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In this Element, the gas-particle flow problem is formulated with momentum and thermal slip that introduces two relaxation times. Starting from acoustical propagation in a medium in equilibrium, the relaxation-wave equation in airfoil coordinates is derived though a Galilean transformation for uniform flow. Steady planar small perturbation supersonic flow is studied in detail according to Whitham's higher-order waves. The signals owing to wall boundary conditions are damped along the frozen-Mach wave, and are both damped and diffusive along an effective-intermediate Mach wave and diffusive along the equilibrium Mach wave where the bulk of the disturbance propagates. The surface pressure coefficient is obtained exactly for small-disturbance theory, but it is considerably simplified for the small particle-to-gas mass loading approximation, equivalent to a simple-wave approximation. Other relaxation-wave problems are discussed. Martian dust-storm properties in terms of gas-particle flow parameters are estimated.
Turbulence and the associated turbulent transport of scalar and vector fields is a classical physics problem that has dazzled scientists for over a century, yet many fundamental questions remain. Igor Rogachevskii, in this concise book, systematically applies various analytical methods to the turbulent transfer of temperature, particles and magnetic field. Introducing key concepts in turbulent transport including essential physics principles and statistical tools, this interdisciplinary book is suitable for a range of readers such as theoretical physicists, astrophysicists, geophysicists, plasma physicists, and researchers in fluid mechanics and related topics in engineering. With an overview to various analytical methods such as mean-field approach, dimensional analysis, multi-scale approach, quasi-linear approach, spectral tau approach, path-integral approach and analysis based on budget equations, it is also an accessible reference tool for advanced graduates, PhD students and researchers.
Designed for a single-semester course, this concise and approachable text covers all of the essential concepts needed to understand modern communications systems. Balancing theory with practical implementation, it presents key ideas as a chain of functions for a transmitter and receiver, covering topics such as amplification, up- and down-conversion, modulation, dispersive channel compensation, error-correcting codes, acquisition, multiple-antenna and multiple-input multiple-output antenna techniques, and higher level communications functions. Analog modulations are also presented, and all of the basic and advanced mathematics, statistics, and Fourier theory needed to understand the concepts covered is included. Supported online with PowerPoint slides, a solutions manual, and additional MATLAB-based simulation problems, it is ideal for a first course in communications for senior undergraduate and graduate students.
Light scattering is one of the most well-studied phenomena in nature. It occupies a central place in optical physics, and plays a key role in multiple fields of science and engineering. This volume presents a comprehensive introduction to the subject. For the first time, the authors bring together in a self-contained and systematic manner, the physical concepts and mathematical tools that are used in the modern theory of light scattering and transport, presenting them in a clear, accessible style. The power of these tools is demonstrated by a framework that links various aspects of the subject: scattering theory to radiative transport, radiative transport to diffusion, and field correlations to the statistics of speckle patterns. For graduate students and researchers in optical physics and optical engineering, this book is an invaluable resource on the interaction of light with complex media and the theory of light scattering in disordered and complex systems.
Accurate, robust and fast image reconstruction is a critical task in many scientific, industrial and medical applications. Over the last decade, image reconstruction has been revolutionized by the rise of compressive imaging. It has fundamentally changed the way modern image reconstruction is performed. This in-depth treatment of the subject commences with a practical introduction to compressive imaging, supplemented with examples and downloadable code, intended for readers without extensive background in the subject. Next, it introduces core topics in compressive imaging – including compressed sensing, wavelets and optimization – in a concise yet rigorous way, before providing a detailed treatment of the mathematics of compressive imaging. The final part is devoted to recent trends in compressive imaging: deep learning and neural networks. With an eye to the next decade of imaging research, and using both empirical and mathematical insights, it examines the potential benefits and the pitfalls of these latest approaches.
Practical Techniques in Molecular Biotechnology intends to familiarise students with the basics of the well-known experiments of molecular biotechnology and related courses like chemical biotechnology and cell biology. The content of the book will be useful in strengthening the basic skills and help students to apply the concepts to real-world problems. This book emphasises important concepts like bioanalytical techniques, biochemical analysis of proteins, recombinant DNA, and protein technology etc. The text will help students to understand the theoretical aspects of the techniques and provide experience with hands-on techniques to demonstrate practical troubleshooting and data analysis. The text is supported with diagrams, data, summaries for the quick recap and appendices with useful protocols and calculation methods.
