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Digital platforms controlled by Alibaba, Alphabet, Amazon, Facebook, Netflix, Tencent and Uber have transformed not only the ways we do business, but also the very nature of people's everyday lives. It is of vital importance that we understand the economic principles governing how these platforms operate. This book explains the driving forces behind any platform business with a focus on network effects. The authors use short case studies and real-world applications to explain key concepts such as how platforms manage network effects and which price and non-price strategies they choose. This self-contained text is the first to offer a systematic and formalized account of what platforms are and how they operate, concisely incorporating path-breaking insights in economics over the last twenty years.
Regulation is one of the tools used by governments to control monopolistic behaviour in the provision of public services such as electricity, transport or water. Technological and financial innovations have changed these public services markets since the 1990s, bringing new regulatory challenges, including technological and financial ones. This book demonstrates that basic regulatory theory and tools can address these new challenges, in addition to more traditional regulatory issues, both in developed and developing economies. The theory covered in the book is robust enough to guide regulators in multiple contexts, including those resulting from the effects of financial or political constraints, evolving market structures or the need to adapt to institutional weaknesses, climate change and poverty concerns that demand regulatory intervention. A bridge between theory and an evolving global practice, this book mobilizes the lessons of the past to analyse the future of economic regulation.
Industrial consolidation, digital platforms, and changing political views have spurred debate about the interplay between public and private power in the United States and have created a bipartisan appetite for potential antitrust reform that would mark the most profound shift in US competition policy in the past half-century. While neo-Brandeisians call for a reawakening of antitrust in the form of a return to structuralism and a concomitant rejection of economic analysis founded on competitive effects, proponents of the status quo look on this state of affairs with alarm. Scrutinizing the latest evidence, Alan J. Devlin finds a middle ground. US antitrust laws warrant revision, he argues, but with far more nuance than current debates suggest. He offers a new vision of antitrust reform, achieved by refining our enforcement policies and jettisoning an unwarranted obsession with minimizing errors of economic analysis.
Infrastructures are complex networks dominated by tight interdependencies between technologies and institutions. These networks supply services crucial to modern societies, services that can be provided only if several critical functions are fulfilled. This book proposes a theoretical framework with a set of concepts to analyse rigorously how these critical functions require coordination within the technological dimension as well as within the institutional dimension. It also shows how fundamental the alignment between these two dimensions is. It argues that this alignment operates along different layers characterized successively by the structure, governance and transactions that connect technologies and institutions. These issues of coordination and alignment, at the core of the book, are substantiated through in-depth case studies of networks from the energy, water and wastewater, and transportation sectors.
This is the first academic monograph on the new competition law in Hong Kong. It provides an overview of the historical background of the Competition Ordinance, highlighting the debate and the process that led to the adoption of the Ordinance. It offers detailed comparative and theoretical analysis of the key provisions of the Ordinance, focusing on the First Conduct Rule, the Second Conduct Rule, the exclusions and exemptions, and the procedural provisions. It draws on overseas legislation and jurisprudence that inspired the provisions in the Ordinance and incorporates a detailed examination of the latest cases decided by the Competition Tribunal. It engages in relevant academic debates and theoretical analysis of how competition law in Hong Kong should develop in light of its unique economic and political contexts. It concludes by setting forth of a set of recommendations for further reform.
Natural gas pricing should be as critically important to the general public as it is to industry specialists. Pricing is the basis of balancing the interests of European and Asian consumers of power and electricity with those of the limited number of potential suppliers of natural gas. Given that natural gas is a foundational transition fuel source that will not be supplanted by renewals for many, many years, the consequences of market failure from incorrect pricing mechanisms could result in the industry missing the new investment cycle. In addressing the critical balancing role of natural gas pricing, 'Foundations of Natural Gas Price Formation' presents an in-depth analysis of the fundamentals of natural gas price formation and outlines the distinctive characteristics of natural gas that make it a unique commodity by examining the specific factors underpinning gas pricing that result in a hybrid pricing system special to natural gas. The book argues that the patrons of spot pricing through gas hubs are promoting an incorrect understanding of gas markets that will lead to market failure and to potential critical supply shortages in the near future. 'Foundations of Natural Gas Price Formation' defends the system of oil-indexed pricing as an accurate, market-based mechanism that has stood the test of time.
Competition policy debates on digital platform markets are often premised on the idea that market fragmentation and the standard forces of competition and entry may provide a potential solution to excessive concentration and market power. In this work, Francesco Ducci provides readers with a different perspective based on the theoretical lens of natural monopoly. Ducci explores this framework through the development of three case studies on horizontal search, e-commerce marketplaces, and ride-hailing platforms, investigating the strength and limit of potential (and often heterogeneous) sources of natural monopoly at play in each industry. Building on these case studies, the book then derives from the application of the natural monopoly framework general policy implications for digital industries by identifying the respective institutional flaws and shortcomings of ex ante and ex post approaches to market power as one of the central challenges in digital platform markets.
