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The immersed boundary method is a widely used mixed Eulerian/Lagrangian framework for simulating the motion of elastic structures immersed in viscous fluids. In this work, we consider a poroelastic immersed boundary method in which a fluid permeates a porous, elastic structure of negligible volume fraction, and extend this method to include stress relaxation of the material. The porous viscoelastic method presented here is validated for a prescribed oscillatory shear and for an expansion driven by the motion at the boundary of a circular material by comparing numerical solutions to an analytical solution of the Maxwell model for viscoelasticity. Finally, an application of the modelling framework to cell biology is provided: passage of a cell through a microfluidic channel. We demonstrate that the rheology of the cell cytoplasm is important for capturing the transit time through a narrow channel in the presence of a pressure drop in the extracellular fluid.
The numerical simulations for the blood flow in arteries by high order accurate schemes have a wide range of applications in medical engineering. The blood flow model admits the steady state solutions, in which the flux gradient is non-zero and is exactly balanced by the source term. In this paper, we present a high order finite volume weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme, which preserves the steady state solutions and maintains genuine high order accuracy for general solutions. The well-balanced property is obtained by a novel source term reformulation and discretisation, combined with well-balanced numerical fluxes. Extensive numerical experiments are carried out to verify well-balanced property, high order accuracy, as well as good resolution for smooth and discontinuous solutions.
In this work, a robust, consistent, and coherent approach, termed as Modified Ghost Method (MGM), is developed to deal with the multi-medium interaction with elastic-plastic solid. This approach is simple to implement and keeps the solvers intact, and can handle multi-medium problems which involve various media including gas, liquid and solid. The MGM is first validated by two-dimensional (2D) cases and then is applied to study the interaction between elastic-plastic solid structure and the underwater explosion. The development of the wave system is described and analyzed. Furthermore, two kinds of complex solid structure subjected to underwater explosion are simulated. Finally, a complex solid structure immersed in water subjected to underwater explosion is simulated and analyzed. The numerical experiments show the viability, effectiveness and versatility of the proposed method which is able to accurately predict the wave pattern at various interfaces.
We propose a multi-layer approach to simulate hyperpycnal and hypopycnal plumes in flows with free surface. The model allows to compute the vertical profile of the horizontal and the vertical components of the velocity of the fluid flow. The model can describe as well the vertical profile of the sediment concentration and the velocity components of each one of the sediment species that form the turbidity current. To do so, it takes into account the settling velocity of the particles and their interaction with the fluid. This allows to better describe the phenomena than a single layer approach. It is in better agreement with the physics of the problem and gives promising results. The numerical simulation is carried out by rewriting the multilayer approach in a compact formulation, which corresponds to a system with nonconservative products, and using path-conservative numerical scheme. Numerical results are presented in order to show the potential of the model.
A numerical time-stepping algorithm for differential or partial differential equations is proposed that adaptively modifies the dimensionality of the underlying modal basis expansion. Specifically, the method takes advantage of any underlying low-dimensional manifolds or subspaces in the system by using dimensionality-reduction techniques, such as the proper orthogonal decomposition, in order to adaptively represent the solution in the optimal basis modes. The method can provide significant computational savings for systems where low-dimensional manifolds are present since the reduction can lower the dimensionality of the underlying high-dimensional system by orders of magnitude. A comparison of the computational efficiency and error for this method are given showing the algorithm to be potentially of great value for high-dimensional dynamical systems simulations, especially where slow-manifold dynamics are known to arise. The method is envisioned to automatically take advantage of any potential computational saving associated with dimensionality-reduction, much as adaptive time-steppers automatically take advantage of large step sizes whenever possible.
An adaptive moving mesh finite difference method is presented to solve two types of equations with dynamic capillary pressure effect in porous media. One is the non-equilibrium Richards Equation and the other is the modified Buckley-Leverett equation. The governing equations are discretized with an adaptive moving mesh finite difference method in the space direction and an implicit-explicit method in the time direction. In order to obtain high quality meshes, an adaptive monitor function with directional control is applied to redistribute the mesh grid in every time step, then a diffusive mechanism is used to smooth the monitor function. The behaviors of the central difference flux, the standard local Lax-Friedrich flux and the local Lax-Friedrich flux with reconstruction are investigated by solving a 1D modified Buckley-Leverett equation. With the moving mesh technique, good mesh quality and high numerical accuracy are obtained. A collection of one-dimensional and two-dimensional numerical experiments is presented to demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed method.
The present paper follows our previous work [Yang et al., Phys. Rev. E, 90 (2014), 063011] in which the bending modes of a symmetric flexible fiber in viscous flows were studied by using a coupling approach of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) and element bending group (EBG). It was shown that a symmetric flexible fiber can undergo four different bending modes including stable U-shape, slight swing, violent flapping and stable closure modes. For an asymmetric flexible fiber, the bending modes can be different. This paper numerically studies the fiber shape, flow field and fluid drag of an asymmetric flexible fiber immersed in a viscous fluid flow by using the SPH-EBG coupling method. An asymmetric number is defined to describe the asymmetry of a flexible fiber. The effects of the asymmetric number on the fiber shape, flow field and fluid drag are investigated.
