1. , , , et al. The Canadian CT Head Rule for patients with minor head injury. Lancet 2001;357:1391–6.
2. , . Assessment of coma and impaired consciousness: a practical scale. Lancet 2;1974:81–4.
3. , , , et al. Assessing the conscious level in infants and young children: a paediatric version of the Glasgow Coma Scale. Childs Nerv Syst 1988;4:30–3.
4. , , , et al. The conundrum of the Glasgow Coma Scale in intubated patients: a linear regression prediction of the Glasgow verbal score from the Glasgow Eye and Motor Scores. J Trauma Injury Infect Crit Care 1998;44:839–45.
5. , , , et al. Ethinic and racial disparities in emergency department care for mild traumatic brain injury. Acad Emerg Med 2003;10:1209–17.
6. , , , et al. Predicting intracranial traumatic findings on computed tomography in patients with minor head injury: the CHIP prediction rule. Ann Intern Med 2007;146:397–405.
7. . Rates of hospitalization related to traumatic brain injury: nine states, 2003. MMWR 2007;56:167.
8. , , , et al. An epidemiological study of head injuries in a UK population attending an emergency department. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2006;77:699–701.
9. , , , et al. Isolated traumatic brain injury: age is an independent predictor of mortality and early outcome. J Trauma 2002;52:907–11.
10. . Clinical decision instruments for CT scanning in minor head injury. JAMA 2005;294:1551–3.
11. , , , et al. Practice management guidelines for the management of mild traumatic brain injury. J Trauma 2001;51:1016–26.
12. , Trends in hospitalization associated with traumatic brain injury. JAMA 1999;282:954–7.
13. , , , . Neurologic Emergencies: A Symptom-Oriented Approach, 2nd edn. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003.
14. . Arterial PCO2 and cerebral hemodynamics. Am J Physiol 1964;206:25.
15. , , , et al. Hyperventilation induced cerebral ischemia in patients with acute brain lesions: demonstration by xenon enhanced CT. Am J Neuroradiol 1993;14:475.
16. , , . Acute regional/cerebral blood flow changes caused by severe head injuries. J Neurosurg 1991;74:407–14.
17. . Guidelines for the Management of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury, 3rd edn. New York: Brain Trauma Foundation Press, 2007.
18. , , , . Urban and rural traumatic brain injuries in Colorado. Ann Epidemiol 1997;7:207–12.
19. , , . Head injuries in country and city: a study of hospital separations in South Australia. Med J Australia 1984;141:13–17.
20. , , , et al. Indications for computed tomography in patients with minor head injury. N Engl J Med 200;343:100–5.
21. , , , et al. Clinical predictors of abnormality disclosed by computed tomography after mild head trauma. Neurosurg 1993;32:9–15.
22. , , , et al. Intracranial hemorrhage associated with tangential gunshot wounds to the head. Acad Emerg Med 1998;5:672–8.
23. , , , et al. The role of secondary brain injury in determining outcome from severe head injury. J Trauma 1993;34:216–22.
24. , , . Evaluation and significance of the pupillary light reflex in trauma patients. Ann Emerg Med 1993;22:1052–7.
25. , , , et al. Severe head injuries in three countries. J Neurol Neurosurg Psych 1977;40:291–8.
26. , , , et al. Validity of a set of clinical criteria to rule out injury to the cervical spine in patients with blunt trauma. N Engl J Med 2000;343:94–9.
27. , . Endotracheal intubation in the field improves survival in patients with severe head injury. Arch Surg 1997;132:592–7.
28. , , , et al. The effect of paramedic rapid sequence intubation on outcome in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. J Trauma 2003;54:444–53.
29. , , , et al. The impact of hypoxia and hyperventilation on outcome after paramedic rapid sequence intubation of severely head injured patients. J Trauma 2004;57:1–10.
30. , , , et al. Unrecognized misplacement of endotracheal tubes by ground prehospital providers. Prehosp Emerg Care 2007;11:213–18.