This comprehensive textbook highlights the fundamental concepts and design principles related to water and wastewater engineering. Problems and issues arising from the lack of sustainable conventional treatment practices and potential methods for resolving problems are discussed in detail. The book starts with an introduction to water resources and the need for water and wastewater treatment, followed by evaluation of water demand in terms of quantity and quality. Mass transfer and transformation processes that are necessary for understanding the complexity of water pollution issues and treatment processes are discussed in detail. Pedagogical features include learning objectives, chapter-wise study outlines, detailed solutions to important problems and self-evaluation exercises with answers. Case studies for specific water treatment requirements are provided to enable the students to choose and apply only relevant treatment processes in their design.
Learn how to analyse and manage evolutionary and sequential user behaviours in modern networks, and how to optimize network performance by using indirect reciprocity, evolutionary games, and sequential decision making. Understand the latest theory without the need to go through the details of traditional game theory. With practical management tools to regulate user behaviour, and simulations and experiments with real data sets, this is an ideal tool for graduate students and researchers working in networking, communications, and signal processing.
Suitable for both postgraduate students and researchers in the field of operator theory, this book is an excellent resource providing the complete proof of the Brown-Douglas-Fillmore theorem. The book starts with a rapid introduction to the standard preparatory material in basic operator theory taught at the first year graduate level course. To quickly get to the main points of the proof of the theorem, several topics that aid in the understanding of the proof are included in the appendices. These topics serve the purpose of providing familiarity with a large variety of tools used in the proof and adds to the flexibility of reading them independently.
Condensing 40 years of teaching experience, this unique textbook will provide students with an unrivalled understanding of the fundamentals of fluid mechanics, and enable them to place that understanding firmly within a biological context. Each chapter introduces, explains, and expands a core concept in biofluid mechanics, establishing a firm theoretical framework for students to build upon in further study. Practical biofluid applications, clinical correlations, and worked examples throughout the book provide real-world scenarios to help students quickly master key theoretical topics. Examples are drawn from biology, medicine, and biotechnology with applications to normal function, disease, and devices, accompanied by over 500 figures to reinforce student understanding. Featuring over 120 multicomponent end-of-chapter problems, flexible teaching pathways to enable tailor-made course structures, and extensive Matlab and Maple code examples, this is the definitive textbook for advanced undergraduate and graduate students studying a biologically-grounded course in fluid mechanics.
This innovative approach to teaching the finite element method blends theoretical, textbook-based learning with practical application using online and video resources. This hybrid teaching package features computational software such as MATLAB®, and tutorials presenting software applications such as PTC Creo Parametric, ANSYS APDL, ANSYS Workbench and SolidWorks, complete with detailed annotations and instructions so students can confidently develop hands-on experience. Suitable for senior undergraduate and graduate level classes, students will transition seamlessly between mathematical models and practical commercial software problems, empowering them to advance from basic differential equations to industry-standard modelling and analysis. Complete with over 120 end-of chapter problems and over 200 illustrations, this accessible reference will equip students with the tools they need to succeed in the workplace.
An introduction to the theory and engineering practice that underpins the component design and analysis of radial flow turbocompressors. Drawing upon an extensive theoretical background and years of practical experience, the authors provide descriptions of applications, concepts, component design, analysis tools, performance maps, flow stability, and structural integrity, with illustrative examples. Features wide coverage of all types of radial compressor over many applications unified by the consistent use of dimensional analysis. Discusses the methods needed to analyse the performance, flow, and mechanical integrity that underpin the design of efficient centrifugal compressors with good flow range and stability. Includes explanation of the design of all radial compressor components, including inlet guide vanes, impellers, diffusers, volutes, return channels, de-swirl vanes and side-streams. Suitable as a reference for advanced students of turbomachinery, and a perfect tool for practising mechanical and aerospace engineers already within the field and those just entering it.
Understand multiphase flows using multidisciplinary knowledge in physical principles, modelling theories, and engineering practices. This essential text methodically introduces the important concepts, governing mechanisms, and state-of-the-art theories, using numerous real-world applications, examples, and problems. Covers all major types of multiphase flows, including gas-solid, gas-liquid (sprays or bubbling), liquid-solid, and gas-solid-liquid flows. Introduces the volume-time-averaged transport theorems and associated Lagrangian-trajectory modelling and Eulerian-Eulerian multi-fluid modelling. Explains typical computational techniques, measurement methods and four representative subjects of multiphase flow systems. Suitable as a reference for engineering students, researchers, and practitioners, this text explores and applies fundamental theories to the analysis of system performance using a case-based approach.