This paper presents a GPU-accelerated implementation of the Locally Optimal Block Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (LOBPCG) method with an inexact nullspace filtering approach to find eigenvalues in electromagnetics analysis with higher-order FEM. The performance of the proposed approach is verified using the Kepler (Tesla K40c) graphics accelerator, and is compared to the performance of the implementation based on functions from the Intel MKL on the Intel Xeon (E5-2680 v3, 12 threads) central processing unit (CPU) executed in parallel mode. Compared to the CPU reference implementation based on the Intel MKL functions, the proposed GPU-based LOBPCG method with inexact nullspace filtering allowed us to achieve up to 2.9-fold acceleration.
Many biological settings involve complex fluids that have non-Newtonian mechanical responses that arise from suspended microstructures. In contrast, Newtonian fluids are liquids or mixtures of a simple molecular structure that exhibit a linear relationship between the shear stress and the rate of deformation. In modeling complex fluids, the extra stress from the non-Newtonian contribution must be included in the governing equations.
In this study we compare Lagrangian mesh and Oldroyd-B formulations of fluid-structure interaction in an immersed boundary framework. The start-up phase of planar Poiseuille flow between two parallel plates is used as a test case for the fluid models. For Newtonian and Oldroyd-B fluids there exist analytical solutions which are used in the comparison of simulation and theoretical results. The Lagrangian mesh results are compared with Oldroyd-B using comparable parameters. A regridding algorithm is introduced for the Lagrangian mesh model. We show that the Lagrangian mesh model simulations with regridding produce results in close agreement with the Oldfoyd-B model.
A cheapest stable nonconforming finite element method is presented for solving the incompressible flow in a square cavity without smoothing the corner singularities. The stable cheapest nonconforming finite element pair based on P1×P0 on rectangularmeshes  is employed with a minimal modification of the discontinuous Dirichlet data on the top boundary, where is the finite element space of piecewise constant pressures with the globally one-dimensional checker-board pattern subspace eliminated. The proposed Stokes elements have the least number of degrees of freedom compared to those of known stable Stokes elements. Three accuracy indications for our elements are analyzed and numerically verified. Also, various numerous computational results obtained by using our proposed element show excellent accuracy.
In this paper, we propose a finite element method for the elasticity problems which have displacement discontinuity along the material interface using uniform grids. We modify the immersed finite element method introduced recently for the computation of interface problems having homogeneous jumps [20, 22]. Since the interface is allowed to cut through the element, we modify the standard Crouzeix-Raviart basis functions so that along the interface, the normal stress is continuous and the jump of the displacement vector is proportional to the normal stress. We construct the broken piecewise linear basis functions which are uniquely determined by these conditions. The unknowns are only associated with the edges of element, except the intersection points. Thus our scheme has fewer degrees of freedom than most of the XFEM type of methods in the existing literature [1,8,13]. Finally, we present numerical results which show optimal orders of convergence rates.
In this paper, we propose a new energy-preserving scheme and a new momentum-preserving scheme for the modified regularized long wave equation. The proposed schemes are designed by using the discrete variational derivative method and the finite volume element method. For comparison, we also propose a finite volume element scheme. The conservation properties of the proposed schemes are analyzed and we find that the energy-preserving scheme can precisely conserve the discrete total mass and total energy, the momentum-preserving scheme can precisely conserve the discrete total mass and total momentum, while the finite volume element scheme merely conserve the discrete total mass. We also analyze their linear stability property using the Von Neumann theory and find that the proposed schemes are unconditionally linear stable. Finally, we present some numerical examples to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed schemes.
An optimal control problem is considered to find a stable surface traction, which minimizes the discrepancy between a given displacement field and its estimation. Firstly, the inverse elastic problem is constructed by variational inequalities, and a stable approximation of surface traction is obtained with Tikhonov regularization. Then a finite element discretization of the inverse elastic problem is analyzed. Moreover, the error estimation of the numerical solutions is deduced. Finally, a numerical algorithm is detailed and three examples in two-dimensional case illustrate the efficiency of the algorithm.
