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According to a 2002 theorem by Cardaliaguet and Tahraoui, an isotropic, compact and connected subset of the group $\textrm {GL}^{\!+}(2)$ of invertible $2\times 2$ - - matrices is rank-one convex if and only if it is polyconvex. In a 2005 Journal of Convex Analysis article by Alexander Mielke, it has been conjectured that the equivalence of rank-one convexity and polyconvexity holds for isotropic functions on $\textrm {GL}^{\!+}(2)$ as well, provided their sublevel sets satisfy the corresponding requirements. We negatively answer this conjecture by giving an explicit example of a function $W\colon \textrm {GL}^{\!+}(2)\to \mathbb {R}$ which is not polyconvex, but rank-one convex as well as isotropic with compact and connected sublevel sets.
We determine the distance (up to a multiplicative constant) in the Zygmund class
$\Lambda _{\ast }(\mathbb {R}^n)$
to the subspace
$\mathrm {J}_{}(\mathbf {bmo})(\mathbb {R}^n).$
The latter space is the image under the Bessel potential
$J := (1-\Delta )^{{-1}/2}$
of the space
$\mathbf {bmo}(\mathbb {R}^n)$
, which is a nonhomogeneous version of the classical
$\mathrm {BMO}$
. Locally,
$\mathrm {J}_{}(\mathbf {bmo})(\mathbb {R}^n)$
consists of functions that together with their first derivatives are in
$\mathbf {bmo}(\mathbb {R}^n)$
. More generally, we consider the same question when the Zygmund class is replaced by the Hölder space
$\Lambda _{s}(\mathbb {R}^n),$
with
$0 < s \leq 1$
, and the corresponding subspace is
$\mathrm {J}_{s}(\mathbf {bmo})(\mathbb {R}^n)$
, the image under
$(1-\Delta )^{{-s}/2}$
of
$\mathbf {bmo}(\mathbb {R}^n).$
One should note here that
$\Lambda _{1}(\mathbb {R}^n) = \Lambda _{\ast }(\mathbb {R}^n).$
Such results were known earlier only for
$n = s = 1$
with a proof that does not extend to the general case.
Our results are expressed in terms of second differences. As a by-product of our wavelet-based proof, we also obtain the distance from
$f \in \Lambda _{s}(\mathbb {R}^n)$
to
$\mathrm {J}_{s}(\mathbf {bmo})(\mathbb {R}^n)$
in terms of the wavelet coefficients of
$f.$
We additionally establish a third way to express this distance in terms of the size of the hyperbolic gradient of the harmonic extension of f on the upper half-space
$\mathbb {R}^{n +1}_+$
.
We discuss an alternative approach to Fréchet derivatives on Banach spaces inspired by a characterisation of derivatives due to Carathéodory. The approach allows many questions of differentiability to be reduced to questions of continuity. We demonstrate how that simplifies the theory of differentiation, including the rules of differentiation and the Schwarz lemma on the symmetry of second-order derivatives. We also provide a short proof of the differentiable dependence of fixed points in the Banach fixed point theorem.
We present some inequalities for the mappings defined by Dragomir [‘Two mappings in connection to Hadamard’s inequalities’, J. Math. Anal. Appl.167 (1992), 49–56]. We analyse known inequalities connected with these mappings using a recently developed method connected with stochastic orderings and Stieltjes integrals. We show that some of these results are optimal and others may be substantially improved.
The main result of this note implies that any function from the product of several vector spaces to a vector space can be uniquely decomposed into the sum of mutually orthogonal functions that are odd in some of the arguments and even in the other arguments. Probabilistic notions and facts are employed to simplify statements and proofs.
We obtain a criterion for an analytic subset of a Euclidean space to contain points of differentiability of a typical Lipschitz function: namely, that it cannot be covered by countably many sets, each of which is closed and purely unrectifiable (has a zero-length intersection with every
$C^1$
curve). Surprisingly, we establish that any set failing this criterion witnesses the opposite extreme of typical behaviour: in any such coverable set, a typical Lipschitz function is everywhere severely non-differentiable.
All non-negative, continuous, $\text{SL}(n)$, and translation invariant valuations on the space of super-coercive, convex functions on $\mathbb{R}^{n}$ are classified. Furthermore, using the invariance of the function space under the Legendre transform, a classification of non-negative, continuous, $\text{SL}(n)$, and dually translation invariant valuations is obtained. In both cases, different functional analogs of the Euler characteristic, volume, and polar volume are characterized.
This paper provides a functional analogue of the recently initiated dual Orlicz–Brunn–Minkowski theory for star bodies. We first propose the Orlicz addition of measures, and establish the dual functional Orlicz–Brunn–Minkowski inequality. Based on a family of linear Orlicz additions of two measures, we provide an interpretation for the famous $f$-divergence. Jensen’s inequality for integrals is also proved to be equivalent to the newly established dual functional Orlicz–Brunn–Minkowski inequality. An optimization problem for the $f$-divergence is proposed, and related functional affine isoperimetric inequalities are established.
We establish the general form of a geometric comparison principle for n-fold convolutions of certain singular measures in ℝd which holds for arbitrary n and d. This translates into a pointwise inequality between the convolutions of projection measure on the paraboloid and a perturbation thereof, and we use it to establish a new sharp Fourier extension inequality on a general convex perturbation of a parabola. Further applications of the comparison principle to sharp Fourier restriction theory are discussed in the companion paper [3].
