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In this paper, the nilspace approach to higher-order Fourier analysis is developed in the setting of vector spaces over a prime field
$\mathbb {F}_p$
, with applications mainly in ergodic theory. A key requisite for this development is to identify a class of nilspaces adequate for this setting. We introduce such a class, whose members we call p-homogeneous nilspaces. One of our main results characterizes these objects in terms of a simple algebraic property. We then prove various further results on these nilspaces, leading to a structure theorem describing every finite p-homogeneous nilspace as the image, under a nilspace fibration, of a member of a simple family of filtered finite abelian p-groups. The applications include a description of the Host–Kra factors of ergodic
$\mathbb {F}_p^\omega $
-systems as p-homogeneous nilspace systems. This enables the analysis of these factors to be reduced to the study of such nilspace systems, with central questions on the factors thus becoming purely algebraic problems on finite nilspaces. We illustrate this approach by proving that for
$k\leq p+1$
the kth Host–Kra factor is an Abramov system of order at most k, extending a result of Bergelson–Tao–Ziegler that holds for
$k< p$
. We illustrate the utility of p-homogeneous nilspaces also by showing that the structure theorem yields a new proof of the Tao–Ziegler inverse theorem for Gowers norms on
$\mathbb {F}_p^n$
.
Let G be a finite group. Let
$H, K$
be subgroups of G and
$H \backslash G / K$
the double coset space. If Q is a probability on G which is constant on conjugacy classes (
$Q(s^{-1} t s) = Q(t)$
), then the random walk driven by Q on G projects to a Markov chain on
$H \backslash G /K$
. This allows analysis of the lumped chain using the representation theory of G. Examples include coagulation-fragmentation processes and natural Markov chains on contingency tables. Our main example projects the random transvections walk on
$GL_n(q)$
onto a Markov chain on
$S_n$
via the Bruhat decomposition. The chain on
$S_n$
has a Mallows stationary distribution and interesting mixing time behavior. The projection illuminates the combinatorics of Gaussian elimination. Along the way, we give a representation of the sum of transvections in the Hecke algebra of double cosets, which describes the Markov chain as a mixture of Metropolis chains. Some extensions and examples of double coset Markov chains with G a compact group are discussed.
We show that the only finite quasi-simple non-abelian groups that can faithfully act on rationally connected threefolds are the following groups:
${\mathfrak{A}}_5$
,
${\text{PSL}}_2(\textbf{F}_7)$
,
${\mathfrak{A}}_6$
,
${\text{SL}}_2(\textbf{F}_8)$
,
${\mathfrak{A}}_7$
,
${\text{PSp}}_4(\textbf{F}_3)$
,
${\text{SL}}_2(\textbf{F}_{7})$
,
$2.{\mathfrak{A}}_5$
,
$2.{\mathfrak{A}}_6$
,
$3.{\mathfrak{A}}_6$
or
$6.{\mathfrak{A}}_6$
. All of these groups with a possible exception of
$2.{\mathfrak{A}}_6$
and
$6.{\mathfrak{A}}_6$
indeed act on some rationally connected threefolds.
In their renowned paper (2011, Inventiones Mathematicae 184, 591–627), I. Vollaard and T. Wedhorn defined a stratification on the special fiber of the unitary unramified PEL Rapoport–Zink space with signature $(1,n-1)$. They constructed an isomorphism between the closure of a stratum, called a closed Bruhat–Tits stratum, and a Deligne–Lusztig variety which is not of classical type. In this paper, we describe the $\ell $-adic cohomology groups over $\overline {{\mathbb Q}_{\ell }}$ of these Deligne–Lusztig varieties, where $\ell \not = p$. The computations involve the spectral sequence associated with the Ekedahl–Oort stratification of a closed Bruhat–Tits stratum, which translates into a stratification by Coxeter varieties whose cohomology is known. Eventually, we find out that the irreducible representations of the finite unitary group which appear inside the cohomology contribute to only two different unipotent Harish-Chandra series, one of them belonging to the principal series.
Let n be a nonnegative integer. For each composition
$\alpha $
of n, Berg, Bergeron, Saliola, Serrano and Zabrocki introduced a cyclic indecomposable
$H_n(0)$
-module
$\mathcal {V}_{\alpha }$
with a dual immaculate quasisymmetric function as the image of the quasisymmetric characteristic. In this paper, we study
$\mathcal {V}_{\alpha }$
s from the homological viewpoint. To be precise, we construct a minimal projective presentation of
$\mathcal {V}_{\alpha }$
and a minimal injective presentation of
$\mathcal {V}_{\alpha }$
as well. Using them, we compute
$\mathrm {Ext}^1_{H_n(0)}(\mathcal {V}_{\alpha }, \mathbf {F}_{\beta })$
and
$\mathrm {Ext}^1_{H_n(0)}( \mathbf {F}_{\beta }, \mathcal {V}_{\alpha })$
, where
$\mathbf {F}_{\beta }$
is the simple
$H_n(0)$
-module attached to a composition
$\beta $
of n. We also compute
$\mathrm {Ext}_{H_n(0)}^i(\mathcal {V}_{\alpha },\mathcal {V}_{\beta })$
when
$i=0,1$
and
$\beta \le _l \alpha $
, where
$\le _l$
represents the lexicographic order on compositions.
