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Combining rigorous theory with practical application, this book provides a unified and detailed account of the fundamental equations governing atmospheric and oceanic fluid flow on which global, quantitative models of weather and climate prediction are founded. It lays the foundation for more accurate models by making fewer approximations and imposing dynamical and thermodynamical consistency, moving beyond the assumption that the Earth is perfectly spherical. A general set of equations is developed in a standard notation with clearly stated assumptions, limitations, and important properties. Some exact, non-linear solutions are developed to promote further understanding and for testing purposes. This book contains a thorough consideration of the fundamental equations for atmospheric and oceanic models, and is therefore invaluable to both theoreticians and numerical modellers. It also stands as an accessible source for reference purposes.
This book presents a comprehensive summary of research on tropical cyclone variability at various time scales, from intraseasonal and interannual to interdecadal and centennial. It covers the fundamental theory, statistics and numerical modelling techniques used when considering climate variability in relation to tropical cyclone activity. Major climate oscillations including the Madden-Julian, El Niño, Atlantic Meridional Mode, and Pacific Decadal oscillations are covered, and their impacts on tropical cyclone activity in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans are discussed. Hurricane landfalls in the United States, Caribbean and East Asia are also considered. Climate models and numerical simulations are used to show how prediction models of tropical cyclones are developed, while looking to the future, particular attention is paid to predicting how tropical cyclones will change in response to increased concentrations of greenhouse gases. This book ideal for researchers and practitioners in atmospheric science, climatology, oceanography and civil and environmental engineering.
Lidar is a remote sensing technique that employs laser beams to produce a high-resolution, four-dimensional probe, with important applications in atmospheric science. Suitable as a detailed reference or an advanced textbook for interdisciplinary courses, this book discusses the underlying principles of light-scattering theory and describes widely used lidar systems in current research, exploring how they can be employed effectively for atmospheric profiling. This self-contained text provides a solid grounding in the essential physics of light-matter interactions and the fundamentals of atmospheric lidars through a discussion of the principles that govern light-matter interactions and an exploration of both historical and recent scientific developments in lidar technology. This is an essential resource for physicists, optical engineers and other researchers in atmospheric science and remote sensing.
An interdisciplinary and easy-to-understand introduction to the subject, covering fundamental theory and practical applications, and using numerous operational examples. This balanced text will allow you to begin from what the radar observes and move deeper through electromagnetic scattering theory and cloud microphysics to understand and interpret data as it appears on the display. It uses illustrations and figures of real radar observations to convey concepts and theory of atmospheric processes typically observed with weather radar, as well presenting a working knowledge of the radar system itself. In addition to covering fundamentals of scattering and atmospheric physics, topics include system hardware, signal processing, and radar networks. This is the perfect tool for scientists and engineers working on weather radars or using radars and their data, as well as senior undergraduate and graduate students studying weather radars.
Kevin E. Trenberth emphasizes the fundamental role of energy flows in the climate system and anthropogenic climate change. The distribution of heat, or more generally, energy, is the main determinant of weather patterns in the atmosphere and their impacts. The topics addressed cover many facets of climate and the climate crisis. These include the diurnal cycle; the seasons; energy differences between the continents and the oceans, the poles and the tropics; interannual variability such as Niño; natural decadal variability; and ice ages. Human-induced climate change rides on and interacts with all of these natural phenomena, and the result is an unevenly warming planet and changing weather extremes. The book emphasizes the need to not only slow or stop climate change, but also to better prepare for it and build resilience. Students, researchers, and professionals from a wide range of backgrounds will benefit from this deeper understanding of climate change.
The second edition of this concise, affordable textbook is ideal for curious undergraduate majors and non-majors taking a first course in meteorology. The first two chapters introduce readers to the main concepts and tools used to analyze weather patterns. Chapters 3-8 provide a foundational understanding of the fundamental processes taking place in the atmosphere, and in Chapters 9-12 these physical concepts are applied to specific weather phenomena. Weather concepts are then used in Chapters 13-15 to explain weather forecasting, air pollution, and the impact of climate change on weather. Key concepts are illustrated through a running case study of a single mid-latitude cyclone, providing students with an opportunity to progressively develop their understanding of weather phenomena with a familiar example approached from multiple perspectives. This edition includes expanded and updated coverage of precipitation types and formation, satellite and radar technology, tornadoes, and more. It also features thought-provoking end-of-chapter review questions, new visual analysis exercises, an expanded test bank and nearly 100 new figures.