31. , , . Prehospital resuscitation of hypotensive trauma patients with 7.5% NaCl versus 7.5% NaCl with added dextran: a controlled trial. J Trauma 1993;34:622–32.
32. , , , et al. Prehospital hypertonic saline resuscitation of patients with hypotension and severe traumatic brain injury. JAMA 2004;291:1350–7.
33. , , , et al. Out-of-hospital administration of mannitol to head-injured patients does not change systolic blood pressure. Acad Emerg Med 1996;3:840–8.
34. , , , et al. Acute hypoglycemia masquerading as head trauma: a report of four cases. Am J Emerg Med 1996;14:543–7.
35. , , , et al. Prognostic value of secondary insults in traumatic brain injury: results from the IMPACT study. J Neurotrauma 2007;24:287–93.
36. . Head injury and brain ischemia – implications for threrapy. Br J Anaesth 1985;57:120–30.
37. , , , et al. Correlation of cerebral perfusion pressure and Glasgow Coma Scale to outcome. J Trauma 1987;27:1007–13.
38. . The first decade of continuous monitoring of jugular bulb oxyhemoglobin saturation: management strategies and clinical outcome. Crit Care Med 1998;26:344–51.
39. . The effect of associated injuries, blood loss, and oxygen debt on death and disability in blunt traumatic brain injury: the need for early physiologic predictors of severity. J Neurotrauma 1995;12:579–90.
40. , , , et al. 7.5% sodium chloride/dextran for resuscitation of trauma patients undergoing helicopter transport. Arch Surg 1991;126:1065–72.
41. , , , et al. Direct comparison of cerebrovascular effects of norepinephrine and dopamine in head-injured patients. Crit Care Med 2004;32:1049–54.
42. , , , et al. The use of intramuscular benzodiazepines and antipsychotic agents in the treatment of acute agitation or violence in the emergency department. J Emerg Med 2006;31:317–24.
43. , , , et al. Pain in the emergency department: results of the Pain and Emergency Medicine Initiative (PEMI) Multicenter Study. J Pain 2007;8:460–6.
44. , , , et al. Emergency department management of mild traumatic brain injury in the USA. Emerg Med J 2005;22:473–7.
45. , . The relationship between blood glucose, mean arterial blood pressure and outcome after severe head injury: an observational study. Injury, Int J Care Injured 2002;33:339–44.
46. , , , et al. A randomized, double-blind study of phenytoin for the prevention of post-traumatic seizures. N Engl J Med 1990;323:497–502.
47. . Posttraumatic seizures. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1993;74:983–1001.
48. . Cooperative prospective study on posttraumatic epilepsy: risk factors and the effect of prophylactic anticonvulsant. Jpn J Psychiatry Neurol 1992;46:311–15.
49. , , , et al. Valproate therapy for prevention of posttraumatic seizures: a randomized trial. J Neurosurg 1999;91:593–600.
50. , , , et al. Failure of prophylactically administered phenytoin to prevent late posttraumatic seizures. J Neurosurg 1983;58:236–41.
51. . Hypertension management in neurologic emergencies. Ann Emerg Med 2008;51:S24–7.
52. , . Blood pressure management in traumatic brain injury. Ann Emerg Med 2008;51:S37–8.
53. , . Scalp lacerations resulting in hemorrhagic shock: case reports and recommended management. J Emerg Med 1988;6:377–9.
54. , , , et al. Antibiotic prophylaxis after basilar skull fractures: a meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis 1998;27:364–9.
55. , , , et al. Use of antibiotics in penetrating craniocerebral injuries “Infection in Neurosurgery” Working Party of British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. Lancet 2000;355:1813–17.
56. , , , et al. The relationship of intraocular pressure to intracranial pressure. Ann Emerg Med 2004;43:585–91.
57. , . Hyperventilation and cerebral blood flow. Stroke 1972;3:566–75.
58. , , , . The effects of mannitol on blood viscosity. J Neurosurg 1981;55:550–3.
