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Let $S \subset \mathbb {R}^{n}$ be a smooth compact hypersurface with a strictly positive second fundamental form, $E$ be the Fourier extension operator on $S$, and $X$ be a Lebesgue measurable subset of $\mathbb {R}^{n}$. If $X$ contains a ball of each radius, then the problem of determining the range of exponents $(p,q)$ for which the estimate $\| Ef \|_{L^{q}(X)} \lesssim \| f \|_{L^{p}(S)}$ holds is equivalent to the restriction conjecture. In this paper, we study the estimate under the following assumption on the set $X$: there is a number $0 < \alpha \leq n$ such that $|X \cap B_R| \lesssim R^{\alpha }$ for all balls $B_R$ in $\mathbb {R}^{n}$ of radius $R \geq 1$. On the left-hand side of this estimate, we are integrating the function $|Ef(x)|^{q}$ against the measure $\chi _X \,{\textrm {d}}x$. Our approach consists of replacing the characteristic function $\chi _X$ of $X$ by an appropriate weight function $H$, and studying the resulting estimate in three different regimes: small values of $\alpha$, intermediate values of $\alpha$, and large values of $\alpha$. In the first regime, we establish the estimate by using already available methods. In the second regime, we prove a weighted Hölder-type inequality that holds for general non-negative Lebesgue measurable functions on $\mathbb {R}^{n}$ and combine it with the result from the first regime. In the third regime, we borrow a recent fractal Fourier restriction theorem of Du and Zhang and combine it with the result from the second regime. In the opposite direction, the results of this paper improve on the Du–Zhang theorem in the range $0 < \alpha < n/2$.
Eigenfunctions of the Fourier transform with prescribed zeros played a major role in the proof that the E8 and the Leech lattice give the best sphere packings in respective dimensions 8 and 24 by Cohn, Kumar, Miller, Radchenko and Viazovska. The functions used for a linear programming argument were constructed as Laplace transforms of certain modular and quasimodular forms. Similar constructions were used by Cohn and Gonçalves to find a function satisfying an optimal uncertainty principle in dimension 12. This paper gives a unified view on these constructions and develops the machinery to find the underlying forms in all dimensions divisible by 4. Furthermore, the positivity of the Fourier coefficients of the quasimodular forms occurring in this context is discussed.
We study the Muskat problem describing the vertical motion of two immiscible fluids in a two-dimensional homogeneous porous medium in an Lp-setting with p ∈ (1, ∞). The Sobolev space
$W_p^s(\mathbb R)$
with s = 1+1/p is a critical space for this problem. We prove, for each s ∈ (1+1/p, 2) that the Rayleigh–Taylor condition identifies an open subset of
$W_p^s(\mathbb R)$
within which the Muskat problem is of parabolic type. This enables us to establish the local well-posedness of the problem in all these subcritical spaces together with a parabolic smoothing property.
We prove that sets with positive upper Banach density in sufficiently large dimensions contain congruent copies of all sufficiently large dilates of three specific higher-dimensional patterns. These patterns are: 2n vertices of a fixed n-dimensional rectangular box, the same vertices extended with n points completing three-term arithmetic progressions, and the same vertices extended with n points completing three-point corners. Our results provide common generalizations of several Euclidean density theorems from the literature.
We establish new Strichartz estimates for orthonormal families of initial data in the case of the wave, Klein–Gordon and fractional Schrödinger equations. Our estimates extend those of Frank–Sabin in the case of the wave and Klein–Gordon equations, and generalize work of Frank et al. and Frank–Sabin for the Schrödinger equation. Due to a certain technical barrier, except for the classical Schrödinger equation, the Strichartz estimates for orthonormal families of initial data have not previously been established up to the sharp summability exponents in the full range of admissible pairs. We obtain the optimal estimates in various notable cases and improve the previous results.
The main novelty of this paper is our derivation and use of estimates for weighted oscillatory integrals, which we combine with an approach due to Frank and Sabin. Our weighted oscillatory integral estimates are, in a certain sense, rather delicate endpoint versions of known dispersive estimates with power-type weights of the form $|\xi |^{-\lambda }$ or $(1 + |\xi |^2)^{-\lambda /2}$, where $\lambda \in \mathbb {R}$. We achieve optimal decay rates by considering such weights with appropriate $\lambda \in \mathbb {C}$. For the wave and Klein–Gordon equations, our weighted oscillatory integral estimates are new. For the fractional Schrödinger equation, our results overlap with prior work of Kenig–Ponce–Vega in a certain regime. Our contribution to the theory of weighted oscillatory integrals has also been influenced by earlier work of Carbery–Ziesler, Cowling et al., and Sogge–Stein.
Finally, we provide some applications of our new Strichartz estimates for orthonormal families of data to the theory of infinite systems of Hartree type, weighted velocity averaging lemmas for kinetic transport equations, and refined Strichartz estimates for data in Besov spaces.
