Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2011
  • Online publication date: September 2011

Chapter 6 - Head trauma

from Section 2 - The injured patient

References

1. Stiell IG, Wells GA, Vandemheen K, et al. The Canadian CT Head Rule for patients with minor head injury. Lancet 2001;357:1391–6.
2. Teasdale G, Jennett BA. Assessment of coma and impaired consciousness: a practical scale. Lancet 2;1974:81–4.
3. Reilly PL, Simpson DA, Sprod R, et al. Assessing the conscious level in infants and young children: a paediatric version of the Glasgow Coma Scale. Childs Nerv Syst 1988;4:30–3.
4. Meredith W, Rutledge R, Fakhry SM, et al. The conundrum of the Glasgow Coma Scale in intubated patients: a linear regression prediction of the Glasgow verbal score from the Glasgow Eye and Motor Scores. J Trauma Injury Infect Crit Care 1998;44:839–45.
5. Bazarian JJ, Pope C, McClung J, et al. Ethinic and racial disparities in emergency department care for mild traumatic brain injury. Acad Emerg Med 2003;10:1209–17.
6. Smits M, Dippel DWJ, Steyerberg EW, et al. Predicting intracranial traumatic findings on computed tomography in patients with minor head injury: the CHIP prediction rule. Ann Intern Med 2007;146:397–405.
7. Centers for Disease Control. Rates of hospitalization related to traumatic brain injury: nine states, 2003. MMWR 2007;56:167.
8. Yates PJ, Williams WH, Harris A, et al. An epidemiological study of head injuries in a UK population attending an emergency department. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2006;77:699–701.
9. Mosenthal AC, Lavery RF, Addis M, et al. Isolated traumatic brain injury: age is an independent predictor of mortality and early outcome. J Trauma 2002;52:907–11.
10. Haydel MJ. Clinical decision instruments for CT scanning in minor head injury. JAMA 2005;294:1551–3.
11. Cushman JG, Agarwal N, Fabian TC, et al. Practice management guidelines for the management of mild traumatic brain injury. J Trauma 2001;51:1016–26.
12. Thurman D, Guerrero J Trends in hospitalization associated with traumatic brain injury. JAMA 1999;282:954–7.
13. Henry GL, Jagoda A, Little N, Pellegrino TR. Neurologic Emergencies: A Symptom-Oriented Approach, 2nd edn. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003.
14. Reivech M. Arterial PCO2 and cerebral hemodynamics. Am J Physiol 1964;206:25.
15. Stringer WA, Hasso AN, Thompson JR, et al. Hyperventilation induced cerebral ischemia in patients with acute brain lesions: demonstration by xenon enhanced CT. Am J Neuroradiol 1993;14:475.
16. Marion DW, Darby J, Yonas H. Acute regional/cerebral blood flow changes caused by severe head injuries. J Neurosurg 1991;74:407–14.
17. Brain Trauma Foundation. Guidelines for the Management of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury, 3rd edn. New York: Brain Trauma Foundation Press, 2007.
18. Gabella B, Hoffman R, Marine W, Stallones L. Urban and rural traumatic brain injuries in Colorado. Ann Epidemiol 1997;7:207–12.
19. Woodward A, Dorsch M, Simpson D. Head injuries in country and city: a study of hospital separations in South Australia. Med J Australia 1984;141:13–17.
20. Haydel MJ, Preston CA, Mills TJ, et al. Indications for computed tomography in patients with minor head injury. N Engl J Med 200;343:100–5.
21. Jeret JS, Mandell M, Anziska B, et al. Clinical predictors of abnormality disclosed by computed tomography after mild head trauma. Neurosurg 1993;32:9–15.
22. Anglin D, Hutson H, Luftman J, et al. Intracranial hemorrhage associated with tangential gunshot wounds to the head. Acad Emerg Med 1998;5:672–8.
23. Chestnut RM, Marshall LF, Klauber MR, et al. The role of secondary brain injury in determining outcome from severe head injury. J Trauma 1993;34:216–22.