Downscaling is a widely used technique for translating information from large-scale climate models to the spatial and temporal scales needed to assess local and regional climate impacts, vulnerability, risk and resilience. This book is a comprehensive guide to the downscaling techniques used for climate data. A general introduction of the science of climate modeling is followed by a discussion of techniques, models and methodologies used for producing downscaled projections, and the advantages, disadvantages and uncertainties of each. The book provides detailed information on dynamic and statistical downscaling techniques in non-technical language, as well as recommendations for selecting suitable downscaled datasets for different applications. The use of downscaled climate data in national and international assessments is also discussed using global examples. This is a practical guide for graduate students and researchers working on climate impacts and adaptation, as well as for policy makers and practitioners interested in climate risk and resilience.
Cloud research is a rapidly developing branch of climate science that's vital to climate modelling. With new observational and simulation technologies our knowledge of clouds and their role in the warming climate is accelerating. This book provides a comprehensive overview of research on clouds and their role in our present and future climate, covering theoretical, observational, and modelling perspectives. Part I discusses clouds from three different perspectives: as particles, light and fluid. Part II describes our capability to model clouds, ranging from theoretical conceptual models to applied parameterised representations. Part III describes the interaction of clouds with the large-scale circulation in the tropics, mid-latitudes, and polar regions. Part IV describes how clouds are perturbed by aerosols, the land-surface, and global warming. Each chapter contains end-of-chapter exercises and further reading sections, making this an ideal resource for advanced students and researchers in climatology, atmospheric science, meteorology, and climate change.
Presenting the quantum mechanical theory of pressure broadening and its application in atmospheric science, this is a unique treatment of the topic and a useful resource for researchers and professionals alike. Rayer proceeds from molecular processes to broad scale atmospheric physics to bring together both sides of the problem of remote sensing. Explanations of the relationship between a series of increasingly general theoretical papers are provided and all key expressions are fully derived to provide a firm understanding of assumptions made as the subject evolved. This book will help the atmospheric physicist to cross into the quantum world and appreciate the more theoretical aspects of line shape and its importance to their own work.
Climate research over recent decades has shown that the interaction between the ocean and atmosphere drives the global climate system. This engaging and accessible textbook focuses on climate dynamics from the perspective of the upper ocean, and specifically on the interaction between the atmosphere and ocean. It describes the fundamental physics and dynamics governing the behavior of the ocean, and how it interacts with the atmosphere, giving rise to natural climate variability and influencing climate change. Including end-of-chapter questions and turn-key access to online, research-quality data sets, the book allows readers the chance to apply their knowledge and work with real data. Comprehensive information is also provided on the data sets used to produce the numerous illustrations, allowing students to dive deeper into the data themselves. Providing an accessible treatment of physical oceanography, it is perfect for intermediate-advanced students wishing to gain an interdisciplinary introduction to climate science and oceanography.
This textbook covers the entire spectrum of topics required to completely understand air pollution. It emphasizes the atmospheric processes governing air pollution (emissions, atmospheric dispersion, chemical transformations, deposition on surfaces and ecosystems). Other areas of focus include air pollutant emission control technologies, health and environmental impacts, regulations and public policies, and interactions between climate change and air pollution. Topics are first presented conceptually, and then in terms of their fundamental aspects. Actual case studies are incorporated throughout to illustrate major air pollution phenomena, such as the dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere, and the development of strategies to reduce urban air pollution, mitigate acid rain, and improve atmospheric visibility. Graduate students, researchers, and air quality professionals will find the full coverage of these important matters to be well suited to their needs.
In recent decades, great progress has been made in our understanding of zonal jets across many subjects - atmospheric science, oceanography, planetary science, geophysical fluid dynamics, plasma physics, magnetohydrodynamics, turbulence theory - but communication between researchers from different fields has been weak or non-existent. Even the terminology in different fields may be so disparate that researchers working on similar problems do not understand each other. This comprehensive, multidisciplinary volume will break cross-disciplinary barriers and aid the advancement of the subject. It presents a state-of-the-art summary of all relevant branches of the physics of zonal jets, from the leading experts. The phenomena and concepts are introduced at a level accessible to beginning graduate students and researchers from different fields. The book also includes a very extensive bibliography.
This is a modern, introductory textbook on the dynamics of the atmosphere and ocean, with a healthy dose of geophysical fluid dynamics. It will be invaluable for intermediate to advanced undergraduate and graduate students in meteorology, oceanography, mathematics, and physics. It is unique in taking the reader from very basic concepts to the forefront of research. It also forms an excellent refresher for researchers in atmospheric science and oceanography. It differs from other books at this level in both style and content: as well as very basic material it includes some elementary introductions to more advanced topics. The advanced sections can easily be omitted for a more introductory course, as they are clearly marked in the text. Readers who wish to explore these topics in more detail can refer to this book's parent, Atmospheric and Oceanic Fluid Dynamics: Fundamentals and Large-Scale Circulation, now in its second edition.