We establish the global regularity of multilinear Fourier integral operators that are associated to nonlinear wave equations on products of
$L^p$ spaces by proving endpoint boundedness on suitable product spaces containing combinations of the local Hardy space, the local BMO and the
$L^2$ spaces.
Let $\mathbb {S}^{d-1}$ denote the unit sphere in Euclidean space $\mathbb {R}^d$, $d\geq 2$, equipped with surface measure $\sigma _{d-1}$. An instance of our main result concerns the regularity of solutions of the convolution equation
$$\begin{align*}a\cdot(f\sigma_{d-1})^{\ast {(q-1)}}\big\vert_{\mathbb{S}^{d-1}}=f,\text{ a.e. on }\mathbb{S}^{d-1}, \end{align*}$$
where $a\in C^\infty (\mathbb {S}^{d-1})$, $q\geq 2(d+1)/(d-1)$ is an integer, and the only a priori assumption is $f\in L^2(\mathbb {S}^{d-1})$. We prove that any such solution belongs to the class $C^\infty (\mathbb {S}^{d-1})$. In particular, we show that all critical points associated with the sharp form of the corresponding adjoint Fourier restriction inequality on $\mathbb {S}^{d-1}$ are $C^\infty $-smooth. This extends previous work of Christ and Shao [4] to arbitrary dimensions and general even exponents and plays a key role in the companion paper [24].
The purpose of this paper is to characterize the entire solutions of the homogeneous Helmholtz equation (solutions in ℝd) arising from the Fourier extension operator of distributions in Sobolev spaces of the sphere $H^\alpha (\mathbb {S}^{d-1}),$ with α ∈ ℝ. We present two characterizations. The first one is written in terms of certain L2-weighted norms involving real powers of the spherical Laplacian. The second one is in the spirit of the classical description of the Herglotz wave functions given by P. Hartman and C. Wilcox. For α > 0 this characterization involves a multivariable square function evaluated in a vector of entire solutions of the Helmholtz equation, while for α < 0 it is written in terms of an spherical integral operator acting as a fractional integration operator. Finally, we also characterize all the solutions that are the Fourier extension operator of distributions in the sphere.
A new characterization of
$\text {CMO}(\mathbb R^n)$
is established replying upon local mean oscillations. Some characterizations of iterated compact commutators on weighted Lebesgue spaces are given, which are new even in the unweighted setting for the first order commutators.
Let
$v \ne 0$
be a vector in
${\mathbb {R}}^n$
. Consider the Laplacian on
${\mathbb {R}}^n$
with drift
$\Delta _{v} = \Delta + 2v\cdot \nabla $
and the measure
$d\mu (x) = e^{2 \langle v, x \rangle } dx$
, with respect to which
$\Delta _{v}$
is self-adjoint. This measure has exponential growth with respect to the Euclidean distance. We study weak type
$(1, 1)$
and other sharp endpoint estimates for the Riesz transforms of any order, and also for the vertical and horizontal Littlewood–Paley–Stein functions associated with the heat and the Poisson semigroups.
As a result of field fringing, the capacitance of a parallel-plate capacitor differs from that predicted by the textbook formula. Using singular perturbations and conformal mapping techniques, we calculate the leading-order correction to the capacitance in the limit of large aspect ratio. We additionally obtain a comparable approximation for the electrostatic attraction between the plates.
Let $M$ be a nondoubling parabolic manifold with ends. First, this paper investigates the boundedness of the maximal function associated with the heat semigroup ${\mathcal{M}}_{\unicode[STIX]{x1D6E5}}f(x):=\sup _{t>0}|e^{-t\unicode[STIX]{x1D6E5}}f(x)|$ where $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6E5}$ is the Laplace–Beltrami operator acting on $M$. Then, by combining the subordination formula with the previous result, we obtain the weak type $(1,1)$ and $L^{p}$ boundedness of the maximal function ${\mathcal{M}}_{\sqrt{L}}^{k}f(x):=\sup _{t>0}|(t\sqrt{L})^{k}e^{-t\sqrt{L}}f(x)|$ on $L^{p}(M)$ for $1<p\leq \infty$ where $k$ is a nonnegative integer and $L$ is a nonnegative self-adjoint operator satisfying a suitable heat kernel upper bound. An interesting thing about the results is the lack of both doubling condition of $M$ and the smoothness of the operators’ kernels.