24. Meyer S, Gibb T, Jurkovich G. Evaluation and significance of the pupillary light reflex in trauma patients. Ann Emerg Med 1993;22:1052–7.
25. Jennett B, Teasdale G, Galbraith S, et al. Severe head injuries in three countries. J Neurol Neurosurg Psych 1977;40:291–8.
26. Hoffman JR, Mower WR, Wolfson AB, et al. Validity of a set of clinical criteria to rule out injury to the cervical spine in patients with blunt trauma. N Engl J Med 2000;343:94–9.
27. Winchell RJ, Hoyt DB. Endotracheal intubation in the field improves survival in patients with severe head injury. Arch Surg 1997;132:592–7.
28. Davis D, Hoyt D, Ochs M, et al. The effect of paramedic rapid sequence intubation on outcome in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. J Trauma 2003;54:444–53.
29. Davis D, Dunford J, Poste J, et al. The impact of hypoxia and hyperventilation on outcome after paramedic rapid sequence intubation of severely head injured patients. J Trauma 2004;57:1–10.
30. Wirtz DD, Ortiz C, Newman DH, et al. Unrecognized misplacement of endotracheal tubes by ground prehospital providers. Prehosp Emerg Care 2007;11:213–18.
31. Vassar MJ, Perry CA, Holcroft JW. Prehospital resuscitation of hypotensive trauma patients with 7.5% NaCl versus 7.5% NaCl with added dextran: a controlled trial. J Trauma 1993;34:622–32.
32. Cooper J, Myles P, McDermott F, et al. Prehospital hypertonic saline resuscitation of patients with hypotension and severe traumatic brain injury. JAMA 2004;291:1350–7.
33. Sayre M, Daily S, Stern S, et al. Out-of-hospital administration of mannitol to head-injured patients does not change systolic blood pressure. Acad Emerg Med 1996;3:840–8.
34. Luber S, Brady W, Brand A, et al. Acute hypoglycemia masquerading as head trauma: a report of four cases. Am J Emerg Med 1996;14:543–7.
35. McHugh GS, Engel DC, Butcher I, et al. Prognostic value of secondary insults in traumatic brain injury: results from the IMPACT study. J Neurotrauma 2007;24:287–93.
36. Miller JD. Head injury and brain ischemia – implications for threrapy. Br J Anaesth 1985;57:120–30.
37. Changaris DG, McGraw CP, Richardson JD, et al. Correlation of cerebral perfusion pressure and Glasgow Coma Scale to outcome. J Trauma 1987;27:1007–13.
38. Cruz J. The first decade of continuous monitoring of jugular bulb oxyhemoglobin saturation: management strategies and clinical outcome. Crit Care Med 1998;26:344–51.
39. Siegel JH. The effect of associated injuries, blood loss, and oxygen debt on death and disability in blunt traumatic brain injury: the need for early physiologic predictors of severity. J Neurotrauma 1995;12:579–90.
40. Vassar MJ, Perry CA, Gannaway WL, et al. 7.5% sodium chloride/dextran for resuscitation of trauma patients undergoing helicopter transport. Arch Surg 1991;126:1065–72.
41. Steiner LA, Johnston AJ, Czosnyka M, et al. Direct comparison of cerebrovascular effects of norepinephrine and dopamine in head-injured patients. Crit Care Med 2004;32:1049–54.
42. Rund D, Ewing J, Mitzel K, et al. The use of intramuscular benzodiazepines and antipsychotic agents in the treatment of acute agitation or violence in the emergency department. J Emerg Med 2006;31:317–24.
43. Todd KH, Ducharme J, Choiniere M, et al. Pain in the emergency department: results of the Pain and Emergency Medicine Initiative (PEMI) Multicenter Study. J Pain 2007;8:460–6.
44. Bazarian JJ, McClung J, Cheng YT, et al. Emergency department management of mild traumatic brain injury in the USA. Emerg Med J 2005;22:473–7.
45. Walia S, Sutcliffe AJ. The relationship between blood glucose, mean arterial blood pressure and outcome after severe head injury: an observational study. Injury, Int J Care Injured 2002;33:339–44.
