Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2020
  • Online publication date: July 2020

2 - Why Forests Matter?

from Part I - Wicked Problems and Policies

Summary

Forest policy is a wicked problem precisely because forests matter to so many different people for so many different reasons. Developing institutions to mediate among the various claimants to forest land, buyers and sellers of forest goods, and beneficiaries of forest services has proven challenging to local user groups and international negotiators alike. This chapter focuses on tropical forests, which have a disproportionately significant value for global biodiversity conservation and climate stability, as well as contributing to the livelihoods of some of the world’s poorest people. However, tropical forests are disappearing at alarming rates. There are no simple solutions to solving wicked forest policy problems, but community forestry, improved governance, changing norms, new forms of finance and technology, such as advances in remote sensing technology, are crucial to sustainably managing forests.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
Abranches, S. 2014. The political economy of deforestation in Brazil and payment-for-performance finance. Center for Global Development, Climate and Forest Papers 10: 56.
Convention on Biological Diversity. 2018. Aichi Biodiversity Targets. Available at: www.cbd.int/sp/targets/ (accessed 31 July, 2018).
Angelsen, A., Jagger, P., Babigumira, R., et al. 2014. Environmental income and rural livelihoods: a global-comparative analysis. World Development 64:S12S28.
Barber, C. V. and Canby, K.. 2018. Assessing the Timber Legality Strategy in Tackling Deforestation: Accomplishments and Remaining Challenges in Addressing Illegal Logging and Associated Trade. Working Paper. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute [One of a series of papers prepared for the Oslo Tropical Forest Forum, Oslo, 27–28 June 2018].
Barbier, E., Hacker, S. D., Kennedy, C., et al. 2011. The value of estuarine and coastal ecosystem services. Ecological Monographs 81(2):169193.
BBC. 2012. China’s Three Gorges Dam Reaches Operating Peak. BBC News. 5 July 2012.
Bianchi, F. J., Booij, C. J. and Tscharntke, T.. 2006. Sustainable pest regulation in agriculture landscape composition, biodiversity and natural pest control. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 273(1595):17151727.
BirdLife International, Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, World Wildlife Foundation, Conservation International, and The Nature Conservancy. 2016. Convention on Biological Diversity: Progress Report Towards the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. Available at: www.birdlife.org/sites/default/files/score_card_booklet_final.pdf
Bovolo, C. I., Wagner, T., Parkin, G., et al. 2018. The Guiana Shield rainforests – overlooked guardians of South American climate. Environmental Research Letters 13(7):074029.
Castello, L., McGrath, D. G., Hess, L. L., et al. 2013. The vulnerability of Amazon freshwater ecosystems. Conservation Letters 6(4):217229.
Cochard, R., Ranamukhaarachchi, S. L., Shivakoti, G. P., et al. 2008. The 2004 tsunami in Aceh and Southern Thailand: a review on coastal ecosystems, wave hazards and vulnerability. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 10(1):3040.
Contente, F. 2011. Differing perspectives of forest value by men and women. Box text in P. Shanley et al. Brazil’s social movement, women and forests: A case study from the National Council of Rubber Tappers. International Forestry Review 13(2):239.
Das, P. 2005. Hugh Cleghorn and forest conservancy in India. Environment and History 11(1):5582.
Dennehy, K. 2016. Lovejoy, ‘Godfather’ of biodiversity, reflects on 50 Years in the Amazon. Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies. https://environment.yale.edu/news/article/thomas-lovejoy-on-biodiversity-habitat-fragmentation-and-50-years-in-the-amazon/
Dobrovolski, R. and Rattis, L.. 2015. Water collapse in Brazil: the danger of relying on what you neglect. Natureza & Conservacao 13:8083.
Duchelle, A E , Seymour, F., Brockhaus, M., et al. 2018. REDD+: Lessons from National and Subnational Implementation: Ending Tropical Deforestation: A Stock-Take of Progress and Challenges. Working paper – World Resources Institute, June 2018. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute.
Ellison, D., Morris, C. E., Locatelli, B., et al. 2017. Trees, forests and water: cool insights for a hot world. Global Environmental Change 43:5161.
Finnemore, M. and Sikkink, K.. 1998. International norm dynamics and political change. International Organization 52(4):887917.
Global Forest Watch (GFW). 2018. Global Forest Watch Tree Cover Loss. Online database. Washington DC: Global Forest Watch.
Global Witness. 2018. At What Cost? Irresponsible Business and the Murder of Land and Environmental Defenders in 2017. Available at: www.globalwitness.org/en-gb/campaigns/environmental-activists/defenders-annual-report/
Goetz, S., Hansen, M., Houghton, R. A., et al. 2015. Measurement and monitoring needs, capabilities and potential for addressing reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation under REDD+. Environmental Research Letters 10(12):124. Article Number 123001.
Goodman, R. and Herold, M.. 2014. Why maintaining tropical forests is essential and urgent for a stable climate. Center for Global Development Working Paper No. 385.
