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Necklaces are the equivalence classes of words under the action of the cyclic group. Let a transition in a word be any change between two adjacent letters modulo the word’s length. We present a closed-form solution for the enumeration of necklaces in n beads, k colours and t transitions. We show that our result provides a more general solution to the problem of counting alternating (proper) colourings of the vertices of a regular n-gon.
The notion of the capacity of a polynomial was introduced by Gurvits around 2005, originally to give drastically simplified proofs of the van der Waerden lower bound for permanents of doubly stochastic matrices and Schrijver’s inequality for perfect matchings of regular bipartite graphs. Since this seminal work, the notion of capacity has been utilised to bound various combinatorial quantities and to give polynomial-time algorithms to approximate such quantities (e.g. the number of bases of a matroid). These types of results are often proven by giving bounds on how much a particular differential operator can change the capacity of a given polynomial. In this paper, we unify the theory surrounding such capacity-preserving operators by giving tight capacity preservation bounds for all nondegenerate real stability preservers. We then use this theory to give a new proof of a recent result of Csikvári, which settled Friedland’s lower matching conjecture.
Fix positive integers k and n with $k \leq n$. Numbers $x_0, x_1, x_2, \ldots , x_{n - 1}$, each equal to $\pm {1}$, are cyclically arranged (so that $x_0$ follows $x_{n - 1}$) in that order. The problem is to find the product $P = x_0x_1 \cdots x_{n - 1}$ of all n numbers by asking the smallest number of questions of the type $Q_i$: what is $x_ix_{i + 1}x_{i + 2} \cdots x_{i+ k -1}$? (where all the subscripts are read modulo n). This paper studies the problem and some of its generalisations.
We find a new refinement of Fine’s partition theorem on partitions into distinct parts with the minimum part odd. As a consequence, we obtain two companion partition identities. Both analytic and combinatorial proofs are provided.
We give a new method of proof for a result of D. Pierre-Loti-Viaud and P. Boulongne which can be seen as a generalization of a characterization of Poisson law due to Rényi and Srivastava. We also provide explicit formulas, in terms of Bell polynomials, for the moments of the compound distributions occurring in the extended collective model in non-life insurance.
The aim of this article is to provoke discussion concerning arithmetic properties of the function $p_{d}(n)$ counting partitions of a positive integer n into dth powers, where $d\geq 2$. Apart from results concerning the asymptotic behaviour of $p_{d}(n)$, little is known. In the first part of the paper, we prove certain congruences involving functions counting various types of partitions into dth powers. The second part of the paper is experimental and contains questions and conjectures concerning the arithmetic behaviour of the sequence $(p_{d}(n))_{n\in \mathbb {N}}$, based on computations of $p_{d}(n)$ for $n\leq 10^5$ for $d=2$ and $n\leq 10^{6}$ for $d=3, 4, 5$.
We show that there are biases in the number of appearances of the parts in two residue classes in the set of ordinary partitions. More precisely, let
$p_{j,k,m} (n)$
be the number of partitions of n such that there are more parts congruent to j modulo m than parts congruent to k modulo m for
$m \geq 2$
. We prove that
$p_{1,0,m} (n)$
is in general larger than
$p_{0,1,m} (n)$
. We also obtain asymptotic formulas for
$p_{1,0,m}(n)$
and
$p_{0,1,m}(n)$
for
$m \geq 2$
.
Andrews introduced the partition function $\overline {C}_{k, i}(n)$, called the singular overpartition function, which counts the number of overpartitions of n in which no part is divisible by k and only parts $\equiv \pm i\pmod {k}$ may be overlined. We prove that $\overline {C}_{6, 2}(n)$ is almost always divisible by $2^k$ for any positive integer k. We also prove that $\overline {C}_{6, 2}(n)$ and $\overline {C}_{12, 4}(n)$ are almost always divisible by $3^k$. Using a result of Ono and Taguchi on nilpotency of Hecke operators, we find infinite families of congruences modulo arbitrary powers of $2$ satisfied by $\overline {C}_{6, 2}(n)$.
For an indifference graph G, we define a symmetric function of increasing spanning forests of G. We prove that this symmetric function satisfies certain linear relations, which are also satisfied by the chromatic quasisymmetric function and unicellular $\textrm {LLT}$ polynomials. As a consequence, we give a combinatorial interpretation of the coefficients of the $\textrm {LLT}$ polynomial in the elementary basis (up to a factor of a power of $(q-1)$), strengthening the description given in [4].
