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The ability to organize is our most valuable social technology and the successful organizational design of an enterprise can increase its efficiency, effectiveness, and ability to adapt. Modern organizations operate in increasingly complex, dynamic, and global environments, which puts a premium on rapid adaptation. Compared to traditional organizations, modern organizations are flatter and more open to their environments. Their processes are more generative and interactive – actors themselves generate and coordinate solutions rather than follow hierarchically devised plans and directives. They also search outside their boundaries for resources wherever they may exist, and co-produce products and services with suppliers, customers, and partners, collaborating – both internally and externally – to learn and become more capable. In this volume, leading voices in the field of organization design demonstrate how a combination of agile processes, artificial intelligence, and digital platforms can power adaptive, sustainable, and healthy organizations.
There have been tremendous advancements in technology-based assessments in new modes of data collection and the use of artificial intelligence. Traditional assessment techniques in the fields of psychology, business, education, and health need to be reconsidered. Yet, while technology is pervasive, its spread is not consistent due to national differences in economics and culture. Given these trends, this book offers an integrative consolidation of how technology is changing the face of assessments across different regions of the world. There are three major book sections: in foundations, core issues of computational models, passively sensed data, and privacy concerns are discussed; in global perspectives, the book identifies ways technology has changed how we assess human attributes across the world, and finally, in regional focus, the book surveys how different regions around the world have adopted technology-based assessments for their unique cultural and societal context.
How is China acquiring global influence? Rather than focusing exclusively on China's interests, this book considers a vital but overlooked feature – the interests of recipient countries. Richard W. Carney argues that countries in which political leaders rely more heavily on clientelism coupled with greater control over the corporate sector have a higher demand for Chinese infrastructure spending. Through a combination of statistical analyses and case studies, Carney shows that electoral autocracies (in contrast to closed autocracies, electoral democracies, and liberal democracies) display these features most prominently and are the most avid recipients. This in turn contributes to elevated levels of Chinese digital technologies imports which facilitates the spread of Chinese technical standards, enabling China to create the scale to assert its dominance over the emerging digital economy. Electoral autocracies are the most prevalent type of regime, and are therefore essential partners to China's global ambitions.
Transnational labour governance is in urgent need of a new paradigm of democratic participation, with those who are most affected - typically workers - placed at the centre. To achieve this, principles of industrial democracy and transnational governance must come together to inform institutions within global supply chains. This book traces the development of 'transnational industrial democracy', using responses to the 2013 Rana Plaza disaster as the empirical context. A particular focus is placed on the Bangladesh Accord and the JETI Workplace Social Dialogue programme. Drawing on longitudinal field research from 2013–2020, the authors argue that the reality of modern-day supply chain capitalism has neither optimal institutional frameworks nor effective structures of industrial relations. Informed by principles of industrial democracy, the book aims at enhancing emerging forms of private transnational governance as second-best institutions.
In this Cambridge Companion, global thought leaders in the fields of workplace stress and well-being highlight how theory and research can improve employee health and well-being. The volume explains how and why the topics of workplace stress and well-being have evolved and continue to be highly relevant, and why line managers have great influence over employees' quality of working life. It includes the latest research findings on stress and well-being and their impact on organizations, as well as up-to-date findings on the effectiveness of workplace interventions focused on these issues. It also explores important and emerging issues relating to organizational stress and well-being, including the ongoing effects of the global coronavirus pandemic. This is an ideal reference for students and researchers in the areas of human resources management, occupational health psychology and organisational behavior.
Packed with real-world examples, industry insights and practical activities, this textbook is designed to teach machine learning in a way that is easy to understand and apply. It assumes only a basic knowledge of technology, making it an ideal resource for students and professionals, including those who are new to computer science. All the necessary topics are covered, including supervised and unsupervised learning, neural networks, reinforcement learning, cloud-based services, and the ethical issues still posing problems within the industry. While Python is used as the primary language, many exercises will also have the solutions provided in R for greater versatility. A suite of online resources is available to support teaching across a range of different courses, including example syllabi, a solutions manual, and lecture slides. Datasets and code are also available online for students, giving them everything they need to practice the examples and problems in the book.