In this paper, we study the supercharacter theories of elementary abelian $p$-groups of order $p^{2}$. We show that the supercharacter theories that arise from the direct product construction and the $\ast$-product construction can be obtained from automorphisms. We also prove that any supercharacter theory of an elementary abelian $p$-group of order $p^{2}$ that has a non-identity superclass of size $1$ or a non-principal linear supercharacter must come from either a $\ast$-product or a direct product. Although we are unable to prove results for general primes, we do compute all of the supercharacter theories when $p = 2,\, 3,\, 5$, and based on these computations along with particular computations for larger primes, we make several conjectures for a general prime $p$.
The codegree of an irreducible character
$\chi $
of a finite group G is
$|G : \ker \chi |/\chi (1)$
. We show that the Ree group
${}^2G_2(q)$
, where
$q = 3^{2f+1}$
, is determined up to isomorphism by its set of codegrees.
We study the compatibility of the action of the DAHA of type GL with two inverse systems of polynomial rings obtained from the standard Laurent polynomial representations. In both cases, the crucial analysis is that of the compatibility of the action of the Cherednik operators. Each case leads to a representation of a limit structure (the +/– stable limit DAHA) on a space of almost symmetric polynomials in infinitely many variables (the standard representation). As an application, we show that the defining representation of the double Dyck path algebra arises from the standard representation of the +stable limit DAHA.
Gagola and Lewis [‘A character theoretic condition characterizing nilpotent groups’, Comm. Algebra27 (1999), 1053–1056] proved that a finite group G is nilpotent if and only if
$\chi (1)^{2}$
divides
$\lvert G:\textrm {ker}\,\chi \rvert $
for every irreducible character
$\chi $
of G. The theorem was later generalised by using monolithic characters. We generalise the theorem further considering only strongly monolithic characters. We also give some criteria for solvability and nilpotency of finite groups by their strongly monolithic characters.
We state a sufficient condition for a fusion system to be saturated. This is then used to investigate localities with kernels: that is, localities that are (in a particular way) extensions of groups by localities. As an application of these results, we define and study certain products in fusion systems and localities, thus giving a new method to construct saturated subsystems of fusion systems.
The Hanna Neumann conjecture is a statement about the rank of the intersection of two finitely generated subgroups of a free group. The conjecture was posed by Hanna Neumann in 1957. In 2011, a strengthened version of the conjecture was proved independently by Joel Friedman and by Igor Mineyev. In this paper we show that the strengthened Hanna Neumann conjecture holds not only in free groups but also in non-solvable surface groups. In addition, we show that a retract in a free group and in a surface group is inert. This implies the Dicks–Ventura inertia conjecture for free and surface groups.
We describe finite soluble nonnilpotent groups in which every minimal nonnilpotent subgroup is abnormal. We also show that if G is a nonsoluble finite group in which every minimal nonnilpotent subgroup is abnormal, then G is quasisimple and
$Z(G)$
is cyclic of order
$|Z(G)|\in \{1, 2, 3, 4\}$
.
Given a finite group G, we denote by
$L(G)$
the subgroup lattice of G and by
${\cal CD}(G)$
the Chermak–Delgado lattice of G. In this note, we determine the finite groups G such that
$|{\cal CD}(G)|=|L(G)|-k$
, for
$k=1,2$
.
Let q be a nontrivial odd prime power, and let
$n \ge 2$
be a natural number with
$(n,q) \ne (2,3)$
. We characterize the groups
$PSL_n(q)$
and
$PSU_n(q)$
by their
$2$
-fusion systems. This contributes to a programme of Aschbacher aiming at a simplified proof of the classification of finite simple groups.
In this note, we investigate some products of subgroups and vanishing conjugacy class sizes of finite groups. We prove some supersolubility criteria for groups with restrictions on the vanishing conjugacy class sizes of their subgroups.
Let K be an infinite field of characteristic
$p>0$
and let
$\lambda, \mu$
be partitions, where
$\mu$
has two parts. We find sufficient arithmetic conditions on
$p, \lambda, \mu$
for the existence of a nonzero homomorphism
$\Delta(\lambda) \to \Delta (\mu)$
of Weyl modules for the general linear group
$GL_n(K)$
. Also, for each p we find sufficient conditions so that the corresponding homomorphism spaces have dimension at least 2.
The Alperin–McKay conjecture is a longstanding open conjecture in the representation theory of finite groups. Späth showed that the Alperin–McKay conjecture holds if the so-called inductive Alperin–McKay (iAM) condition holds for all finite simple groups. In a previous paper, the author has proved that it is enough to verify the inductive condition for quasi-isolated blocks of groups of Lie type. In this paper, we show that the verification of the iAM-condition can be further reduced in many cases to isolated blocks. As a consequence of this, we obtain a proof of the Alperin–McKay conjecture for
$2$
-blocks of finite groups with abelian defect.