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We show that the Tits index
$E_{8,1}^{133}$
cannot be obtained by means of the Tits construction over a field with no odd degree extensions. The proof uses a general method coming from the theory of symmetric spaces. We construct two cohomological invariants, in degrees
$6$
and
$8$
, of the Tits construction and the more symmetric Allison–Faulkner construction of Lie algebras of type
$E_8$
and show that these invariants can be used to detect the isotropy rank.
We prove that for positive integers
$m \geq 1, n \geq 1$
and a prime number
$p \neq 2,3$
there are finitely many finite m-generated Moufang loops of exponent
$p^n$
.
We give a construction that takes a simple linear algebraic group G over a field and produces a commutative, unital, and simple non-associative algebra A over that field. Two attractions of this construction are that (1) when G has type
$E_8$, the algebra A is obtained by adjoining a unit to the 3875-dimensional representation; and (2) it is effective, in that the product operation on A can be implemented on a computer. A description of the algebra in the
$E_8$ case has been requested for some time, and interest has been increased by the recent proof that
$E_8$ is the full automorphism group of that algebra. The algebras obtained by our construction have an unusual Peirce spectrum.
The space of tensors of metric curvature type on a Euclidean vector space carries a two-parameter family of orthogonally invariant commutative nonassociative multiplications invariant with respect to the symmetric bilinear form determined by the metric. For a particular choice of parameters these algebras recover the polarization of the quadratic map on metric curvature tensors that arises in the work of Hamilton on the Ricci flow. Here these algebras are studied as interesting examples of metrized commutative algebras and in low dimensions they are described concretely in terms of nonstandard commutative multiplications on self-adjoint endomorphisms. The algebra of curvature tensors on a 3-dimensional Euclidean vector space is shown isomorphic to an orthogonally invariant deformation of the standard Jordan product on $3 \times 3$ symmetric matrices. This algebra is characterized up to isomorphism in terms of purely algebraic properties of its idempotents and the spectra of their multiplication operators. On a vector space of dimension at least 4, the subspace of Weyl (Ricci-flat) curvature tensors is a subalgebra for which the multiplication endomorphisms are trace-free and the Killing type trace-form is a multiple of the nondegenerate invariant metric. This subalgebra is simple when the Euclidean vector space has dimension greater than 4. In the presence of a compatible complex structure, the analogous result is obtained for the subalgebra of Kähler Weyl curvature tensors. It is shown that the anti-self-dual Weyl tensors on a 4-dimensional vector space form a simple 5-dimensional ideal isometrically isomorphic to the trace-free part of the Jordan product on trace-free $3 \times 3$ symmetric matrices.
Symplectic finite semifields can be used to construct nonlinear binary codes of Kerdock type (i.e., with the same parameters of the Kerdock codes, a subclass of Delsarte–Goethals codes). In this paper, we introduce nonbinary Delsarte–Goethals codes of parameters
$(q^{m+1}\ ,\ q^{m(r+2)+2}\ ,\ {\frac{q-1}{q}(q^{m+1}-q^{\frac{m+1}{2}+r})})$
over a Galois field of order
$q=2^l$
, for all
$0\le r\le\frac{m-1}{2}$
, with m ≥ 3 odd, and show the connection of this construction to finite semifields.
An unexpected relationship between indecomposable involutive set-theoretic solutions to the Yang–Baxter equation and one-generator braces has recently been discovered by Agata and Alicja Smoktunowicz. We extend these results and answer three open questions which arose in this context.
We give a new and useful approach to study the representations of symmetric Leibniz algebras. Using this approach, we obtain some results on the representations of these algebras.
We introduce the concept of a $\{\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E},\unicode[STIX]{x1D70F}\}$-Rota–Baxter operator, as a twisted version of a Rota–Baxter operator of weight zero. We show how to obtain a certain $\{\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E},\unicode[STIX]{x1D70F}\}$-Rota–Baxter operator from a solution of the associative (Bi)Hom-Yang–Baxter equation, and, in a compatible way, a Hom-pre-Lie algebra from an infinitesimal Hom-bialgebra.
A Tits polygon is a bipartite graph in which the neighborhood of every vertex is endowed with an “opposition relation” satisfying certain properties. Moufang polygons are precisely the Tits polygons in which these opposition relations are all trivial. There is a standard construction that produces a Tits polygon whose opposition relations are not all trivial from an arbitrary pair $(\unicode[STIX]{x1D6E5},T)$, where $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6E5}$ is a building of type $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6F1}$, $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6F1}$ is a spherical, irreducible Coxeter diagram of rank at least $3$, and $T$ is a Tits index of absolute type $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6F1}$ and relative rank $2$. A Tits polygon is called $k$-plump if its opposition relations satisfy a mild condition that is satisfied by all Tits triangles coming from a pair $(\unicode[STIX]{x1D6E5},T)$ such that every panel of $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6E5}$ has at least $k+1$ chambers. We show that a $5$-plump Tits triangle is parametrized and uniquely determined by a ring $R$ that is alternative and of stable rank $2$. We use the connection between Tits triangles and the theory of Veldkamp planes as developed by Veldkamp and Faulkner to show existence.