This innovative volume presents twenty comparative case studies of important global questions, such as 'Where should our food come from?' 'What should we do about climate change?' and 'Where should innovation come from?' A variety of solutions are proposed and compared, including market-based, economic, and neoliberal approaches, as well as those determined by humane values and ethical and socially responsible perspectives. Drawing on original research, its chapters show that more responsible solutions are very often both more effective and better aligned with human values. Providing an important counterpoint to the standard capitalist thinking propounded in business school education, People Before Markets reveals the problematic assumptions of incumbent frameworks for solving global problems and inspires the next generation of business and social science students to pursue more effective and human-centered solutions.
What is activism? The answer is, typically, that it is a form of opposition, often expressed on the streets. Skoglund and Böhm argue differently. They identify forms of 'insider activism' within corporations, state agencies and villages, showing how people seek to transform society by working within the system, rather than outright opposing it. Using extensive empirical data, Skoglund and Böhm analyze the transformation of climate activism in a rapidly changing political landscape, arguing that it is time to think beyond the tensions between activism and enterprise. They trace the everyday renewable energy actions of a growing 'epistemic community' of climate activists who are dispersed across organizational boundaries and domains. This book is testament to a new way of understanding activism as an organizational force that brings about the transition towards sustainability across business and society and is of interest to social science scholars of business, renewable energy and sustainable development.
The burgeoning bottled water industry presents a paradox: Why do people choose expensive, environmentally destructive bottled water, rather than cheaper, sustainable, and more rigorously regulated tap water? The Profits of Distrust links citizens' choices about the water they drink to civic life more broadly, marshalling a rich variety of data on public opinion, consumer behavior, political participation, geography, and water quality. Basic services are the bedrock of democratic legitimacy. Failing, inequitable basic services cause citizen-consumers to abandon government in favor of commercial competitors. This vicious cycle of distrust undermines democracy while commercial firms reap the profits of distrust – disproportionately so from the poor and racial/ethnic minority communities. But the vicious cycle can also be virtuous: excellent basic services build trust in government and foster greater engagement between citizens and the state. Rebuilding confidence in American democracy starts with literally rebuilding the basic infrastructure that sustains life.
What would development look like if its practitioners and scholars were 'against NGOs,' challenging common sense about them? This book presents a critical perspective on NGOs, describing how they emerged as key agents of development over time. Through an interpretative history based on Gramscian concepts it shows how civil society organizations were gradually enlisted in development as non-state technocratic actors. The book argues that management studies and development studies emerged as commonsensical explanations for capitalist crises. Each offered complementary solutions to balance the needs of capital and society, in particular historical circumstances. These solutions also situated civil society as agents of development and vectors of management. Against NGOs fills a gap within the literature of management and development studies through its original discussion of their historical interconnections and shared themes. The book raises provocative questions on what forms of knowledge-politics can respond productively to the crises of our contemporary moment.
To look forward, it is necessary to look back and learn. History is more than just facts about the past; it is a narrative told from a particular perspective. A proverb from Africa, 'Until lions have their own historians, tales of the hunt shall always glorify the hunter,' captures this best. Most of the scholarship about psychological assessment comes from very specific nationalities and cultures, which does not truly reflect the diversity and breadth of histories pertaining to the field. Covering 50 countries, this collection gives voice to those that have previously been under represented and sometimes marginalized. This book not only describes important moments in psychological assessment from around the globe, but also equips readers with the tools to map the future of psychological assessment across nations. It advocates for a more globally inclusive science of assessment that holds promise for enhancing creativity and innovation in the field.
Christopher O’Leary provides a fresh perspective on prosocial working choices in this first substantive critique of Public Service Motivation (PSM). The book reviews concepts of PSM and research to date and explores the rationales and aims of public and third sector workers before proposing alternative theories for people’s motivations to serve.
Using quantitative and qualitative evidence, Sumner shows how consumer boycotts can work to dissuade companies from donating money to politicians, but may also encourage companies to attempt influence by largely invisible means. Boycotts do not work as many people expect – by threatening sales. Instead, Sumner shows how boycotts are less a statement of consumer behaviour than a way for people to signal their political inclinations, and they primarily hurt companies by tarnishing their reputation. Political influence is about building relationships, which means that companies have many more options for influence than just PAC contributions and formal lobbying. With these options available, companies can decide how to influence politics when they need to, and the tarnish of boycotts to a company's image can push some businesses to pursue options that are less noticeable to the public.
