bounds for a Bayes risk of the mean excess and the Gini's coefficient are given. The Shannon entropy integral of the equilibrium distribution of the PH model is represented in derivative forms. Several examples illustrate implementation of the results and provide insights for potential applications.
We elucidate the long-term behavior of failure rates for a broad class of frailty models in survival analysis. The class properly includes the proportional hazard frailty model, the additive frailty model, and the accelerated failure time frailty model. A complete asymptotic expansion is derived and compared with the corresponding result for the limiting behavior obtained by Finkelstein and Esaulova (2006a). Several examples are provided to facilitate the comparison and to illustrate both the applicability and the limitations of our approach.