Griscom, B. W., Adams, J., Ellis, P. W., et al. 2017. Natural climate solutions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 114(44):1164511650.
Guo, Z., Li, Y., Xiao, X., Zhang, L. and Gan, Y.. 2007. Hydroelectricity production and forest conservation in watersheds. Ecological Applications 17(6):15571562.
Harris, N. and Wolosin, M.. 2018. Tropical Forests and Climate Change: The Latest Science. Working Paper. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute.
Harris, N., Davis, C., Dow Goldman, E., Petersen, R. and Gibbes, S.. 2018. Comparing Global and National Approaches to Estimating Deforestation Rates in REDD+ Countries. Working Paper. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute.
Harrop, S. R. and Pritchard, D. J.. 2011. A hard instrument goes soft: the implications of the Convention on Biological Diversity's current trajectory. Global Environmental Change 21(2):474480.
Hein, L. and Gatzweiler, F.. 2006. The economic value of coffee (Coffea arabica) genetic resources. Ecological Economics 60(1):176185.
Henders, S., Persson, U. M. and Kastner, T.. 2015. Trading forests: land-use change and carbon emissions embodied in production and exports of forest-risk commodities. Environmental Research Letters 10(12):125012.
Humphreys, D. 2009. Discourse as ideology: neoliberalism and the limits of international forest policy. Forest Policy and Economics 11(5–6): 319325.
Jodoin, S. 2017. Forest Preservation in a Changing Climate: REDD+ and Indigenous and Community Rights in Indonesia and Tanzania. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Karp, D., Mendenhall, C. D., Sandi, R. F., et al. 2013. Forest bolsters bird abundance, pest control and coffee yield. Ecology Letters 16(11):13391347.
Lassman, A. 2016. Flying Rivers of the Amazon Rainforest: A Critical Rain Generator for the Planet. Pachamama Alliance, 4 October 2016. https://blog.pachamama.org/flying-rivers-of-the-amazon-rainforest-a-critical-rain-generator-for-the-planet
La Vina, A. and de Leon, A.. 2014. Two global challenges, one solution: international cooperation to combat climate change and tropical deforestation. Center for Global Development Working Paper No. 388.
Lawrence, D. and Vandecar, K.. 2015. Effects of tropical deforestation on climate and agriculture. Natural Climate Change 5:2736.
Lawson, S. 2014. Consumer Goods and Deforestation: An Analysis of the Extent and Nature of Illegality in Forest Conversion for Agriculture and Timber Plantations. Washington, DC: Forest Trends.
Lee, D. and Pistorius, T.. 2015. The Impacts of International REDD+ Finance. San Francisco, CA: Climate and Land Use Alliance.
Lewis, S. L., Lopez-Gonzalez, G., Sonké, B. et al. 2009. Increasing carbon storage in intact African tropical forests. Nature 457:1003–U3.
Lovejoy, T. and Nobre, C.. 2018. Amazon tipping point. Science Advances 4(2): Article Number: eaat2340.
Maas, B., Clough, Y. and Tscharntke, T.. 2013. Bats and birds increase crop yield in tropical agroforestry landscapes. Ecology Letters 16(12):14801487.
Makarieve, A. M. and Gorshkov, V. G.. 2006. Biotic pump of atmospheric moisture as driver of the hydrology cycle on land. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions 3(4):26212673.
Marten, G. 2005. Environmental tipping points: a new paradigm for restoring ecological security. Journal of Policy Studies (Japan) 20:7587.
Matthews, E. 2001. Understanding the FRA 2000. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute.
McIvor, A., Spalding, M., Tonneijck, F., Tol, S. and van Eijk, P.. 2013. Mangroves as a Sustainable Coastal Defense. Paper presented at the Seventh International Conference on Asian and Pacific Coasts, Nature Conservancy, University of Cambridge and Wetlands International, Bali, Indonesia.
McKean, M. and Ostrom, E.. 1995. Common property regimes in the forest: just a relic from the past. Unasylva 46(180):315.
Michon, G. 2005. Domesticating Forests: How Farmers Manage Forest Resources. Paris: Institut de recherche pour le developpment.
Moudi, M., Go, R., Yong Seok Yien, C. and Nazre, M.. 2013. Vinca alkaloids. International Journal of Preventative Medicine 4(11):12311235.
Mullan, K. 2015. The Value of Forest Ecosystem Services to Developing Economies. CGD Working Paper. Washington, DC: Center for Global Development.
Mulligan, M. and Saenz, L.. 2013. The role of cloud affected forests (CAFs) on water inputs to dams. Ecosystem Services 5:6977.
Nelson, A. and Chomitz, K. M.. 2011. Effectiveness of strict vs. multiple use protected areas in reducing tropical forest fires: a global analysis using matching methods. PLoS ONE 6(8): Article Number e22722.
Nobre, C., Marengo, J. A., Seluchi, M. E., Cuartas, L. A. and Alves, L. M.. 2016. Some characteristics and impacts of the drought and water crisis in Southeastern Brazil during 2014 and 2015. Journal of Water Resource and Protection 8:252262.