As an exploratory study for structural deformation and thermodynamic response induced by spacecraft reentry aerodynamic force and thermal environment, a finite element algorithm is presented on the basis of the classic Fourier heat conductive law to simulate the dynamic thermoelasticity coupling performance of the material. The Newmark method and Crank-Nicolson scheme are utilized to discretize the dynamic thermoelasticity equation and heat conductive equation in the time domain, respectively, and the unconditionally stable implicit algorithm is constructed. Four types of finite-element computing schemes are devised and discussed to solve the thermodynamic coupling equation, all of which are implemented and compared in the computational examples including the one-dimensional transient heat conduction in considering and not considering the vibration, the transient heat flow for the infinite cylinder, and the dynamic coupling thermoelasticity around re-entry flat plate from hypersonic aerothermodynamic environment. The computational results show that the transient responses of temperature and displacement field generate lag phenomenon in case of considering the deformation effect on temperature field. Propagation, rebounding, attenuation and stabilized phenomena of elastic wave are also observed by the finite-element calculation of thermodynamic coupling problem considering vibration and damping, and the oscillation of the temperature field is simultaneously induced. As a result, the computational method and its application research platform have been founded to solve the transient thermodynamic coupling response problem of the structure in strong aerodynamic heating and force environment. By comparing various coupling calculations, it is demonstrated that the present algorithm could give a correct and reliable description of transient thermodynamic responses of structure, the rationality of the sequentially coupling method in engineering calculation is discussed, and the bending deformation mechanism produced by the thermodynamic coupling response from windward and leeward sides of flying body is revealed, which lays the foundation in developing the numerical method to solve material internal temperature distribution, structural deformation, and thermal damage induced by spacecraft dynamic thermoelasticity coupling response under uncontrolled reentry aerothermodynamic condition.
This paper presents a relatively simple numerical method to investigate the flow and heat transfer of laminar power-law fluids over a semi-infinite plate in the presence of viscous dissipation and anisotropy radiation. On one hand, unlike most classical works, the effects of power-law viscosity on velocity and temperature fields are taken into account when both the dynamic viscosity and the thermal diffusivity vary as a power-law function. On the other hand, boundary layer equations are derived by Taylor expansion, and a mixed analytical/numerical method (a pseudosimilarity method) is proposed to effectively solve the boundary layer equations. This method has been justified by comparing its results with those of the original governing equations obtained by a finite element method. These results agree very well especially when the Reynolds number is large. We also observe that the robustness and accuracy of the algorithm are better when thermal boundary layer is thinner than velocity boundary layer.
The differential quadrature method (DQM) has been successfully used in a variety of fields. Similar to the conventional point discrete methods such as the collocation method and finite difference method, however, the DQM has some difficulty in dealing with singular functions like the Dirac-delta function. In this paper, two modifications are introduced to overcome the difficulty encountered in solving differential equations with Dirac-delta functions by using the DQM. The moving point load is work-equivalent to loads applied at all grid points and the governing equation is numerically integrated before it is discretized in terms of the differential quadrature. With these modifications, static behavior and forced vibration of beams under a stationary or a moving point load are successfully analyzed by directly using the DQM. It is demonstrated that the modified DQM can yield very accurate solutions. The compactness and computational efficiency of the DQM are retained in solving the partial differential equations with a time dependent Dirac-delta function.
We propose and analyze a constrained level-set method for semi-automatic image segmentation. Our level-set model with constraints on the level-set function enables us to specify which parts of the image lie inside respectively outside the segmented objects. Such a-priori information can be expressed in terms of upper and lower constraints prescribed for the level-set function. Constraints have the same conceptual meaning as initial seeds of the popular graph-cuts based methods for image segmentation. A numerical approximation scheme is based on the complementary-finite volumes method combined with the Projected successive over-relaxation method adopted for solving constrained linear complementarity problems. The advantage of the constrained level-set method is demonstrated on several artificial images as well as on cardiac MRI data.
In this paper, we study a new stabilized method based on the local pressure projection to solve the semi-linear elliptic equation. The proposed scheme combines nonconforming finite element pairs NCP1–P1 triangle element and two-level method, which has a number of attractive computational properties: parameter-free, avoiding higher-order derivatives or edge-based data structures, but have more favorable stability and less support sets. Stability analysis and error estimates have been done. Finally, numerical experiments to check estimates are presented.
In this paper, we introduce and study a new method for solving inverse source problems, through a working model that arises in bioluminescence tomography (BLT). In the BLT problem, one constructs quantitatively the bioluminescence source distribution inside a small animal from optical signals detected on the animal's body surface. The BLT problem possesses strong ill-posedness and often the Tikhonov regularization is used to obtain stable approximate solutions. In conventional Tikhonov regularization, it is crucial to choose a proper regularization parameter for trade off between the accuracy and stability of approximate solutions. The new method is based on a combination of the boundary condition and the boundary measurement in a parameter-dependent single complex Robin boundary condition, followed by the Tikhonov regularization. By properly adjusting the parameter in the Robin boundary condition, we achieve two important properties for our new method: first, the regularized solutions are uniformly stable with respect to the regularization parameter so that the regularization parameter can be chosen based solely on the consideration of the solution accuracy; second, the convergence order of the regularized solutions reaches one with respect to the noise level. Then, the finite element method is used to compute numerical solutions and a new finite element error estimate is derived for discrete solutions. These results improve related results found in the existing literature. Several numerical examples are provided to illustrate the theoretical results.
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