The relation between the structure of a ring and the structure of its additive group is studied in the context of some recent results in additive groups of mixed rings. Namely, the notion of the square subgroup of an abelian group, which is a generalization of the concept of nil-group, is considered mainly for mixed non-splitting abelian groups which are the additive groups only of rings whose all subrings are ideals. A non-trivial construction of such a group of finite torsion-free rank no less than two, for which the quotient group modulo the square subgroup is not a nil-group, is given. In particular, a new class of abelian group for which an old problem posed by Stratton and Webb has a negative solution, is indicated. A new, far from obvious, application of rings in which the relation of being an ideal is transitive, is obtained.
We generate an algebra on blood phenotypes with multiplication based on the human ABO-blood group inheritance pattern. We assume that gametes are not chosen randomly during meiosis. We investigate some of the properties of this algebra, namely, the set of idempotents, lattice of ideals and the associative enveloping algebra.
An interchange ring,$(R,+,\bullet )$, is an abelian group with a second binary operation defined so that the interchange law$(w+x)\bullet (y+z)=(w\bullet y)+(x\bullet z)$ holds. An interchange near ring is the same structure based on a group which may not be abelian. It is shown that each interchange (near) ring based on a group $G$ is formed from a pair of endomorphisms of $G$ whose images commute, and that all interchange (near) rings based on $G$ can be characterized in this manner. To obtain an associative interchange ring, the endomorphisms must be commuting idempotents in the endomorphism semigroup of $G$. For $G$ a finite abelian group, we develop a group-theoretic analogue of the simultaneous diagonalization of idempotent linear operators and show that pairs of endomorphisms which yield associative interchange rings can be diagonalized and then put into a canonical form. A best possible upper bound of $4^{r}$ can be given for the number of distinct isomorphism classes of associative interchange rings based on a finite abelian group $A$ which is a direct sum of $r$ cyclic groups of prime power order. If $A$ is a direct sum of $r$ copies of the same cyclic group of prime power order, we show that there are exactly ${\textstyle \frac{1}{6}}(r+1)(r+2)(r+3)$ distinct isomorphism classes of associative interchange rings based on $A$. Several examples are given and further comments are made about the general theory of interchange rings.
The purpose of this paper is to provide new constructions of Hom-associative algebras using Hom-analogues of certain operators called twistors and pseudotwistors, by deforming a given Hom-associative multiplication into a new Hom-associative multiplication. As examples, we introduce Hom-analogues of the twisted tensor product and smash product. Furthermore, we show that the construction by the twisting principle introduced by Yau and the twisting of associative algebras using pseudotwistors admit a common generalization.
This work defines a new algebraic structure, to be called an alternative Clifford algebra associated to a given quadratic form. I explored its representations, particularly concentrating on connections to the well-understood octonion algebras. I finished by suggesting directions for future research.
An algebra A is homogeneous if the automorphism group of A acts transitively on the one dimensional subspaces of A. Suppose A is a homogeneous algebra over an infinite field k. Let La denote left multiplication by any nonzero element a ∈ A. Several results are proved concerning the structure of A in terms of La. In particular, it is shown that A decomposes as the direct sum A = ker La Im La. These results are then successfully applied to the problem of classifying the infinite homogeneous algebras of small dimension.
This note continues the development of the infinite-dimensional genetic algebra approach to problems of population genetics. Two algebras are studied. One describes the familiar problem of a quantitative characteristic, and the other provides a way of treating the whole chromosome as an entity.
Two local nilpotent properties of an associative or alternative ring A containing an idempotent are shown. First, if A = A11 + A10 + A01 + A00 is the Peirce decomposition of A relative to e then if a is associative or semiprime alternative and 3-torsion free then any locally nilpotent ideal B of Aii generates a locally nilpotent ideal 〈B〉 of A. As a consequence L(Aii) = Aii ∩ L(A) for the Levitzki radical L. Also bounds are given for the index of nilpotency of any finitely generated subring of 〈B〉. Second, if A(x) denotes a homotope of A then L(A) ⊆ L(A(x)) and, in particular, if A(x) is an isotope of A then L(A) = L(A(x)).
It is proved that a regular essentially closed and weakly homomorphically closed proper subclass of rings consists of semiprime rings. A regular class M defines a supernilpotent upper radical if and only if M consists of semiprime rings and the essential cover Mk of M is contained in the semisimple class S U M. A regular essentially closed class M containing all semisimple prime rings, defines a special upper radical if and only if M satisfies condition (S): every M-ring is a subdirect sum of prime M-rings. Thus we obtained a characterization of semisimple classes of special radicals; a subclas S of rings is the semisimple class of a special radical if and only if S is regular, subdirectly closed, essentially closed, and satisfies condition (S). The results are valid for alternative rings too.
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