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Introduction to Applied Geophysics covers the fundamental methods of exploration geophysics in a depth and style both challenging and appropriate to undergraduates. Because of the increasing opportunities for students to conduct field experiments, the authors focus on methods, examples, illustrations, applications, and problem sets that emphasize shallow exploration of the Earth's surface. The textbook includes chapters on refraction seismology, electrical resistivity methods, gravity, magnetic surveying, and electromagnetic methods, including ground conductivity measurements and ground-penetrating radar. Geologic, engineering, and environmental applications are emphasized throughout. For each geophysical method, the theory and its application in exploring a given target in introduced. Each chapter includes a brief discussion of the applicable instruments, field operations, data collection and reduction, and limitations on interpretation. The textbook is supported by an extensive package of software. This edition from Cambridge University Press is a re-issue of the W.W. Norton edition, first published in 2006.
The development of unconventional oil and gas shales using hydraulic fracturing and directional drilling is currently a focal point of energy and climate change discussions. While this technology has provided access to substantial reserves of oil and gas, the need for large quantities of water, emissions, and infrastructure raises concerns over the environmental impacts. Written by an international consortium of experts, this book provides a comprehensive overview of the extraction from unconventional reservoirs, providing clear explanations of the technology and processes involved. Each chapter is devoted to different aspects including global reserves, the status of their development and regulatory framework, water management and contamination, air quality, earthquakes, radioactivity, isotope geochemistry, microbiology, and climate change. Case studies present baseline studies, water monitoring efforts and habitat destruction. This book is accessible to a wide audience, from academics to industry professionals and policy makers interested in environmental pollution and petroleum exploration.
A Primer to Theoretical Soil Mechanics is about adapting continuum mechanics to granular materials. The field of continuum mechanics offers many fruitful concepts and methods, however there is declining interest in the field due to its complex and fragmented nature. This book's purpose is therefore to facilitate the understanding of the theoretical principles of soil mechanics, as well as introducing the new theory of barodesy. This title argues for barodesy as a simple alternative to the plasticity theory used currently and provides a systematic insight into this new constitutive model for granular materials. This book therefore introduces a complex field from a fresh and innovative perspective using simple concepts, succinct equations and explanatory sketches. Intended for advanced undergraduates, graduates and PhD students, this title is also apt for researchers seeking advanced training on fundamental topics.
The most utilized technique for exploring the Earth's subsurface for petroleum is reflection seismology. However, a sole focus on reflection seismology often misses opportunities to integrate other geophysical techniques such as gravity, magnetic, resistivity, and other seismicity techniques, which have tended to be used in isolation and by specialist teams. There is now growing appreciation that these technologies used in combination with reflection seismology can produce more accurate images of the subsurface. This book describes how these different field techniques can be used individually and in combination with each other and with seismic reflection data. World leading experts present chapters covering different techniques and describe when, where, and how to apply them to improve petroleum exploration and production. It also explores the use of such techniques in monitoring CO2 storage reservoirs. Including case studies throughout, it will be an invaluable resource for petroleum industry professionals, advanced students, and researchers.
Many leading experts contribute to this follow-up to An Introduction to Reservoir Simulation using MATLAB/GNU Octave: User Guide for the MATLAB Reservoir Simulation Toolbox (MRST). It introduces more advanced functionality that has been recently added to the open-source MRST software. It is however a self-contained introduction to a variety of modern numerical methods for simulating multiphase flow in porous media, with applications to geothermal energy, chemical enhanced oil recovery (EOR), flow in fractured and unconventional reservoirs, and in the unsaturated zone. The reader will learn how to implement new models and algorithms in a robust, efficient manner. A large number of numerical examples are included, all fully equipped with code and data so that the reader can reproduce the results and use them as a starting point for their own work. Like the original textbook, this book will prove invaluable for researchers, professionals and advanced students using reservoir simulation methods. This title is available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
Rock physics encompasses practically all aspects of solid and fluid state physics. This book provides a unified presentation of the underlying physical principles of rock physics, covering elements of mineral physics, petrology and rock mechanics. After a short introduction on rocks and minerals, the subsequent chapters cover rock density, porosity, stress and strain relationships, permeability, poroelasticity, acoustics, conductivity, polarizability, magnetism, thermal properties and natural radioactivity. Each chapter includes problem sets and focus boxes with in-depth explanations of the physical and mathematical aspects of underlying processes. The book is also supplemented by online MATLAB exercises to help students apply their knowledge to numerically solve rock physics problems. Covering laboratory and field-based measurement methods, as well as theoretical models, this textbook is ideal for upper-level undergraduate and graduate courses in rock physics. It will also make a useful reference for researchers and professional scientists working in geoscience and petroleum engineering.