This book provides a critical perspective on contemporary debates on industrialisation in India. It aims to study the process of industrialisation at a conceptual level and articulate and contest the evolving debates and discourses. Instituting a market led growth in India ended in a trajectory that depends heavily on profit income led and corporate driven growth. However, the performances as well as fault lines assessed in terms of industrial growth are often restricted to a discourse on shifting relative importance of agriculture, industry and services and are largely pegged on the state versus private debate. It appears that the heterogeneous space of critical perspective tends to undermine the more fundamental questions that need to be raised in relation to the larger perspective of capitalist industrialisation in India. This book addresses these questions and provides insights into the complexities of the process and growth of industrialisation as it has played out in contemporary India.
Technology entrepreneurship has been receiving growing importance as an effective instrument to promote national economic growth, both from empirical researchers and policymakers. India has emerged as the third largest base for high-tech start-ups in the world. Although there is a surge in start-up creation rates in India, little is known about factors required for these start-ups to survive, sustain and grow into large enterprises, particularly in the context of emerging economies like India. This book reviews the entrepreneurial, firm-specific and external environment-specific aspects that influence the key lifecycle stages of high-tech start-ups and identifies the key factors that influence each milestone. Existing literature in this subject has limited studies on the structure of the high-tech start-up sector and processes and strategies adapted by them. This book aims to address this gap, analyzing case studies and empirical data, and provides a multidimensional framework to understand the life cycle of high-tech start-ups.
Lévêque recounts twenty revealing tales of real-life rivalry between firms across diverse industries, including wine, skiing, opera, video games and cruise liners. These entertaining and insightful narratives are informed by recent advances in economics, factoring in the many forces driving competition, including globalization and innovation. Divided into four sections, the book covers competition and the market; competition and variety; competition through innovation; and competition and equality. Read together, these stories also serve as building blocks to address the issue of whether competition between firms has entered a new era of increased intensity. This book will appeal to anyone, from company executives to consumers, who are interested in the economics of contemporary industry and want to incorporate a grasp of competition into their everyday decision-making. This book can also be used as a supplementary text in courses in microeconomics, business economics and industrial organisation.
For almost a century, big-time college athletics has been a wildly popular but consistently problematic part of American higher education. The challenges it poses to traditional academic values have been recognized from the start, but they have grown more ominous in recent decades, as cable television has become ubiquitous, commercial opportunities have proliferated, and athletic budgets have ballooned. In the second edition of his influential book Big-Time Sports in American Universities, Clotfelter continues to examine the role of athletics in American universities, building on his argument that commercial sports have become a core function of the universities that engage in them. Drawing on recent scandals on large-scale college campuses and updates on several high-profile court cases, Clotfelter brings clear economic analysis to the variety of problems that sports raise for university and public policy, providing the basis for the continuation of constructive conversations about the value of big-time sports in higher education.
The severe global financial crisis of 2008 could not be overcome without government interventions through industrial policy. This timely book analyses industrial policy from the perspectives of trade law and economics under the WTO system. The author expertly examines both general tools of protecting and supporting domestic producers and specific topics like special economic zones, localization, greening measures and creative economy. In addition to legal texts and jurisprudence, this book extensively utilizes other WTO materials to show what is actually discussed in WTO meetings and forums on relevant issues. Where applicable, the author advances practical recommendations for 'right' or 'optimal' industrial policy in certain contexts based on trade rules, case law and some countries' real experiences. The author concludes this work with some thoughts on concrete actions to be taken at the WTO and national levels and in academic circles in order to better tackle industrial policy issues.
Despite decades of industrialization, Johor remains an agricultural powerhouse. The state is Peninsular Malaysia’s largest contributor to agricultural gross domestic product, and its official agricultural productivity is Malaysia’s third highest. Johor’s agricultural strengths lie primarily in product specialization, namely the farming of oil palms, various fruits and vegetables, poultry, pigs, cut flowers, and ornamental fish. Johor’s production clusters have taken decades, if not centuries, to build up their regional dominance. Urbanization, often blamed for diminishing agriculture’s importance, has actually helped drive Johor’s farm growth, even until the present day. Johor’s agricultural sector will persist for at least another decade, but may become even more specialized.
