To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Presents a wealth of original research findings on how medieval ports actually worked, providing new insights on shipping, trade, port society and culture, and systems of regional and international integration.
Shows how Britain and its empire was not a strong centralised imperial state and that it was only through manifold activities taking place in different colonial centres with varied colonial arrangements that the surge in piracy in this period was contained and reduced.
A survey of the activities of the British navy in the Caribbean from the voyages of sixteenth century English adventurers such as John Hawkins and Francis Drake through the great wars of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries against the Dutch, Spanish and French and Britain's declining role thereafter.
Recent discussion, academic publications and many of the national exhibitions relating to the Great War at sea have focussed on capital ships, Jutland and perhaps U-boats. Very little has been published about the crucial role played by fishermen, fishing vessels and coastal communities all round the British Isles. Yet fishermen and armed fishing craft were continually on the maritime front line throughout the conflict; they formed the backbone of the Auxiliary Patrol and were in constant action against-U-boats or engaged on unrelenting minesweeping duties. Approximately 3000 fishing vessels were requisitioned and armed by the Admiralty and more than 39,000 fishermen joined the Trawler Section of the Royal Naval Reserve. The class and cultural gap between working fishermen and many RN officers was enormous. This book examines the multifaceted role that fishermen and the fish trade played throughout the conflict. It examines the reasons why, in an age of dreadnoughts and other high-tech military equipment, so many fishermen and fishing vessels were called upon to play such a crucial role in the littoral war against mines and U-boats, not only around the British Isles but also off the coasts of various other theatres of war. It will analyse the nature of the fishing industry's war-time involvement and also the contribution that non-belligerent fishing vessels continued to play in maintaining the beleaguered nation's food supplies.
In a time of great need for Britain, a small coterie of influential businessmen gained access to secret information on industrial mobilization as advisers to the Principal Supply Officers Committee. They provided the state with priceless advice, but, as "insiders" utilised their access to information to build a business empire at a fraction of the normal costs. Outsiders, in contrast, lacked influence and were forced together into a defensive "ring" or cartel – which effectively fixed prices for British warships. By the 1930s, the cartel grew into one of the most sophisticated profiteering groups of its day.This book examines the relationship between the private naval armaments industry, businessmen, and the British government defence planners between the wars. It reassesses the concept of the military-industrial complex through the impact of disarmament upon private industry, the role of leading industrialists in supply and procurement policy, and the successes and failings of government organisation. It blends together political, naval, and business history in new ways, and, by situating the business activities of industrialists alongside their work as government advisors, sheds new light on the operation of the British state.This is the story of how these men profited while effectively saving the National Government from itself.
This book presents the challenges faced by maritime merchants operating in the North Atlantic in the early modern period, and examines the opportunities, aspirations, and methods utilised in the pursuit of profitable trade. The book collects nine essays and a reflective conclusion, which cumulatively explore the major themes of trade within empires; growth of trade; new initiatives within trade empires; government initiatives in relation to maritime mercantile trade; merchant migration; and changes in international trade. The book attempts to provide scholarly insight and perspectives into early modern economic life, through the maritime mercantile activities of various European and North American nations.
This volume collects a series of reports from maritime historians across Europe, aiming to provide a coherent historical trajectory of the lives of European sailors and their dealings with the maritime labour market; the reports were presented at The Hague's 1994 conference, 'European Sailors, 1570–1870.' The core areas discussed in the first half of the volume include: the national maritime labour market; the international maritime labour market; working conditions for sailors; and career patterns. The second half features reports detailing the sailing history of a selection European countries:- the Netherlands; England; Scotland; Britain as a whole; Iceland; Norway; Finland; Denmark; Germany; Belgium; France; and Spain. Each report responds to a set of questions distributed by the commissioning editors, so that the data from each country can be compared and contrasted. Questions considered include the number of sailors represented in the navy, mercantile, marine, or whaling industries; the socio-economic background of sailors; wage details; recruitment policies; strikes; mutinies; and career mobility amongst sailors. The volume provides an overview of the history of sailors to enable a strengthening of data in the field of maritime history as it continues to develop and extend.