In this paper, we completely solve the
$L^{2}\to L^{r}$
extension conjecture for the zero radius sphere over finite fields. We also obtain the sharp
$L^{p}\to L^{4}$
extension estimate for non-zero radii spheres over finite fields, which improves the previous result of the first and second authors significantly.
where ${\{e^{-t{\mathcal{L}}}\}}_{t>0}$ is the heat semigroup of the operator ${\mathcal{L}}=-\unicode[STIX]{x1D6E5}+V$ with $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6E5}$ being the classical laplacian, the nonnegative potential $V$ belonging to the reverse Hölder class $RH_{q}$ with $q>n/2$ and $n\geqslant 3$, $N=(N_{1},N_{2})\in \mathbb{Z}^{2}$ with $N_{1}<N_{2}$, ${\{v_{j}\}}_{j\in \mathbb{Z}}$ is a bounded real sequences, and ${\{a_{j}\}}_{j\in \mathbb{Z}}$ is an increasing real sequence.
Our analysis will consist in the boundedness, in $L^{p}(\mathbb{R}^{n})$ and in $BMO(\mathbb{R}^{n})$, of the operators $T_{N}^{{\mathcal{L}}}$ and its maximal operator $T^{\ast }f(x)=\sup _{N}T_{N}^{{\mathcal{L}}}f(x)$.
It is also shown that the local size of the maximal differential transform operators (with $V=0$) is the same with the order of a singular integral for functions $f$ having local support. Moreover, if ${\{v_{j}\}}_{j\in \mathbb{Z}}\in \ell ^{p}(\mathbb{Z})$, we get an intermediate size between the local size of singular integrals and Hardy–Littlewood maximal operator.
Let M(u), H(u) be the maximal operator and Hilbert transform along the parabola (t, ut2). For U ⊂ (0, ∞) we consider Lp estimates for the maximal functions sup u∈U|M(u)f| and sup u∈U|H(u)f|, when 1 < p ≤ 2. The parabolas can be replaced by more general non-flat homogeneous curves.
We prove certain L2(ℝn) bilinear estimates for Fourier extension operators associated to spheres and hyperboloids under the action of the k-plane transform. As the estimates are L2-based, they follow from bilinear identities: in particular, these are the analogues of a known identity for paraboloids, and may be seen as higher-dimensional versions of the classical L2(ℝ2)-bilinear identity for Fourier extension operators associated to curves in ℝ2.
We consider a multilinear kernel operator between Banach function spaces over finite measures and suitable order continuity properties, namely $T:X_{1}(\,\unicode[STIX]{x1D707}_{1})\times \cdots \times X_{n}(\,\unicode[STIX]{x1D707}_{n})\rightarrow Y(\,\unicode[STIX]{x1D707}_{0})$. Then we define, via duality, a class of linear operators associated to the $j$-transpose operators. We show that, under certain conditions of $p$th power factorability of such operators, there exist vector measures $m_{j}$ for $j=0,1,\ldots ,n$ so that $T$ factors through a multilinear operator $\widetilde{T}:L^{p_{1}}(m_{1})\times \cdots \times L^{p_{n}}(m_{n})\rightarrow L^{p_{0}^{\prime }}(m_{0})^{\ast }$, provided that $1/p_{0}=1/p_{1}+\cdots +1/p_{n}$. We apply this scheme to the study of the class of multilinear Calderón–Zygmund operators and provide some concrete examples for the homogeneous polynomial and multilinear Volterra and Laplace operators.
On a compact Lie group
$G$
of dimension
$n$
, we study the Bochner–Riesz mean
$S_{R}^{\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FC}}(f)$
of the Fourier series for a function
$f$
. At the critical index
$\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FC}=(n-1)/2$
, we obtain the convergence rate for
$S_{R}^{(n-1)/2}(f)$
when
$f$
is a function in the block-Sobolev space. The main theorems extend some known results on the
$m$
-torus
$\mathbb{T}^{m}$
.
Let $X$ be a space of homogeneous type and $L$ be a nonnegative self-adjoint operator on $L^{2}(X)$ satisfying Gaussian upper bounds on its heat kernels. In this paper, we develop the theory of weighted Besov spaces ${\dot{B}}_{p,q,w}^{\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FC},L}(X)$ and weighted Triebel–Lizorkin spaces ${\dot{F}}_{p,q,w}^{\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FC},L}(X)$ associated with the operator $L$ for the full range $0<p,q\leqslant \infty$, $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FC}\in \mathbb{R}$ and $w$ being in the Muckenhoupt weight class $A_{\infty }$. Under rather weak assumptions on $L$ as stated above, we prove that our new spaces satisfy important features such as continuous characterizations in terms of square functions, atomic decompositions and the identifications with some well-known function spaces such as Hardy-type spaces and Sobolev-type spaces. One of the highlights of our result is the characterization of these spaces via noncompactly supported functional calculus. An important by-product of this characterization is the characterization via the heat kernel for the full range of indices. Moreover, with extra assumptions on the operator $L$, we prove that the new function spaces associated with $L$ coincide with the classical function spaces. Finally we apply our results to prove the boundedness of the fractional power of $L$, the spectral multiplier of $L$ in our new function spaces and the dispersive estimates of wave equations.