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Building upon the award-winning second edition, this comprehensive textbook provides a fundamental understanding of the formative processes of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Encouraging a deeper comprehension of the subject by explaining the petrologic principles, and assuming knowledge of only introductory college-level courses in physics, chemistry, and calculus, it lucidly outlines mathematical derivations fully and at an elementary level, making this the ideal resource for intermediate and advanced courses in igneous and metamorphic petrology. With over 500 illustrations, many in color, this revised edition contains valuable new material and strengthened pedagogy, including boxed mathematical derivations allowing for a more accessible explanation of concepts, and more qualitative end-of-chapter questions to encourage discussion. With a new introductory chapter outlining the “bigger picture,” this fully updated resource will guide students to an even greater mastery of petrology.
This textbook is a complete rewrite, and expansion of Hugh Rollinson's highly successful 1993 book Using Geochemical Data: Evaluation, Presentation, Interpretation. Rollinson and Pease's new book covers the explosion in geochemical thinking over the past three decades, as new instruments and techniques have come online. It provides a comprehensive overview of how modern geochemical data are used in the understanding of geological and petrological processes. It covers major element, trace element, and radiogenic and stable isotope geochemistry. It explains the potential of many geochemical techniques, provides examples of their application, and emphasizes how to interpret the resulting data. Additional topics covered include the critical statistical analysis of geochemical data, current geochemical techniques, effective display of geochemical data, and the application of data in problem solving and identifying petrogenetic processes within a geological context. It will be invaluable for all graduate students, researchers, and professionals using geochemical techniques.
This second edition is fully updated to include new developments in the study of metamorphism as well as enhanced features to facilitate course teaching. It integrates a systematic account of the mineralogical changes accompanying metamorphism of the major rock types with discussion of the conditions and settings in which they formed. The use of textures to understand metamorphic history and links to rock deformation are also explored. Specific chapters are devoted to rates and timescales of metamorphism and to the tectonic settings in which metamorphic belts develop. These provide a strong connection to other parts of the geology curriculum. Key thermodynamic and chemical concepts are introduced through examples which demonstrate their application and relevance. Richly illustrated in colour and featuring end-of-chapter and online exercises, this textbook is a comprehensive introduction to metamorphic rocks and processes for undergraduate students of petrology, and provides a solid basis for advanced study and research.
A volcanic eruption occurs when a magma-filled fracture propagates from its source to the surface. Analysing and understanding the conditions that allow this to happen constitute a major part of the scientific field of volcanotectonics. This new volume introduces this cutting-edge and interdisciplinary topic in volcanological research, which incorporates principles and methods from structural geology, tectonics, volcano-deformation studies, physical volcanology, seismology, and physics. It explains and illustrates the physical processes that operate inside volcanoes and which control the frequencies, locations, durations, and sizes of volcanic eruptions. Featuring a clear theoretical framework and helpful summary descriptions of various volcanic structures and products, as well as many worked examples and exercises, this book is an ideal resource for students, researchers and practitioners seeking an understanding of the processes that give rise to volcanic deformation, earthquakes, and eruptions.
All Earth Science students need to understand the origins, environments, and basic processes that produce igneous and metamorphic rocks. This concise introductory textbook provides students with the essential knowledge needed to understand how petrology relates to other topics in the geologic sciences, and has been written specifically for one-semester courses. Throughout, the emphasis is on interpreting the mineralogy and petrology of rock suites in terms of origin and environment, with the first half of the book concentrating on igneous rocks, and the second half on metamorphic rocks. This Second Edition has been thoroughly revised and brought completely up-to-date. It now includes a new chapter on the application of stable and radiogenic isotopes in petrology, introducing students to the concept of isotopic fractionation and describing the process of radioactive decay. The discussions of phase diagrams, connections between igneous and metamorphic rock suites, and convergent margin magmatism have also been expanded. There is a new glossary of terms, updated end-of-chapter exercises, and updated further readings.
Carbon is one of the most important elements of our planet, and ninety percent of it resides inside Earth's interior. This book summarizes ten years of research by scientists involved in the Deep Carbon Observatory, a global community of 1200 scientists. It is a comprehensive guide to carbon inside Earth, including its quantities, movements, forms, origins, changes over time, and impact on planetary processes. Leading experts from a variety of fields, including geoscience, biology, chemistry, and physics, provide exciting new insights into the interconnected nature of the global carbon cycle, and explain why it matters to the past, present, and future of our planet. With end-of-chapter problems, illustrative infographics, full-color images, and access to online models and datasets, it is a valuable reference for graduate students, researchers, and professional scientists interested in carbon cycling and Earth system science. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
The role of hydrothermal fluids during the crystallization of layered intrusions and the ore deposits they contain has long been debated. This book summarizes the evidence for fluid-crystal-liquid (hydromagmatic) interactions and their importance for the understanding of the formation of platinum-group deposits in layered intrusions. It discusses the composition of igneous fluids in mafic magmatic systems, the generation and movement of these fluids in layered intrusions, their impact in altering the mineralogy and composition of the originally precipitated assemblages, and their role in the transport of the platinum-group elements (PGE). Using examples from the Bushveld complex of South Africa and other intrusions, this book provides a comprehensive overview of the hydromagmatic model for the origin of various features of layered intrusions. It is a useful reference for academic researchers and professional geologists working on economic mineral exploration, layered igneous intrusions, and hydrothermal metallogenesis.