We investigate the sum of the parts in all the partitions of n into distinct parts and give two infinite families of linear inequalities involving this sum. The results can be seen as new connections between partitions and divisors.
We provide a generalised Laplace expansion for the permanent function and, as a consequence, we re-prove a multinomial Vandermonde convolution. Some combinatorial identities are derived by applying special matrices to the expansion.
We prove two estimates for the expectation of the exponential of a complex function of a random permutation or subset. Using this theory, we find asymptotic expressions for the expected number of copies and induced copies of a given graph in a uniformly random graph with degree sequence(d1, …, dn) as n→ ∞. We also determine the expected number of spanning trees in this model. The range of degrees covered includes dj= λn + O(n1/2+ε) for some λ bounded away from 0 and 1.
In this paper, we show that the numbers of t-stack sortable n-permutations with k − 1 descents satisfy central and local limit theorems for t = 1, 2, n − 1 and n − 2. This result, in particular, gives an affirmative answer to Shapiro's question about the asymptotic normality of the Narayana numbers.
By taking square lattices as a two-dimensional analogue to Beatty sequences, we are motivated to define and explore the notion of complementary lattices. In particular, we present a continuous one-parameter family of complementary lattices. This main result then yields several novel examples of complementary sequences, along with a geometric proof of the fundamental property of Beatty sequences.
Let r be an integer with 2 ≤ r ≤ 24 and let pr(n) be defined by $\sum _{n=0}^\infty p_r(n) q^n = \prod _{k=1}^\infty (1-q^k)^r$. In this paper, we provide uniform methods for discovering infinite families of congruences and strange congruences for pr(n) by using some identities on pr(n) due to Newman. As applications, we establish many infinite families of congruences and strange congruences for certain partition functions, such as Andrews's smallest parts function, the coefficients of Ramanujan's ϕ function and p-regular partition functions. For example, we prove that for n ≥ 0,
We show that the Mallows measure on permutations of
$1,\dots ,n$
arises as the law of the unique Gale–Shapley stable matching of the random bipartite graph with vertex set conditioned to be perfect, where preferences arise from the natural total ordering of the vertices of each gender but are restricted to the (random) edges of the graph. We extend this correspondence to infinite intervals, for which the situation is more intricate. We prove that almost surely, every stable matching of the random bipartite graph obtained by performing Bernoulli percolation on the complete bipartite graph
$K_{{\mathbb Z},{\mathbb Z}}$
falls into one of two classes: a countable family
$(\sigma _n)_{n\in {\mathbb Z}}$
of tame stable matchings, in which the length of the longest edge crossing k is
$O(\log |k|)$
as
$k\to \pm \infty $
, and an uncountable family of wild stable matchings, in which this length is
$\exp \Omega (k)$
as
$k\to +\infty $
. The tame stable matching
$\sigma _n$
has the law of the Mallows permutation of
${\mathbb Z}$
(as constructed by Gnedin and Olshanski) composed with the shift
$k\mapsto k+n$
. The permutation
$\sigma _{n+1}$
dominates
$\sigma _{n}$
pointwise, and the two permutations are related by a shift along a random strictly increasing sequence.
We study random unlabelled k-trees by combining the colouring approach by Gainer-Dewar and Gessel (2014) with the cycle-pointing method by Bodirsky, Fusy, Kang and Vigerske (2011). Our main applications are Gromov–Hausdorff–Prokhorov and Benjamini–Schramm limits that describe their asymptotic geometric shape on a global and local scale as the number of (k + 1)-cliques tends to infinity.
In this note, we evaluate sums of partial theta functions. Our main tool is an application of an extended version of the Bailey transform to an identity of Gasper and Rahman on $q$-hypergeometric series.
We discuss a truncated identity of Euler and present a combinatorial proof of it. We also derive two finite identities as corollaries. As an application, we establish two related
$q$
-congruences for sums of
$q$
-Catalan numbers, one of which has been proved by Tauraso [‘
$q$
-Analogs of some congruences involving Catalan numbers’, Adv. Appl. Math.48 (2012), 603–614] by a different method.
We enumerate factorizations of a Coxeter element in a well-generated complex reflection group into arbitrary factors, keeping track of the fixed space dimension of each factor. In the infinite families of generalized permutations, our approach is fully combinatorial. It gives results analogous to those of Jackson in the symmetric group and can be refined to encode a notion of cycle type. As one application of our results, we give a previously overlooked characterization of the poset of W-noncrossing partitions.