46. Temkin NR, Dikmen SS, Wilensky AJ, et al. A randomized, double-blind study of phenytoin for the prevention of post-traumatic seizures. N Engl J Med 1990;323:497–502.
47. Yablon SA. Posttraumatic seizures. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1993;74:983–1001.
48. Manaka S. Cooperative prospective study on posttraumatic epilepsy: risk factors and the effect of prophylactic anticonvulsant. Jpn J Psychiatry Neurol 1992;46:311–15.
49. Temkin NR, Dikmen SS, Anderson GD, et al. Valproate therapy for prevention of posttraumatic seizures: a randomized trial. J Neurosurg 1999;91:593–600.
50. Young B, Rapp RP, Nortan JA, et al. Failure of prophylactically administered phenytoin to prevent late posttraumatic seizures. J Neurosurg 1983;58:236–41.
51. Pancioli AM. Hypertension management in neurologic emergencies. Ann Emerg Med 2008;51:S24–7.
52. Shutter LA, Narayan RK. Blood pressure management in traumatic brain injury. Ann Emerg Med 2008;51:S37–8.
53. Lemos MJ, Clark DE. Scalp lacerations resulting in hemorrhagic shock: case reports and recommended management. J Emerg Med 1988;6:377–9.
54. Villalobos T, Arango C, Kubilis P, et al. Antibiotic prophylaxis after basilar skull fractures: a meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis 1998;27:364–9.
55. Bayston R, de Louvois J, Brown EM, et al. Use of antibiotics in penetrating craniocerebral injuries “Infection in Neurosurgery” Working Party of British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. Lancet 2000;355:1813–17.
56. Lashutka MK, Chandra A, Murray HN, et al. The relationship of intraocular pressure to intracranial pressure. Ann Emerg Med 2004;43:585–91.
57. Raichle ME, Plum F. Hyperventilation and cerebral blood flow. Stroke 1972;3:566–75.
58. Burke AM, Quest DO, Chien S, Cerri C. The effects of mannitol on blood viscosity. J Neurosurg 1981;55:550–3.
59. Barry KG, Berman AR. Mannitol infusion: the acute effect of the intravenous infusion of mannitol on blood and plasma volumes. N Engl J Med 1961;264:1085–8.
60. Javid M, Gilboe D, Cesario T. The rebound phenomenon and hypertonic solutions. J Neurosurg 1964;21:1059–66.
61. Wakai A, Roberts I, Schierhout G. Mannitol for acute traumatic brain injury. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007;1:CD001049.
62. Cruz J, Minoja G, Okuchi K. Improving clinical outcomes from acute subdural hematomas with the emergency preoperative administration of high doses of mannitol: a randomized trial. Neurosurgery 2001;49:864–71.
63. Cruz J, Minoja G, Okuchi K. Major clinical and physiological benefits of early high doses of mannitol for intraparenchymal temporal lobe hemorrhages with abnormal papillary widening: a randomized trial. Neurosurgery 2002;51:628–37.
64. Cruz J, Minoja G, Okuchi K, Facco E. Successful use of the new high-dose mannitol treatment in patients with Glasgow Coma Scale scores of 3 and bilateral abnormal papillary widening: a randomized trial. J Neurosurg 2004;100:376–83.
65. Paczynski RP. Osmotherapy. Basic concepts and controversies. Crit Care Clin 1997;13:105–29.
66. Härtl R, Medary M, Ruge M, et al. Hypertonic/hyperoncotic saline attenuates microcirculatory disturbances after traumatic brain injury. J Trauma 1977;42:S41–7.
67. Horn P, Munch E, Vajkoczy P, et al. Hypertonic saline solution for control of elevated intracranial pressure in patients with exhausted response to mannitol and barbiturates. Neurol Res 1999;21:758–64.
68. Battison C, Andrews PJ, Graham C, Petty T. Randomized, controlled trial on the effect of a 20% mannitol solution and a 7.5% saline/6% dextran solution on increased intracranial pressure after brain injury. Crit Care Med 2005;33:196–202.