59. , . Mannitol infusion: the acute effect of the intravenous infusion of mannitol on blood and plasma volumes. N Engl J Med 1961;264:1085–8.
60. , , . The rebound phenomenon and hypertonic solutions. J Neurosurg 1964;21:1059–66.
61. , , . Mannitol for acute traumatic brain injury. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007;1:CD001049.
62. , , . Improving clinical outcomes from acute subdural hematomas with the emergency preoperative administration of high doses of mannitol: a randomized trial. Neurosurgery 2001;49:864–71.
63. , , . Major clinical and physiological benefits of early high doses of mannitol for intraparenchymal temporal lobe hemorrhages with abnormal papillary widening: a randomized trial. Neurosurgery 2002;51:628–37.
64. , , , . Successful use of the new high-dose mannitol treatment in patients with Glasgow Coma Scale scores of 3 and bilateral abnormal papillary widening: a randomized trial. J Neurosurg 2004;100:376–83.
65. . Osmotherapy. Basic concepts and controversies. Crit Care Clin 1997;13:105–29.
66. , , , et al. Hypertonic/hyperoncotic saline attenuates microcirculatory disturbances after traumatic brain injury. J Trauma 1977;42:S41–7.
67. , , , et al. Hypertonic saline solution for control of elevated intracranial pressure in patients with exhausted response to mannitol and barbiturates. Neurol Res 1999;21:758–64.
68. , , , . Randomized, controlled trial on the effect of a 20% mannitol solution and a 7.5% saline/6% dextran solution on increased intracranial pressure after brain injury. Crit Care Med 2005;33:196–202.
69. , , , et al. Isovolume hypertonic solutes (sodium chloride or mannitol) in the treatment of refractory posttraumatic intracranial hypertension: 2 ml/kg 7.5% saline is more effective than 2 ml/kg 20% mannitol. Crit Care Med 2003;31:1683–7.
70. , . Hypertonic saline solutions in brain injury. Curr Opin Crit Care 2004;10:126–31.
71. , , , et al. Use of hypertonic saline in the treatment of severe refractory posttraumatic intracranial hypertension in pediatric traumatic brain injury. Crit Care Med 2000;28:1144–51.
72. , , , . Use of hypertonic saline/acetate infusion in treatment of cerebral edema in patients with head trauma: experience at a single center. J Trauma 1999;47:659–65.
73. , , , et al. The free radical pathology and the microcirculation in the major central nervous system trauma. Acta Physiol Scand Suppl 1980;492:91–119.
74. , , , et al. Alterations in cerebral blood flow, oxygen metabolism, and electrical activity produced by high-dose thiopental. Neurosurgery 1980;7:598–603.
75. , . Barbiturates for acute traumatic brain injury. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1999;3:CD000033.
76. , , , et al. Guidelines for the surgical management of traumatic brain injury. Neurosurgery 2006;58(S2):1–60.
77. , . Burr holes. In , (eds), Emergency Medicine Procedures. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2004: pp. 881–9.
78. , , , et al. Moderate head injury: completing the clinical spectrum of brain trauma. Neurosurgery 1982;11:344–51.
79. , , , et al. Defining acute mild head injury in adults: a proposal based on prognostic factors, diagnosis and management. J Neurotrauma 2001;18:657–64.
80. , , , et al. Routine follow up after head injury: a second randomized trial. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998;65:177–83.
81. , , , et al. Clinical policy: neuroimaging and decisionmaking in adult mild traumatic brain injury in the acute setting. Ann Emerg Med 2002;40:231–49.
82. , . Mild head injury: a plea for routine early CT scanning. J Trauma 1992;33:11–13.
83. , , , et al. Clinical features of head injury patients presenting with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15 and who require neurosurgical intervention. Ann Emerg Med 2006;48:245–51.
84. , , , et al. Comparison of the Canadian CT Head Rule and the New Orleans Criteria in patients with minor head injury. JAMA 2005;294:1511–18.