Seismic hazard and risk analyses underpin the loadings prescribed by engineering design codes, the decisions by asset owners to retrofit structures, the pricing of insurance policies, and many other activities. This is a comprehensive overview of the principles and procedures behind seismic hazard and risk analysis. It enables readers to understand best practises and future research directions. Early chapters cover the essential elements and concepts of seismic hazard and risk analysis, while later chapters shift focus to more advanced topics. Each chapter includes worked examples and problem sets for which full solutions are provided online. Appendices provide relevant background in probability and statistics. Computer codes are also available online to help replicate specific calculations and demonstrate the implementation of various methods. This is a valuable reference for upper level students and practitioners in civil engineering, and earth scientists interested in engineering seismology.
Geopressure drives fluid flow and is important for hydrocarbon exploration, carbon sequestration, and designing safe and economical wells. This concise guide explores the origins of geopressure and presents a step-by-step approach to characterizing and predicting pressure and least principal stress in the subsurface. The book emphasizes how geology, and particularly the role of flow along permeable layers, drives the development and distribution of subsurface pressure and stress. Case studies, such as the Deepwater Horizon blowout, and laboratory experiments, are used throughout to demonstrate methods and applications. It succinctly discusses the role of elastoplastic behaviour, the full stress tensor, and diagenesis in pore pressure generation, and it presents workflows to predict pressure, stress, and hydrocarbon entrapment. It is an essential guide for academics and professional geoscientists and petroleum engineers interested in predicting pressure and stress, and understanding the role of geopressure in geological processes, well design, hydrocarbon entrapment, and carbon sequestration.
Geopressure, or pore pressure in subsurface rock formations impacts hydrocarbon resource estimation, drilling, and drilling safety in operations. This book provides a comprehensive overview of geopressure analysis bringing together rock physics, seismic technology, quantitative basin modeling and geomechanics. It provides a fundamental physical and geological basis for understanding geopressure by explaining the coupled mechanical and thermal processes. It also brings together state-of-the-art tools and technologies for analysis and detection of geopressure, along with the associated uncertainty. Prediction and detection of shallow geohazards and gas hydrates is also discussed and field examples are used to illustrate how models can be practically applied. With supplementary MATLAB® codes and exercises available online, this is an ideal resource for students, researchers and industry professionals in geoscience and petroleum engineering looking to understand and analyse subsurface formation pressure.
Resistivity and induced polarization methods are used for a wide range of near-surface applications, including hydrogeology, civil engineering and archaeology, as well as emerging applications in the agricultural and plant sciences. This comprehensive reference text covers both theory and practice of resistivity and induced polarization methods, demonstrating how to measure, model and interpret data in both the laboratory and the field. Marking the 100 year anniversary of the seminal work of Conrad Schlumberger (1920), the book covers historical development of electrical geophysics, electrical properties of geological materials, instrumentation, acquisition and modelling, and includes case studies that capture applications to societally relevant problems. The book is also supported by a full suite of forward and inverse modelling tools, allowing the reader to apply the techniques to a wide range of applications using digital datasets provided online. This is a valuable reference for graduate students, researchers and practitioners interested in near-surface geophysics.