Sensational images and stories about variations in Earth's climate and their impacts on society are pervasive in the media. The scientific basis for these stories is often not understood by the general public, nor even by those with a scientific background in fields other than climate science. This book is a comprehensive resource that will enable the reader to understand and appreciate the significance of the flood of climate information. It is an excellent non-mathematical resource for learning the fundamentals of climate analysis, as well as a reference for non-climate experts that need to use climate information and data. The focus is on the basics of the climate system, how climate is observed and how the observations are transformed into datasets useful for monitoring the climate. Each chapter contains Discussion Questions. This is an invaluable textbook on climate analysis for advanced students, and a reference textbook for researchers and practitioners.
This book presents the most comprehensive and systematic description currently available of both classical and novel theories of cloud processes, providing a much-needed link between cloud theory, observation, experimental results, and cloud modeling. This volume shows why and how modern models serve as a major tool of investigation of cloud processes responsible for atmospheric phenomena, including climate change. It systematically describes classical as well as recent advancements in cloud physics, including cloud-aerosol interaction; collisions of particles in turbulent clouds; and the formation of multiphase cloud particles. As the first of its kind to serve as a practical guide for using state-of-the-art numerical cloud models, major emphasis is placed on explaining how microphysical processes are treated in modern numerical cloud resolving models. The book will be a valuable resource for advanced students, researchers and numerical model designers in cloud physics, atmospheric science, meteorology, and environmental science.
From a world-renowned team at the Department of Atmospheric Sciences at the University of Washington, Seattle, Weather: A Concise Introduction is an accessible and beautifully illustrated text covering the foundations of meteorology in a concise, clear, and engaging manner. Designed to provide students with a strong foundation in the physical, dynamical, and chemical processes taking place in the atmosphere, this introductory textbook will appeal to students with a wide range of mathematical and scientific backgrounds. This textbook features: a single case study of a mid-latitude cyclone which is referred to throughout the whole book to illustrate the basic principles driving atmospheric dynamics and phenomena; boxes on more advanced topics; appendices for additional coverage; chapter summaries listing the 'take-home' points discussed; and colour figures and charts illustrating the fundamental concepts. Key terms are evident throughout, and a glossary explains the terms that students will need to understand and become familiar with.
Atmospheric Frontal Dynamics is the first book to present a self-contained and comprehensive coverage of the ubiquitous surface and upper-level fronts, which are boundaries separating two air masses of different densities. Atmospheric fronts are a product of interaction between planetary, synoptic, meso and small scales of motions. They are uniquely important in weather forecasting since many meteorological phenomena are closely associated with them. The discussions of the multifaceted aspects of basic frontal dynamics are based on illustrative analyses of a hierarchy of semi-geostrophic frontal models performed in physical, as opposed to geostrophic, coordinates. Such analyses enable us to systematically and quantitatively delineate the physical nature of different types of fronts in a relatively straightforward manner. They are further supplemented by two illustrative analyses using a state-of-the-art model. 'Learning-by-doing' is the guiding principle behind the book, making it an asset to both students and instructors in atmospheric science and meteorology.
This book provides an advanced introduction to the science behind automated prediction systems, focusing on sea ice analysis and forecasting. Starting from basic principles, fundamental concepts in sea ice physics, remote sensing, numerical methods, and statistics are explained at an accessible level. Existing operational automated prediction systems are described and their impacts on information providers and end clients are discussed. The book also provides insight into the likely future development of sea ice services and how they will evolve from mainly manual processes to increasing automation, with a consequent increase in the diversity and information content of new ice products. With contributions from world-leading experts in the fields of sea ice remote sensing, data assimilation, numerical modelling, and verification and operational prediction, this comprehensive reference is ideal for students, sea ice analysts, and researchers, as well as decision-makers and professionals working in the ice service industry.
This new and completely updated edition gives a detailed description of radiative transfer processes at a level accessible to advanced students. The volume gives the reader a basic understanding of global warming and enhanced levels of harmful ultraviolet radiation caused by ozone depletion. It teaches the basic physics of absorption, scattering and emission processes in turbid media, such as the atmosphere and ocean, using simple semi-classical models. The radiative transfer equation, including multiple scattering, is formulated and solved for several prototype problems, using both simple approximate and accurate numerical methods. In addition, the reader has access to a powerful, state-of-the-art computational code for simulating radiative transfer processes in coupled atmosphere-water systems including snow and ice. This computational code can be regarded as a powerful educational aid, but also as a research tool that can be applied to solve a variety of research problems in environmental sciences.