In this note, we provide an explicit formula for computing the quasiconvex envelope of any real-valued function W; SL(2) → ℝ with W(RF) = W(FR) = W(F) for all F ∈ SL(2) and all R ∈ SO(2), where SL(2) and SO(2) denote the special linear group and the special orthogonal group, respectively. In order to obtain our result, we combine earlier work by Dacorogna and Koshigoe on the relaxation of certain conformal planar energy functions with a recent result on the equivalence between polyconvexity and rank-one convexity for objective and isotropic energies in planar incompressible nonlinear elasticity.
We present the second-order necessary and sufficient conditions for quasiconvex and pseudoconvex functions in terms of their second-order regular subdifferentials.
By an influential theorem of Boman, a function $f$ on an open set $U$ in $\mathbb{R}^{d}$ is smooth (${\mathcal{C}}^{\infty }$) if and only if it is arc-smooth, that is, $f\,\circ \,c$ is smooth for every smooth curve $c:\mathbb{R}\rightarrow U$. In this paper we investigate the validity of this result on closed sets. Our main focus is on sets which are the closure of their interior, so-called fat sets. We obtain an analogue of Boman’s theorem on fat closed sets with Hölder boundary and on fat closed subanalytic sets with the property that every boundary point has a basis of neighborhoods each of which intersects the interior in a connected set. If $X\subseteq \mathbb{R}^{d}$ is any such set and $f:X\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ is arc-smooth, then $f$ extends to a smooth function defined on $\mathbb{R}^{d}$. We also get a version of the Bochnak–Siciak theorem on all closed fat subanalytic sets and all closed sets with Hölder boundary: if $f:X\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ is the restriction of a smooth function on $\mathbb{R}^{d}$ which is real analytic along all real analytic curves in $X$, then $f$ extends to a holomorphic function on a neighborhood of $X$ in $\mathbb{C}^{d}$. Similar results hold for non-quasianalytic Denjoy–Carleman classes (of Roumieu type). We will also discuss sharpness and applications of these results.
Let Q be the open unit square in ℝ2. We prove that in a natural complete metric space of BV homeomorphisms f : Q → Q with f|∂Q = Id, residually many homeomorphisms (in the sense of Baire categories) map a null set onto a set of full measure, and vice versa. Moreover, we observe that for 1 ⩽ p < 2, the family of W1,p homemomorphisms satisfying the above property is of the first category.
In this paper we analyze the first-order behavior (that is, the right-sided derivative) of the volume of the dilation A⊕tQ as t converges to 0. Here A and Q are subsets of n-dimensional Euclidean space, A has finite perimeter, and Q is finite. If Q consists of two points only, n and n+u, say, this derivative coincides up to a sign with the directional derivative of the covariogram of A in direction u. By known results for the covariogram, this derivative can therefore be expressed by the cosine transform of the surface area measure of A. We extend this result to finite sets Q and use it to determine the derivative of the contact distribution function with finite structuring element of a stationary random set at 0. The proofs are based on an approximation of the indicator function of A by smooth functions of bounded variation.
Functions of bounded deformation (BD) arise naturally in the study of fracture and damage in a geometrically linear context. They are related to functions of bounded variation (BV), but are less well understood. We discuss here the relation to BV under additional regularity assumptions, which may require the regular part of the strain to have higher integrability or the jump set to have finite area or the Cantor part to vanish. On the positive side, we prove that BD functions that are piecewise affine on a Caccioppoli partition are in GSBV, and we prove that SBDp functions are approximately continuous -almost everywhere away from the jump set. On the negative side, we construct a function that is BD but not in BV and has distributional strain consisting only of a jump part, and one that has a distributional strain consisting of only a Cantor part.
We show that, in the two-dimensional case, every objective, isotropic and isochoric energy function that is rank-one convex on GL+(2) is already polyconvex on GL+(2). Thus, we answer in the negative Morrey's conjecture in the subclass of isochoric nonlinear energies, since polyconvexity implies quasi-convexity. Our methods are based on different representation formulae for objective and isotropic functions in general, as well as for isochoric functions in particular. We also state criteria for these convexity conditions in terms of the deviatoric part of the logarithmic strain tensor.
Let be an open set in ℝn and suppose that is a Sobolev homeomorphism. We study the regularity of f–1 under the Lp-integrability assumption on the distortion function Kf. First, if is the unit ball and p > n – 1, then the optimal local modulus of continuity of f–1 is attained by a radially symmetric mapping. We show that this is not the case when p ⩽ n – 1 and n ⩾ 3, and answer a question raised by S. Hencl and P. Koskela. Second, we obtain the optimal integrability results for ∣Df–1∣ in terms of the Lp-integrability assumptions of Kf.
We give an L2 x L2 → L2 convolution estimate for singular measures supported on transversal hypersurfaces in ℝn, which improves earlier results of Bejenaru et al. as well as Bejenaru and Herr. The quantities arising are relevant to the study of the validity of bilinear estimates for dispersive partial differential equations. We also prove a class of global, nonlinear Brascamp–Lieb inequalities with explicit constants in the same spirit.
We prove that, for an interval X ⊆ ℝ and a normed space Z, diagonals of separately absolutely continuous mappings f : X2 → Z are exactly mappings g : X → Z, which are the sums of absolutely convergent series of continuous functions.
In the present paper, a coupled algorithm refining recursively the Hermite–Hadamard inequality on a simplex is investigated. Our approach allows us to express the integral mean value $M_{f}$ of a convex function $f$ on a simplex as both the limit of sequences and sum of series involving iterative lower and upper bounds of $M_{f}$. Two examples of interest are discussed.