69. Vialet R, Albanese J, Thomachot L, et al. Isovolume hypertonic solutes (sodium chloride or mannitol) in the treatment of refractory posttraumatic intracranial hypertension: 2 ml/kg 7.5% saline is more effective than 2 ml/kg 20% mannitol. Crit Care Med 2003;31:1683–7.
70. Bhardwaj A, Ulatowski JA. Hypertonic saline solutions in brain injury. Curr Opin Crit Care 2004;10:126–31.
71. Khanna S, Davis D, Peterson B, et al. Use of hypertonic saline in the treatment of severe refractory posttraumatic intracranial hypertension in pediatric traumatic brain injury. Crit Care Med 2000;28:1144–51.
72. Qureshi AI, Suarez JI, Castro A, Bhardwaj A. Use of hypertonic saline/acetate infusion in treatment of cerebral edema in patients with head trauma: experience at a single center. J Trauma 1999;47:659–65.
73. Demopoulous HB, Flamm ES, Pietronigro DD, et al. The free radical pathology and the microcirculation in the major central nervous system trauma. Acta Physiol Scand Suppl 1980;492:91–119.
74. Kassell NF, Hitchon PW, Gerk MK, et al. Alterations in cerebral blood flow, oxygen metabolism, and electrical activity produced by high-dose thiopental. Neurosurgery 1980;7:598–603.
75. Roberts I, Sydenham E. Barbiturates for acute traumatic brain injury. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1999;3:CD000033.
76. Bullock MR, Chesnut R, Ghajar J, et al. Guidelines for the surgical management of traumatic brain injury. Neurosurgery 2006;58(S2):1–60.
77. Ghandi Y, Penny DW. Burr holes. In Reichman EF, Simon RR (eds), Emergency Medicine Procedures. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2004: pp. 881–9.
78. Rimel RW, Giordani B, Barth JT, et al. Moderate head injury: completing the clinical spectrum of brain trauma. Neurosurgery 1982;11:344–51.
79. Servadei F, Teasdale G, Merry G, et al. Defining acute mild head injury in adults: a proposal based on prognostic factors, diagnosis and management. J Neurotrauma 2001;18:657–64.
80. Wade DT, King NS, Wenden FJ, et al. Routine follow up after head injury: a second randomized trial. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998;65:177–83.
81. Jagoda AS, Cantrill SV, Wears RL, et al. Clinical policy: neuroimaging and decisionmaking in adult mild traumatic brain injury in the acute setting. Ann Emerg Med 2002;40:231–49.
82. Stein SC, Ross SE. Mild head injury: a plea for routine early CT scanning. J Trauma 1992;33:11–13.
83. Clement CM, Stiell IG, Schull MJ, et al. Clinical features of head injury patients presenting with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15 and who require neurosurgical intervention. Ann Emerg Med 2006;48:245–51.
84. Stiell IG, Clement CM, Rowe BH, et al. Comparison of the Canadian CT Head Rule and the New Orleans Criteria in patients with minor head injury. JAMA 2005;294:1511–18.
85. Smits M, Dippel DWJ, de Haan GG, et al. External validation of the Canadian CT Head Rule and the New Orleans Criteria for CT scanning in patients with minor head injury. JAMA 2005;294:1519–25.
86. Smits M, Hunink M, Nederkoorn PJ, et al. A history of loss of consciousness or post-traumatic amnesia in minor head injury: “condition sine qua non” or one of the risk factors? J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2007;78:1359–64.
87. Kidwell CS, Chalela JA, Saver JL, et al. Comparison of MRI and CT for detection of acute intracerebral hemorrhage. JAMA 2004;292:1823–30.
88. Jennett B, Bond M. Assessment of outcome after severe brain damage. Lancet 1975;1(7905):480–4.
89. Belanger HG, Vanderploeg RD, Curtiss G, et al. Recent neuroimaging techniques in mild traumatic brain injury. J Neuropsych Clin Neurosci 2007;19:5–20.