In previous work, Gregory K. Dow created a broad and accessible overview of worker-controlled firms. In his new book, The Labor-Managed Firm: Theoretical Foundations, Dow provides the formal models that underpinned his earlier work, while developing promising new directions for economic research. Emphasizing that capital is alienable while labor is inalienable, Dow shows how this distinction, together with market imperfections, explains the rarity of labor-managed firms. This book uses modern microeconomics, exploits up-to-date empirical research, and constructs a unified theory that accounts for many facts about the behavior, performance, and design of labor-managed firms. With a large number of entirely new chapters, comprehensive updating of earlier material, a critique of the literature, and policy recommendations, here Dow presents the capstone work of his career, encompassing more than three decades of theoretical research.
Game theory has revolutionised our understanding of industrial organisation and the traditional theory of the firm. Despite these advances, industrial economists have tended to rely on a restricted set of tools from game theory, focusing on static and repeated games to analyse firm structure and behaviour. Luca Lambertini, a leading expert on the application of differential game theory to economics, argues that many dynamic phenomena in industrial organisation (such as monopoly, oligopoly, advertising, R&D races) can be better understood and analysed through the use of differential games. After illustrating the basic elements of the theory, Lambertini guides the reader through the main models, spanning from optimal control problems describing the behaviour of a monopolist through to oligopoly games in which firms' strategies include prices, quantities and investments. This approach will be of great value to students and researchers in economics and those interested in advanced applications of game theory.
This second edition of The Economics of Entrepreneurship is an essential resource for scholars following the current state of this fast-moving field, covering a broad range of topics in unparalleled depth. Designed to be used both as a textbook for specialist degree courses on the economics of entrepreneurship, and as a reference text for academic research in the field, the book draws on theoretical insights and recent empirical findings to show how economics can contribute to our understanding of entrepreneurship. New topics, such as crowdfunding, entrepreneurship education and microenterprise field experiments, appear for the first time, while existing treatments of topics like regional entrepreneurship, innovation and public policy are considerably deepened. Parker also discusses new empirical methods, including quasi-experimental methods and field experiments. Every section - indeed every page - of the new edition has been updated, resulting in a rigorous scientific account of entrepreneurship today.
In this anthology, editors Kym Anderson and Vicente Pinilla have gathered together some of the world's leading wine economists and economic historians to examine the development of national wine industries before and during the two waves of globalization. The empirically-based chapters analyze developments in all key wine-producing and consuming countries using a common methodology to explain long-term trends and cycles in wine production, consumption, and trade. The authors cover topics such as the role of new technologies, policies, and institutions, as well as exchange rate movements, international market developments, evolutions in grape varieties, and wine quality changes. The final chapter draws on an economic model of global wine markets, to project those markets to 2025 based on various assumptions about population and income growth, real exchange rates, and other factors. All authors of the book contributed to a unique global database of annual data back to the mid-nineteenth century which has been compiled by the book editors.
The most controversial area in competition policy is that of exclusionary practices, where actions are taken by dominant firms to deter competitors from challenging their market positions. Economists have been struggling to explain such conduct and to guide policy-makers in designing sensible enforcement rules. In this book, authors Chiara Fumagalli, Massimo Motta, and Claudio Calcagno explore predatory pricing, rebates, exclusive dealing, tying, and vertical foreclosure, through a blend of theory and practice. They develop a general framework which builds on and extends existing economic theories, drawing upon case law, discussions of cases and other practical considerations to identify workable criteria that can guide competition authorities to assess exclusionary practices. Along with analyses of policy implications and insights applied to case studies, the book provides practitioners with non-technical discussions of the issues at hand, while guiding economics students with dedicated technical sections with rigorous formal models.
The Intangible Economy: How Services Shape Global Production and Consumption studies aspects of the role of services in development as well as on particular sectoral issues, always with policy considerations lurking not far from the analysis. The volume highlights the evolution and significance of services in the global economy, including as a vehicle for development. It discusses the major pillars that hold the services infrastructure together, namely, its governance and financing mechanisms. Other chapters adopt more specific geographical or sectoral perspectives, including a regional study of the impact of services in economic integration in ASEAN; a country-level analysis of the role of services in economic and social upgrading in India; a look at industry-specific dynamics through the business process outsourcing model; and finally, a value chain view to understand how services are impacted on a granular or micro level by policies.
This invaluable book provides the foundations for a new theory of the firm, drawing on Birger Wernerfelt's landmark work on economic theory and the resource-based view of the firm. It addresses a vigorous and long-standing academic debate over what exactly a 'firm' is, both in the field of management and economics. Wernerfelt revisits his classic articles, including an extensively revised 'A Resource-Based View of the Firm' (1984), which have been updated and synthesized to provide precise and accessible concepts and predictions. By offering future directions for research and practice, this book will be of interest to students and scholars of management and economics alike.