85. , , , et al. External validation of the Canadian CT Head Rule and the New Orleans Criteria for CT scanning in patients with minor head injury. JAMA 2005;294:1519–25.
86. , , , et al. A history of loss of consciousness or post-traumatic amnesia in minor head injury: “condition sine qua non” or one of the risk factors? J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2007;78:1359–64.
87. , , , et al. Comparison of MRI and CT for detection of acute intracerebral hemorrhage. JAMA 2004;292:1823–30.
88. , . Assessment of outcome after severe brain damage. Lancet 1975;1(7905):480–4.
89. , , , et al. Recent neuroimaging techniques in mild traumatic brain injury. J Neuropsych Clin Neurosci 2007;19:5–20.
90. . The management of minor closed head injury in children. Pediatrics 1999;104:1407–15.
91. , , , et al. Evaluation and management of children younger than two years old with apparently minor head trauma: proposed guidelines. Pediatrics 2001;107:983–93.
92. . Decision making in pediatric minor head trauma. Ann Emerg Med 2003;42:515–18.
93. , . Occult intracranial injury in infants. Ann Emerg Med 1998;32:680–6.
94. , , , et al. A decision rule for identifying children at low risk for brain injuries after blunt head trauma. Ann Emerg Med 2003;42:492–506.
95. , , , et al. Performance of a decision rule to predict need for computed tomography among children with blunt head trauma. Pediatrics 2006;117: e238–46.
96. , . Current controversies in the management of minor head injuries. Am J Emerg Med 2000;18:96–101.
97. , , . Longterm survival of Medicare patients with head injury. J Trauma 2007;62:419–23.
98. , , . ‘Talk and Die’ patients presenting to a major trauma centre over a 10 year period: a critical review. J Clin Neurosci 2007;14:618–23.
99. , , , et al. Time to deterioration of the elderly, anticoagulated, minor head injury patient who presents without evidence of neurologic abnormality. J Trauma 2003;54:492–6.
100. , , , et al. Rapid warfarin reversal in anticoagulated patients with traumatic intracranial hemorrhage reduces hemorrhage progression and mortality. J Trauma 2005;59:1131–7.
101. , , , et al. The effects of preinjury clopidogrel use on older trauma patients with head injuries. Am J Surg 2006;192:743–5.
102. , , , et al. Effects of antiplatelet agents of outcomes for elderly patients with traumatic intracranial hemorrhage. J Trauma 2005;58:518–22.
103. , , , et al. Emergency department discharge of patients with a negative cranial computed tomography scan after minimal head injury. Ann Surg 2000;232:126–32.
104. , , , et al. (2005). Mortality benefit of transfer to Level I versus Level II trauma centers for head injured patients. Health Serv Res 2005;40:435–57.
105. , , , et al. Noninvasive selective brain cooling by head and neck cooling is protective in severe traumatic brain injury. J Clin Neurosci 2006;13:995–1000.
106. , , , et al. Lack of effect of induction of hypothermia after acute brain injury. N Engl J Med 2001;344:556–63.
107. . Is keeping cool still hot? An update on hypothermia in brain injury. Curr Opin Crit Care 2004;10:116–19.
108. , . Current status of cerebral protection with mild-to-moderate hypothermia after traumatic brain injury. Curr Opin Crit Care 2007;13:153–5.
109. , , , et al. Therapeutic hypothermia for severely head-injured patients with acute subdural hematoma. J Clin Neurosci 2006;13:733–7.
110. , , , et al. Effects of recombinant activated factor VII in traumatic nonsurgical intracranial hemorrhage. Curr Surg 2006;63:310–17.
111. , , , et al. The use of recombinant factor VIIa (NovoSeven) for treatment of active or impending bleeding in brain injury: broadening the indications. J Clin Anesth 2006;18:545–51.
112. , , , et al. Thromboembolic complications associated with factor VIIa administration. J Trauma 2007;62:564–9.