A clear understanding of the processes responsible for observed rock microstructures is essential for making reliable petrogenetic interpretations, including inferences made from chemical and isotopic analyses of minerals. This volume presents a comprehensive survey of rock microstructures, emphasising basic concepts and the latest methods, while highlighting potential pitfalls in the interpretation of the origin of rock microstructure. Richly illustrated with over 250 colour photographs, including more than 10 percent new photomicrographs and several mesoscopic images, it demonstrates the basic processes responsible for the wide variety of microstructures in igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. This second edition includes extensive updates to the coverage of igneous rocks as well as recent ideas on physical processes in migmatites and partial melting of sedimentary rocks. This practical guide will continue to be an invaluable resource to advanced students and early-career researchers of mineralogy, petrology and structural geology, as well as professional geologists and material scientists.
Clays and clay minerals are the most abundant natural reactive solids on the Earth's surface. This comprehensive review considers clay science in the context of the Critical Zone - the Earth's permeable near-surface layer. Providing information on clays and clay minerals related to geological, biological and material sciences in the Critical Zone, it's well suited for graduate students and researchers interested in clay science, and environmental and soil mineralogy. The book starts with an introduction to clays and clay minerals, their historic background, and a review of how clay science impacts the Critical Zone. Examples and applications demonstrate how clays regulate habitats and determine the availability of other resources. These examples are supported by quantitative field data, including numerical and graphical depictions of clay and clay mineral occurrences. The book concludes by covering Critical Zone clay geochemistry and clay sequences, including the industrial, synthetic medical and extra-terrestrial world of clay science.
In recent years there has been growing recognition that disaster risk cannot be reduced by focusing solely on physical hazards without considering factors that influence socio-economic impact. Vulnerability: the susceptibility to the damaging impacts of hazards, and resilience: the ability to recover, have become popular concepts in natural hazard and risk management. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the concepts of vulnerability and resilience and their application to natural hazards research. With contributions from both physical and social scientists it provides an interdisciplinary discussion of the different types of vulnerability and resilience, the links between them, and concludes with the remaining challenges and future directions of the field. Examining global case studies from the US coast to Austria, this is a valuable reference for researchers and graduate students working in natural hazard and risk reduction from both the natural and social sciences.
The third edition of Radiogenic Isotope Geology examines revolutionary changes in geochemical thinking that have occurred over the past fifteen years. Extinct-nuclide studies on meteorites have called into question fundamental geochemical models of the Earth, while new dating methods have challenged conventional views of Earth history. At the same time, the problem of global warming has raised new questions about the causes of past and present climate change. In the new edition, these and other recent issues are evaluated in their scholarly and historical context, so readers can understand the development of current ideas. Controversial theories, new analytical techniques, classic papers, and illustrative case studies all come under scrutiny in this book, providing an accessible introduction for students and critical commentary for researchers.
Clays are increasingly becoming a major problem in the mining, extraction and value-adding processes for a wide range of commodity raw materials. Clays can impact negatively on virtually every unit process within the mining and minerals processing sector, having long-term environmental implications that go well beyond the lifetime of the mining operation. This book is the first to compile, explain and evaluate the effects of clays in the mineral processing value chain, from mining to minerals processing, and finally, tailings disposal. Focusing on topics from the chemistry and rheology of clays to their detection and dissolution behaviour, this book provides comprehensive coverage of the effects on processes such as settling, preg-robing, flotation and comminution. It is an excellent reference for professional mineralogists and geologists, industrial engineers, and researchers interested in clays and clay minerals.
Thermodynamics deals with energy levels and energy transfers between states of matter, and is therefore fundamental to all branches of science. This new edition provides an accessible introduction to the subject, specifically tailored to the interests of Earth and environmental science students. Beginning at an elementary level, the first four chapters explain all necessary concepts via a simple graphical approach. Throughout the rest of the book, the author emphasizes the importance of field observations and demonstrates that, despite being derived from idealized circumstances, thermodynamics is crucial to understanding ore formation, acid mine drainage, and other real-world geochemical and geophysical problems. Exercises now follow each chapter, with answers provided at the end of the book. An associated website includes extra chapters and password-protected answers to additional problems. This textbook is ideal for undergraduate and graduate students studying geochemistry and environmental science.