This book collects seventeen previously published essays by John Armstrong concerning the British coastal trade. Armstrong is a leading maritime historian and the essays provided here offer a thorough exploration of the British coastal trade, his specialisation, during the period of industrialisation and technological development that would lead to modern shipping. The purpose is to demonstrate the whether or not the coastal trade was the main carrier of internal trade and a pioneer of the technical developments that modernised the shipping industry. Each essay makes an original contribution to the field and covers a broad range of topics, including the fluctuating importance of the coastal trade and size of the coastal fleet over time; the relationship between coastal shipping, canals, and railways; a comparison between the coastal liner and coastal tramp trade; the significance of the river Thames in enabling trade; coastal trade economics; maritime freight rates; the early twentieth century shipping depression; competition between coastal liner companies; and a detailed study of the role of the government in coastal shipping. The book also contains case studies of the London coal trade; coastal trade through the River Dee port; and the Liverpool-Hull trade route. It contains a foreword, introduction, and bibliography of Armstrong's writings. There is no overall conclusion, except the assertion that coastal shipping plays a tremendous role in British maritime history, and a call for further research into the field.
To its many tourists and visitors, the Tuscan landscape evokes a sense of timelessness and harmony. Yet, the upheavals of the twentieth century profoundly reshaped rural Tuscany. Uncovering the experiences of ordinary people, Professor Gaggio traces the history of Tuscany to show how the region's modern conflicts and aspirations have contributed to forging its modern-day beauty. He demonstrates how the rise of Fascism was particularly violent in rural Tuscany, and how struggles between Communist sharecroppers and their landlords raged long after the end of the dictatorship. The flight from the farms in the 1950s and 1960s disorientated many Tuscans, prompting ambitious development projects, and in more recent decades the emergence of the heritage industry has raised the spectre of commodification. This book tells the story of how many Tuscans themselves have become tourists in their own land – forced to adapt to rapid change and reinvent their landscape in the process.
William Marshall (1745–1818), from farming stock, became a farmer and then estate manager and land agent after several years spent conducting business in the West Indies. A pioneer of scientific methods of farming, he published widely on best practice, and was also known for his geographical surveys of agriculture. This two-volume 1789 work covers the county of Gloucestershire, but also includes dairy management in north Wiltshire and the orchards and fruit products of Herefordshire. A hands-on reporter, Marshall stayed in the vale of Gloucester to learn the art of cheese-making, and then spent a year in various locations studying local farming practice. Volume 2 covers the Cotswold Hills and the vale of Berkeley, with detailed descriptions of dairy farming in these areas. A section is devoted to Herefordshire, its orchards, and the manufacturing processes and marketing of its famous 'fruit liquors', cider and perry.
William Marshall (1745–1818), from farming stock, became a farmer and then estate manager and land agent after several years spent conducting business in the West Indies. A pioneer of scientific methods of farming, he published widely on best practice, and was also known for his geographical surveys of agriculture. This two-volume 1789 work covers the county of Gloucestershire, but also includes dairy management in north Wiltshire and the orchards and fruit products of Herefordshire. A hands-on reporter, Marshall stayed in the vale of Gloucester to learn the art of cheese-making, and then spent a year in various locations studying local farming practice. Volume 1 describes the rural economy of the area, with the different activities suited to the different geographical locations and soil types, giving information on the types of land tenure, crops and animals, and providing a list of 'provincialisms' which offer fascinating insights into the Gloucestershire dialect.
The Scottish doctor Henry Faulds (1843–1930) is best remembered for his role in the history of fingerprinting. His strong religious faith had first led him to missionary work in India and then, from 1874, in Japan. He worked there as a surgeon in the mission hospital at Tsukiji, near Tokyo, where he also established a medical school and a school for the blind. It was his discovery of the impressions of thumbprints on ancient Japanese pottery which led to his development of a fingerprinting system and his championing of it as a forensic tool. The present work, part-travelogue, part-journal, was first published in 1885. It remains an engaging account of Japanese life, customs, geography and natural history, interwoven with discussions of topics such as education, language, and the future of the country. There are characterful line drawings throughout. Faulds' Dactylography (1912) is also reissued in the Cambridge Library Collection.
This important collection, published in two volumes in 1770–1 and reissued here in one, contains accounts of notable Iberian and Dutch voyages in the southern hemisphere, translated and edited by Alexander Dalrymple (1737–1808). Hydrographer to the Admiralty from 1795, Dalrymple produced this work as part of his research into the belief at the time that there existed an undiscovered continent in the South Pacific. These volumes were intended to demonstrate the knowledge of the region to date. The first volume covers sixteenth-century Spanish and Portuguese voyages, beginning with Ferdinand Magellan and including those of Juan Fernández, Álvaro de Mendaña y Neira and Pedro Fernandes de Queirós. The second volume contains the seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Dutch voyages of Jacob Le Mair and Willem Schouten, Abel Tasman and Jacob Roggeveen. This volume also contains a chronological table of discoveries in the southern hemisphere since 1501.