90. American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Quality Improvement. The management of minor closed head injury in children. Pediatrics 1999;104:1407–15.
91. Schutzman SA, Barnes P, Duhaime AC, et al. Evaluation and management of children younger than two years old with apparently minor head trauma: proposed guidelines. Pediatrics 2001;107:983–93.
92. Greenes DS. Decision making in pediatric minor head trauma. Ann Emerg Med 2003;42:515–18.
93. Greenes DS, Schutzman SA. Occult intracranial injury in infants. Ann Emerg Med 1998;32:680–6.
94. Palchak MJ, Holmes JF, Vance CW, et al. A decision rule for identifying children at low risk for brain injuries after blunt head trauma. Ann Emerg Med 2003;42:492–506.
95. Oman JA, Cooper RJ, Holmes JF, et al. Performance of a decision rule to predict need for computed tomography among children with blunt head trauma. Pediatrics 2006;117: e238–46.
96. Savitsky EA, Votey SR. Current controversies in the management of minor head injuries. Am J Emerg Med 2000;18:96–101.
97. Donohue JT, Clark DE, DeLorenzo MA. Longterm survival of Medicare patients with head injury. J Trauma 2007;62:419–23.
98. Goldschlager T, Rosenfeld JV, Winter CD. ‘Talk and Die’ patients presenting to a major trauma centre over a 10 year period: a critical review. J Clin Neurosci 2007;14:618–23.
99. Reynolds FD, Dietz PA, Higgins D, et al. Time to deterioration of the elderly, anticoagulated, minor head injury patient who presents without evidence of neurologic abnormality. J Trauma 2003;54:492–6.
100. Ivascu FA, Howells GA, Junn FS, et al. Rapid warfarin reversal in anticoagulated patients with traumatic intracranial hemorrhage reduces hemorrhage progression and mortality. J Trauma 2005;59:1131–7.
101. Jones K, Sharp C, Mangram A, et al. The effects of preinjury clopidogrel use on older trauma patients with head injuries. Am J Surg 2006;192:743–5.
102. Ohm C, Mina A, Howells G, et al. Effects of antiplatelet agents of outcomes for elderly patients with traumatic intracranial hemorrhage. J Trauma 2005;58:518–22.
103. Livingston DH, Lavery RF, Passannante MR, et al. Emergency department discharge of patients with a negative cranial computed tomography scan after minimal head injury. Ann Surg 2000;232:126–32.
104. McConnell K, Newgard C, Mullins R, et al. (2005). Mortality benefit of transfer to Level I versus Level II trauma centers for head injured patients. Health Serv Res 2005;40:435–57.
105. Qiu W, Shen H, Zhang Y, et al. Noninvasive selective brain cooling by head and neck cooling is protective in severe traumatic brain injury. J Clin Neurosci 2006;13:995–1000.
106. Clifton GL, Miller ER, Choi SC, et al. Lack of effect of induction of hypothermia after acute brain injury. N Engl J Med 2001;344:556–63.
107. Clifton GL. Is keeping cool still hot? An update on hypothermia in brain injury. Curr Opin Crit Care 2004;10:116–19.
108. Jiang J, Yang X. Current status of cerebral protection with mild-to-moderate hypothermia after traumatic brain injury. Curr Opin Crit Care 2007;13:153–5.
109. Inamasu J, Saito R, Nakamura Y, et al. Therapeutic hypothermia for severely head-injured patients with acute subdural hematoma. J Clin Neurosci 2006;13:733–7.
110. White CE, Schrank AE, Baskin TW, et al. Effects of recombinant activated factor VII in traumatic nonsurgical intracranial hemorrhage. Curr Surg 2006;63:310–17.
111. Yusim Y, Perel A, Berkenstadt H, et al. The use of recombinant factor VIIa (NovoSeven) for treatment of active or impending bleeding in brain injury: broadening the indications. J Clin Anesth 2006;18:545–51.
112. Rhys Thomas GO, Dutton RP, Hemlock B, et al. Thromboembolic complications associated with factor VIIa administration. J Trauma 2007;62:564–9.