Artificial Intelligence, or AI, is set to redefine our day-to-day activities. Many companies across the globe are engaged in doing research on the application of AI in almost each and every aspect of our life. Many companies have already integrated AI in their manufacturing, supply chain, marketing and aftersales operations, but there is a lot that needs to be done to capitalize the full potential of this technology. International Perspectives on Artificial Intelligence is an attempt to put together the work done across various countries on adapting and integrating AI not only in organizations but also at individual and social levels.
Inclusive Business Models talks about organizations that employ principles of business to address the needs of the poor. It takes an analytical approach to derive insights about business models by comparison with other inclusive models seen within the same sector and through comparisons with models from a different sector. This cross sector comparison, especially with a number of case studies, would enable readers to cumulate their learning, and act as a guide to management students, practicing managers and entrepreneurs for understanding and analyzing any business model that intends or claims to be inclusive. This book is beneficial for students of entrepreneurship, social enterprises and human resource management. Sections of this book would be relevant for courses on social enterprises, developmental economics and inclusive business models taught globally, given that India today has emerged as a hotbed of experiments and innovations to deal with the problems of poverty and inequality.
The widespread promotion of management ideas, their regular inclusion in textbooks and business school curricula and their use in organizational change programs has engendered debates about the impact of these ideas on management and organizational practice. Based on analyses of managerial audience members' activities and related meaning-making prior to, during and after guru events with leading management thinkers, this book sheds new light on how management practitioners come to use management ideas in the different relevant contexts of their working lives. The authors argue that a broader, more differentiated and more dynamic view of managerial audiences is essential in understanding the impact of management ideas as well as the nature of contemporary managerial work. For scholars and students in organisation studies, knowledge management and management consultancy, as well as reflective management practitioners.
This book focuses on the practical application of statistical techniques for assessing measurement invariance with less emphasis on theoretical development or exposition. Instead, it describes the methods using a pedagogical framework followed by extensive illustrations that demonstrate how to use software to analyze real data. The chapters illustrate the practical methods to assess measurement invariance and shows how to apply them to a range of data. The computer syntax and data sets used in this book are available for download here: people.umass.edu/cswells.
When the scale and scope of influence that a corporation wields is so great that it eclipses that of nearly all other corporations combined, it attains megacorporate status. Whelan proposes that, amongst the current big tech cohort, it is only Alphabet, the parent company of Google, that can be categorized as such. In advancing a novel philosophical perspective, and aspiring to an amoral ideal of analysis, Whelan reveals Alphabet's activities to be informed by the ideology of infinite times, consequently transforming how we experience the past, present and the future at personal and social levels. By shining a light on such corporate existential impacts, Megacorporation: The Infinite Times of Alphabet opens up a new field of research that makes the philosophical analysis of business and society an everyday concern. This novel study on corporate social influence will appeal to readers interested in big tech, business and society, political economy and organization studies.
Global climate solutions depend on low-carbon energy transitions in developing countries, but little is known about how those will unfold. Examining the transitions of Brazil and South Africa, Hochstetler reveals how choices about wind and solar power respond to four different constellations of interests and institutions, or four simultaneous political economies of energy transition. The political economy of climate change set Brazil and South Africa on different tracks, with South Africa's coal-based electricity system fighting against an existential threat. Since deforestation dominates Brazil's climate emissions, climate concerns were secondary there for electricity planning. Both saw significant mobilization around industrial policy and cost and consumption issues, showing the importance of economic considerations for electricity choices in emerging economies. Host communities resisted Brazilian wind power, but accepted other forms. Hochstetler argues that national energy transition finally depends on the intersection of these political economies, with South Africa illustrating a politicized transition mode and Brazil presenting a bureaucracy-dominant one.
With approximately 50 million people across the globe considered expatriates (persons living and working abroad for a limited time), global mobility is an important issue for individuals, organisations, and national governments, and a major research stream in universities and business schools. Written by a team of internationally renowned scholars from around the world, this volume summarises what is known about the management of global mobility and sets an agenda for future research. It also offers a comprehensive overview of the practical implications for organisations that manage expatriates, and individuals who are currently or aspiring expatriates. Providing an accessible and globally relevant introduction to the subject of expatriation and global mobility, this book will appeal to postgraduate, MBA, and EMBA students studying global mobility or international human resource management. It will also be of interest to practitioners, such as human resource managers and global mobility managers, who would like to gain a better understanding of the expatriation process.