Otto, F., Haustein, K. and Uhe, P.. 2015. Factors other than climate change, main drivers of 2014/2015 water shortage in Southeast Brazil. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 96(12):S5S9.
Pachauri, R. K. and Reisinger, A.. 2007. Contribution of working groups I. II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, 104.
Paulino, E.T. 2014. The agricultural, environmental and socio-political repercussions of Brazil’s land governance system. Land Use Policy 36:134144.
Petersen, R., Davis, C., Herold, M. and De Sy, V.. 2018. Tropical Forest Monitoring: Exploring the Gaps Between What Is Required and What Is Possible for REDD+ and Other Initiatives. Working Paper. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute.
Phillips, O., Lewis, S., Baker, T., Chao, K. J. and Higuchi, N.. 2008. The changing Amazon forest. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 363:18191827.
Porter, G., Brown, J. W. and Chasek, P. S,. 1991. Global Environmental Politics: Dilemmas in World Politics. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, Oxford.
Raven, P. H. 1988. Our diminishing tropical forests. Pages 119122 in Wilson, E. O. and Peter, F., editors. Biodiversity. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Ross, M. 2001. Timber Booms and Institutional Breakdown in Southeast Asia. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Savedoff, W. D. 2018. Competing or Complementary Strategies? Protecting Indigenous Rights and Paying to Conserve Forests. Center for Global Development Working Paper No. 490.
Schmithusen, F. 2013. Three hundred years of applied sustainability in forestry. Unasylva 240(64):506.
Seymour, F. 2009. Forests, climate change, and human rights: managing risks and trade-offs. Pages 207237 in Humphreys, S., editor. Human Rights and Climate Change. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Seymour, F. and Busch, J.. 2016. Why Forests? Why Now? The Science, Economics, and Politics of Tropical Forests and Climate Change. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
Shackleton, C., Paumgarten, F., Kassa, H., Husselman, M. and Zida, M.. 2011. Opportunities for enhancing poor women’s socioeconomic empowerment in the value chains of three African non-timber forest products. International Forestry Review 13(2):136151.
Sheil, D., Liswanti, N., van Heist, M., et al. 2003. Local priorities and biodiversity. ITTO Newsletter 13(1):18.
Sheil, D., Puri, R. K., Basuki, I., et al. 2002. Exploring Biological Diversity, Environment and Local People’s Perspective in Forest Landscapes. Bogor: Center for International Forestry Research.
Soares-Filho, B., Moutinho, P., Nepstad, D., et al. 2010. Role of Brazilian Amazon protected areas in climate change mitigation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 107(24):1082110826.
Stern, N. 2006. The Economics of Climate Change: The Stern Review. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Taylor, R. and Streck, C.. 2018. The Elusive Impact of the Deforestation-Free Supply Chain Movement. Working Paper. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute.
Thatcher, M. 1989. Speech to the United Nations General Assembly, United Nations, New York, 8 November, 1989. Available at: www.margaretthatcher.org/document/107817.
Tissot, W. and Kohler, Y.. 2013. Integration of Nature Protection in Forest Policy in France. INTEGRATE Country Report. Freiburg: EFICENT-OEF.
Vit, J. 2015. Indonesia losing billions from illegal logging. Mongabay, 9 November, 2015. https://news.mongabay.com/2015/11/indonesia-losing-billions-from-illegal-logging/
Von Carlowitz, H. C. 2013. Sylvicultura Oeconomica: Hausswirthliche Nachricht und Naturmaige Anweisung zur Wilden Baum-Zucht (Leipzig: Faksimile der Erstauflage, 1713), 2013 reprint with an introduction by J. Huss and F. von Gadow, cited in Pistorius and Kiff, ‘The Politics of German Finance for REDD+’.
Watts, J. 2017. The Amazon effect: how deforestation is starving Sao Paulo of water. The Guardian, 28 November, 2017. Available at: www.theguardian.com/cities/2017/nov/28/sao-paulo-water-amazon-deforestation
Weisse, M. and Goldman, E.. 2018. 2017 Was the Second-Worse Year on Record for Tropical Tree Cover Loss. Online blog. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute. Available at: www.wri.org/blog/2018/06/2017-was-second-worst-year-record-tropical-tree-cover-loss
Wildlife Conservation Society. 2012. Amazing photos chronicle staggering diversity of Bolivia’s Madidi National Park. Science Daily, 12 September, 2012.
World Bank. 2015. Indonesia Economic Quarterly: Reforming and Uncertainty. World Bank Group. http://pubdocs.worldbank.org/pubdocs/publicdoc/2015/12/844171450085661051/IEQ-EC2015-ENG.pdf
Yanagisawa, H., Koshimura, S., Miyagi, T. and Imamura, F.. 2010. Tsunami damage reduction performance of a mangrove forest in Banda Aceh, Indonesia inferred from field data and a numerical model. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 115(C6): Article C06032.