Master the art of vibration monitoring of induction motors with this unique guide to on-line condition assessment and fault diagnosis, building on the author's fifty years of investigative expertise.It includes:*Robust techniques for diagnosing of a wide range of common faults, including shaft misalignment and/or soft foot, rolling element bearing faults, sleeve bearing faults, magnetic and vibrational issues, resonance in vertical motor drives, and vibration and acoustic noise from inverters.*Detailed technical coverage of thirty real-world industrial case studies, from initial vibration spectrum analysis through to fault diagnosis and final strip-down. *An introduction to real-world vibration spectrum analysis for fault diagnosis, and practical guidelines to reduce bearing failure through effective grease management. This definitive book is essential reading for industrial end-users, engineers, and technicians working in motor design, manufacturing, and condition monitoring. It will also be of interest to researchers and graduate students working on condition monitoring.
Exploiting Seismic Waveforms introduces a range of recent developments in seismology including the application of correlation techniques, understanding of multi-scale heterogeneity and the extraction of structure and source information by seismic waveform inversion. It provides a full treatment of correlation methods for seismic noise and event signals, and develops inverse methods for both sources and structure. Higher frequency components of seismograms are frequently neglected, or removed by filtering, but they contain information about seismic structure on scales that cannot be revealed by seismic tomography. Sufficient computational resources are now available for waveform inversion for 3-D structure to be a practical procedure and this book describes suitable algorithms and examples reflecting current best practice. Intended for students and researchers in seismology, this book provides a physical understanding of seismic waveforms and the way that different aspects of the seismic wavefield are revealed by the way that seismic data are handled.
Tackling structural geology problems today requires a quantitative understanding of the underlying physical principles, and the ability to apply mathematical models to deformation processes within the Earth. Accessible yet rigorous, this unique textbook demonstrates how to approach structural geology quantitatively using calculus and mechanics, and prepares students to interface with professional geophysicists and engineers who appreciate and utilize the same tools and computational methods to solve multidisciplinary problems. Clearly explained methods are used throughout the book to quantify field data, set up mathematical models for the formation of structures, and compare model results to field observations. An extensive online package of coordinated laboratory exercises enables students to consolidate their learning and put it into practice by analyzing structural data and building insightful models. Designed for single-semester undergraduate courses, this pioneering text prepares students for graduates studies and careers as professional geoscientists.
Responding to the latest developments in rock physics research, this popular reference book has been thoroughly updated while retaining its comprehensive coverage of the fundamental theory, concepts, and laboratory results. It brings together the vast literature from the field to address the relationships between geophysical observations and the underlying physical properties of Earth materials - including water, hydrocarbons, gases, minerals, rocks, ice, magma and methane hydrates. This third edition includes expanded coverage of topics such as effective medium models, viscoelasticity, attenuation, anisotropy, electrical-elastic cross relations, and highlights applications in unconventional reservoirs. Appendices have been enhanced with new materials and properties, while worked examples (supplemented by online datasets and MATLAB® codes) enable readers to implement the workflows and models in practice. This significantly revised edition will continue to be the go-to reference for students and researchers interested in rock physics, near-surface geophysics, seismology, and professionals in the oil and gas industries.
This enduringly popular undergraduate textbook has been thoroughly reworked and updated, and now comprises twelve chapters covering the same breadth of topics as earlier editions, but in a substantially modernized fashion to facilitate classroom teaching. Covering both theoretical and applied aspects of geophysics, clear explanations of the physical principles are blended with step-by-step derivations of the key equations and over 400 explanatory figures to explain the internal structure and properties of the planet, including its petroleum and mineral resources. New topics include the latest data acquisition technologies, such as satellite geophysics, planetary landers, ocean bottom seismometers, and fibre optic methods, as well as recent research developments in ambient noise interferometry, seismic hazard analysis, rheology, and numerical modelling - all illustrated with examples from the scientific literature. Student-friendly features include separate text boxes with auxiliary explanations and advanced topics of interest; reading lists of foundational, alternative, or more detailed resources; end-of-chapter review questions and an increased number of quantitative exercises. Completely new to this edition is the addition of computational exercises in Python, designed to help students acquire important programming skills and develop a more profound understanding of geophysics.