The time-dependent decay of naturally occurring radioactive isotopes or in-growth of their radioactive or stable daughter products form the basis of radiometric dating of several natural processes. Developed in the beginning of the last century mainly to determine the absolute ages of rocks and minerals, radiometric chronology now plays a central role in a broad range of Earth and planetary sciences - from extra-solar-system processes to environmental geoscience. With the prerequisite of only college-level knowledge in physics, chemistry and mathematics, this concise book focuses on the essential principles of radiometric dating in order to enable students and teachers belonging to diverse fields of studies to select, understand and interpret radiometric dating results generated and published by professionals.
This concise, accessible, market-leading textbook brings together the wide-ranging fundamentals students need to understand rocks and minerals, and shows them how they relate to the broader Earth, materials and environmental sciences. Designed specifically for one-semester courses, it is beautifully illustrated to explain the key concepts in mineralogy and petrology. This edition has been fully updated based on classroom experience, and new features include a completely new chapter providing an elementary introduction to thermodynamics, kinetics, radioactive decay and absolute dating; new mineral descriptions and many new stunning color photographs; and a new section on hydraulic fracturing and discussion of some of its most serious potential environmental consequences. The book uses stunning photos of mineral specimens and rock thin sections to help students build a core understanding. It also creates a highly effective learning experience through close integration of clear illustrations with engaging text, and helps students to easily visualize crystal structures through the CrystalViewer's 3D software, available online.
The study of volcano-ice interactions, or 'glaciovolcanism', is a field experiencing exponential growth. This comprehensive volume presents a discussion of the distinctive processes and characteristics of glaciovolcanic eruptions, their products, and landforms, with reference to both terrestrial and Mars occurrences. Supported by abundant diagrams and photos from the authors' extensive collections, this book outlines where eruptions have occurred and will occur in the future on Earth, the resulting hazards that are unique to volcano-ice interactions, and how the deposits are used to unravel planetary palaeoclimatic histories. It has a practical focus on lithofacies, glaciovolcanic edifice morphometry and construction, and applications to palaeoenvironmental studies. Providing the first global summary of past and current work, this book also identifies those areas in need of further research, making this an ideal reference for academic researchers and postgraduate students, in the fields of volcanology, glaciology, planetary science and palaeoenvironmental studies.
The new edition of this popular textbook, once again, provides an indispensable guide for the next generation of mineralogists. Designed for use on one- or two-semester courses, this second edition has been thoughtfully reorganised, making it more accessible to students, whilst still being suitable for an advanced mineralogy course. Additions include expanded introductions to many chapters, a new introductory chapter on crystal chemistry, revised figures, and an extended plates section containing beautiful colour photographs. Text boxes include historical background and case studies to engage students, and end-of-chapter questions help them reinforce concepts. With new online resources to support learning and teaching, including laboratory exercises, PowerPoint slides, useful web links and mineral identification tables, this is a sound investment for students in the fields of geology, materials science and environmental science, and a valuable reference for researchers, collectors and anyone interested in minerals.
Written for students and professionals, this revised textbook surveys the mineral industry from geological, environmental and economic perspectives. Thoroughly updated, the text includes a new chapter on technology industry metals as well as separate chapters on mineral economics and environmental geochemistry. Carefully designed figures simplify difficult concepts and show the location of important deposits and trade patterns, emphasising the true global nature of mineral resources. Featuring boxes highlighting special interest topics, the text equips students with the skills they need to contribute to the energy and mineral questions currently facing society, including issues regarding oil pipelines, nuclear power plants, water availability and new mining locations. Technical terms are highlighted when first used, and references are included to allow students to delve more deeply into areas of interest. Multiple choice and short answer questions are provided for instructors online at www.cambridge.org/kesler to complete the teaching package.
Originally prepared for the United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction, this is the first comprehensive assessment of global volcanic hazards and risk, presenting the state of the art in our understanding of global volcanic activity. It examines our assessment and management capabilities, and considers the preparedness of the global scientific community and government agencies to manage volcanic hazards and risk. Particular attention is paid to volcanic ash, the most frequent and wide-ranging volcanic hazard. Of interest to government officials, the private sector, students and researchers, this book is a key resource for the disaster risk reduction community and for those interested in volcanology and natural hazards. A non-technical summary is included for policy makers. Regional volcanic hazard profiles, with invaluable information on volcanic hazards and risk at the local, national and global scale, are provided online. This title is available as an Open Access eBook via Cambridge Books Online.
Covering a key connection between geological processes and life on Earth, this multidisciplinary volume describes the effects of volcanism on the environment by combining present-day observations of volcanism and environmental changes with information from past eruptions preserved in the geologic record. The book discusses the origins, features and timing of volumetrically large volcanic eruptions; methods for assessing gas and tephra release in the modern day and the palaeo-record; and the impacts of volcanic gases and aerosols on the environment, from ozone depletion to mass extinctions. The significant advances that have been made in recent years in quantifying and understanding the impacts of present and past volcanic eruptions are presented and review chapters are included, making this a valuable book for academic researchers and graduate students in volcanology, climate science, palaeontology, atmospheric chemistry, and igneous petrology.