Discover the fundamental principles of biomedical measurement design and performance evaluation with this hands-on guide. Whether you develop measurement instruments or use them in novel ways, this practical text will prepare you to be an effective generator and consumer of biomedical data. Designed for both classroom instruction and self-study, it explains how information is encoded into recorded data and can be extracted and displayed in an accessible manner. Describes and integrates experimental design, performance assessment, classification, and system modelling. Combines mathematical concepts with computational models, providing the tools needed to answer advanced biomedical questions. Includes MATLAB® scripts throughout to help readers model all types of biomedical systems, and contains numerous homework problems, with a solutions manual available online. This is an essential text for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in bioengineering, electrical and computer engineering, computer science, medical physics, and anyone preparing for a career in biomedical sciences and engineering.
Providing the first truly comprehensive overview of Network Tomography - a novel network monitoring approach that makes use of inference techniques to reconstruct the internal network state from external vantage points - this rigorous yet accessible treatment of the fundamental theory and algorithms of network tomography covers the most prominent results demonstrated on real-world data, including identifiability conditions, measurement design algorithms, and network state inference algorithms, alongside practical tools for applying these techniques to real-world network management. It describes the main types of mathematical problems, along with their solutions and properties, and emphasizes the actions that can be taken to improve the accuracy of network tomography. With proofs and derivations introduced in an accessible language for easy understanding, this is an essential resource for professional engineers, academic researchers, and graduate students in network management and network science.
Discover a novel, self-contained approach to an important technical area, providing both theoretical background and practical details. Coverage includes mechanics and physical metallurgy, as well as study of both established and novel procedures such as indentation plastometry. Numerical simulation (FEM modelling) is explored thoroughly, and issues of scale are discussed in depth. Discusses procedures designed to explore plasticity under various conditions, and relates sample responses to deformation mechanisms, including microstructural effects. Features references throughout to industrial processing and component usage conditions, to a wide range of metallic alloys, and to effects of residual stresses, anisotropy and inhomogeneity within samples. A perfect tool for materials scientists, engineers and researchers involved in mechanical testing (of metals), and those involved in the development of novel materials and components.
An optics experiment is the product of intricate planning and imagination, best learned through practice. Bringing forth the creative side of experimental physics through optics, this book introduces its readers to the fundamentals of optical design through seven key experiments. The book includes several topics to support readers preparing to enter industrial or academic research laboratories. Optical sources, model testing and fitting, noise, geometric optics, optical processes such as diffraction, interference, polarization, and optical cavities, are just some of the key topics included. Coding tutorials are provided in the book and online to further develop readers' experience with design and experimental analysis. This guide is an invaluable introduction to the creative and explorative world of laboratory optics.
The world population is growing, yet we continue to pursue higher levels of well-being, and as a result, increasing energy demands and the destructive effects of climate change are just two of many major threats that we face. Engineers play an indispensable role in addressing these challenges, and whether they recognize it or not, in doing so they will inevitably encounter a whole range of ethical choices and dilemmas. This book examines and explains the ethical issues in engineering, showing how they affect assessment, design, sustainability, and globalization, and explores many recent examples including the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, Dieselgate, 'naked scanners' at airports, and biofuel production. Detailed but accessible, the book will enable advanced engineering students and professional engineers to better identify and address the ethical problems in their practice.
This Element presents a unified computational fluid dynamics framework from rarefied to continuum regimes. The framework is based on the direct modelling of flow physics in a discretized space. The mesh size and time step are used as modelling scales in the construction of discretized governing equations. With the variation-of-cell Knudsen number, continuous modelling equations in different regimes have been obtained, and the Boltzmann and Navier-Stokes equations become two limiting equations in the kinetic and hydrodynamic scales. The unified algorithms include the discrete velocity method (DVM)–based unified gas-kinetic scheme (UGKS), the particlebased unified gas-kinetic particle method (UGKP), and the wave and particle–based unified gas-kinetic wave-particle method (UGKWP). The UGKWP is a multi-scale method with the particle for non-equilibrium transport and wave for equilibrium evolution. The particle dynamics in the rarefied regime and the hydrodynamic flow solver in the continuum regime have been unified according to the cell's Knudsen number.
foundations of duct acoustics to the acoustic design of duct systems, through practical modeling, optimization and measurement techniques. Discover in-depth analyses of one- and three-dimensional models of sound generation, propagation and radiation, as techniques for assembling acoustic models of duct systems from simpler components are described. Identify the weaknesses of mathematical models in use and improve them by measurement when needed. Cope with challenges in acoustic design, and improve understanding of the underlying physics, by using the tools described. An essential reference for engineers and researchers who work on the acoustics of fluid machinery ductworks.