Focusing on trends in energy supply and demand, this text provides students with a comprehensive account of the subject and an understanding of how to use data analysis and modeling to make future projections and study climate impacts. Developments in technology and policy are discussed in depth, including the role of coal, the fracking revolutions for oil and gas, the electricity grid, wind and solar power, battery storage, and biofuels. Trends in demand are also detailed, with analysis of industrial demands such as LEDs, air conditioning, heat pumps, and information technology, and the transportation demands of railroads, ships, and cars (including electric vehicles). The environmental impacts of the energy industry are considered throughout, and a full chapter is dedicated to climate change. Real-life case studies and examples add context, and over 400 full-color figures illustrate key concepts. Accompanied by a package of online resources including solutions, video examples, sample data, and PowerPoint slides, this is an ideal text for courses on energy and is accessible to a range of students from engineering and related disciplines.
The Gulf of Mexico Basin is one of the most prolific hydrocarbon-producing basins in the world, with an estimated endowment of 200 billion barrels of oil equivalent. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the basin, spanning the US, Mexico and Cuba. Topics covered include conventional and unconventional reservoirs, source rocks and associated tectonics, basin evolution from the Mesozoic to Cenozoic Era, and different regions of the basin from mature onshore fields to deep-water subsalt plays. Cores, well logs and seismic lines are all discussed providing local, regional and basin-scale insights. The scientific implications of seminal events in the basin's history are also covered, including sedimentary effects of the Chicxulub Impact. Containing over 200 color illustrations and 50 stratigraphic cross-sections and paleogeographic maps, this is an invaluable resource for petroleum industry professionals, as well as graduate students and researchers interested in basin analysis, sedimentology, stratigraphy, tectonics and petroleum geology.
This lively introduction to geologic fracture mechanics provides a consistent treatment of all common geologic structural discontinuities. It explores the formation, growth and interpretation of fractures and deformation bands, from theoretical, field and lab-based perspectives, bridging the gap between a general textbook treatment and the more advanced research literature. It allows the reader to acquire basic tools to interpret discontinuity origins, geometries, patterns and implications using many of the leading and contemporary concepts known to specialists in the field. Problem sets are provided at the end of each chapter, and worked examples are included within each chapter to illustrate topics and enable self-study. With all common geologic structures including joints, hydrofractures, faults, stylolites and deformation bands being discussed from a fresh perspective, it will be a useful reference for advanced students, researchers and industry practitioners interested in structural geology, neotectonics, rock mechanics, planetary geology, and reservoir geomechanics.
This book provides a self-contained introduction to the simulation of flow and transport in porous media, written by a developer of numerical methods. The reader will learn how to implement reservoir simulation models and computational algorithms in a robust and efficient manner. The book contains a large number of numerical examples, all fully equipped with online code and data, allowing the reader to reproduce results, and use them as a starting point for their own work. All of the examples in the book are based on the MATLAB Reservoir Simulation Toolbox (MRST), an open-source toolbox popular popularity in both academic institutions and the petroleum industry. The book can also be seen as a user guide to the MRST software. It will prove invaluable for researchers, professionals and advanced students using reservoir simulation methods. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
This third edition provides a concise yet approachable introduction to seismic theory, designed as a first course for graduate students or advanced undergraduate students. It clearly explains the fundamental concepts, emphasizing intuitive understanding over lengthy derivations, and outlines the different types of seismic waves and how they can be used to resolve Earth structure and understand earthquakes. New material and updates have been added throughout, including ambient noise methods, shear-wave splitting, back-projection, migration and velocity analysis in reflection seismology, earthquake rupture directivity, and fault weakening mechanisms. A wealth of both reworked and new examples, review questions and computer-based exercises in MATLAB®/Python give students the opportunity to apply the techniques they have learned to compute results of interest and to illustrate Earth's seismic properties. More advanced sections, which are not needed to understand the other material, are flagged so that instructors or students pressed for time can skip them.