This highly illustrated 1900 work on Egypt old and new by John Ward (1832–1912) seeks to guide the visitor to the ancient sites while also remarking on the radical changes to the economy and the development of the modern state since the intervention of the British government in 1883 and the appointment of Lord Cromer as consul-general and effective ruler. This blending of ancient and modern can be seen in discussions of Port Said ('not an Egyptian town at all') alongside the abandoned and silted-up delta ports of the Egyptians, Ptolemies and Ottomans. Thebes is discussed both as a city of the living and a city of the dead, and Ward notes approvingly the flattening of the ancient town of Assouan (Aswan), to form the foundations for new public buildings, on the orders of Lord Kitchener. Ward's subsequent book, Our Sudan (1905), is also reissued in this series.
Little is known about the anonymous author of this book, later identified as one Charles Leslie, whose family had strong Caribbean interests. In thirteen 'letters', Leslie covers Jamaica's early colonial history, its laws, the lives of its governors and the exploits of famous Caribbean pirates. He provides important evidence for the conditions in which slaves were traded and kept, and describes the slaves' beliefs and customs. Leslie's book was highly topical: it first appeared as 'A new and exact account of Jamaica' in Edinburgh in 1739, following years of growing hostility between Spain and Britain over trade in the Caribbean. That summer, Vice-Admiral Vernon was sent there to destroy as many Spanish ships and settlements as possible, and in November he captured Portobello. This book reproduces Leslie's suitably retitled second edition (London, 1740), which contained an additional chapter. A Dublin edition followed in 1741, and a French translation in 1751.
The tale of the ill-fated HMS Wager gripped the public's imagination, feeding its taste for dramatic accounts of survival against the odds. Part of George Anson's squadron that had been sent to harass Spanish ships in the Pacific, she was wrecked after rounding Cape Horn in 1741. The majority of the survivors, led by ship's gunner John Bulkeley, mutinied against their irascible and unpredictable captain and chose to make their own way home in what would become one of the most hazardous journeys ever recorded. Their journey took them over 2,000 miles in an open boat through ferocious seas, enduring starvation and extreme privation. Two years after the disaster, the thirty remaining men arrived back in England. Bulkeley and ship's carpenter John Cummins published this account in 1743. Also reissued in this series is the 1768 account of John Byron, who had been midshipman aboard the Wager.
A staunch supporter of exploration, Sir John Barrow (1764–1848) backed expeditions to Africa, Australia, the Arctic and the Antarctic during his forty-year tenure as Second Secretary to the Admiralty. In his early career, he served as an aide to the diplomat Lord Macartney, joining him on his 1792–4 embassy to China, and during his later governorship of the Cape of Good Hope. Barrow was a prolific author, setting new standards of detail and accuracy for travel writing. In this 1806 account, he recounts the embassy's journey to Cochinchina (now Vietnam) via Brazil and Java. In one of the first illustrated accounts of the country in English, Barrow applies his boundless curiosity and elegant style to history, politics, local customs, and the flora and fauna. His autobiography and several other volumes of his travel writing are also reissued in the Cambridge Library Collection.
This slim volume, published anonymously in 1771 within months of the Endeavour's return from Captain Cook's first voyage, predates Hawkesworth's publication of Cook's own journal in his Voyages (1773, also reissued). It has been attributed variously to two of the ship's petty officers (Orton and Perry); Sydney Parkinson, draughtsman; his employer Joseph Banks; or the Swedish botanist Solander. The story moves rapidly, with well-chosen detail: mines that 'destroy two thousand slaves yearly', or the brown granite of a communal laundry. The author describes marine animals, Tahitian and New Zealand society, and foodstuffs including a 'large milky farinaceous fruit, which when baked resembles bread' - the breadfruit that Joseph Banks later decided to introduce to the Caribbean, leading to the ill-fated Bounty voyage (Bligh's account of which is also reissued). The author reports making 'considerable progress in learning the language of the country', and concludes with a short list of Tahitian words.