Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2018
  • Online publication date: July 2018

Chapter 20 - Dissociative versus Nondissociative Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

from Section 5 - Dissecting the Clinical Picture

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. DSM-IV-TR. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition.DSM-5. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.
Bernstein, E. M., & Putnam, F. W. (1986). Development, reliability, and validity of a dissociation scale. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 174, 727–35.
Bremner, J. D., Southwick, S., Brett, E., et al. (1992). Dissociation and posttraumatic stress disorder in Vietnam combat veterans. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 149, 328–32.
Brown, R. J., & Lewis-Fernandez, R. (2011). Culture and conversion disorder: implications for DSM-5. Psychiatry, 74, 187206.
Bryant, R. A. (2007). Does dissociation further our understanding of PTSD? Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 21, 183–91.
Cloitre, M., Koenen, K. C., Cohen, L. R., & Han, H. (2002). Skills training in affective and interpersonal regulation followed by exposure: a phase-based treatment for PTSD related to childhood abuse. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 1067–74.
Cloitre, M., Miranda, R., Stovall-McClogh, K. C., & Han, H. (2005). Beyond PTSD: emotion regulation and interpersonal problems as predictors of functional impairment in survivors of childhood abuse. Behavior Therapy, 36, 119–24.
Cloitre, M., Petkova, E., Wang, J., & Lu Lassell, F. (2012). An examination of the influence of a sequential treatment on the course and impact of dissociation among women with PTSD related to childhood abuse. Depression and Anxiety, 29, 709–17.
Cloitre, M., Stolbach, B. C., Herman, J. L., et al. (2009). A developmental approach to complex PTSD: childhood and adult cumulative trauma as predictors of symptom complexity. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 22, 399408.
Dalenberg, C. J., Brand, B. L., Gleaves, D. H., et al. (2012). Evaluation of the evidence for the trauma and fantasy models of dissociation. Psychological Bulletin, 138, 550–88.
Evren, C., Sar, V., Dalbudak, E., et al. (2011). Lifetime PTSD and quality of life among alcohol-dependent men: impact of childhood emotional abuse and dissociation. Psychiatry Research, 186, 8590.
Foote, B., Smolin, Y., Neft, D. I., & Lipschitz, D. (2008). Dissociative disorders and suicidality in psychiatric outpatients. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 196, 2936.
Friedman, M. J., Resick, P. A., Bryant, R. A., et al. (2011). Classification of trauma and stressor-related disorders in DSM-5. Depression and Anxiety, 28, 737–49.
Ginzburg, K., Koopman, C., Butler, L. D., et al. (2006). Evidence for a dissociative subtype of post-traumatic stress disorder among help-seeking childhood sexual abuse survivors. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 7, 727.
Hansen, M., Ross, J., Armour, C. (2017). Evidence of the dissociative PTSD subtype: a systematic literature review of latent class and profile analytic studies of PTSD. Journal of Affective Disorders, 213, 5969.
Herman, J. L. (1992). Complex PTSD: a syndrome in survivors of prolonged and repeated trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 5, 377–91.
Hinton, D. E., & Lewis-Fernandez, R. (2011). The cross-cultural validity of posttraumatic stress disorder: implications for DSM-5. Depression and Anxiety, 28, 783801.
Hosmer, D. W., & Lemeshow, S. (2000). Applied Logistic Regression, 2nd edn. New York, NY: Wiley & Sons.
Janet, P. (1907). The Major Symptoms of Hysteria: Fifteen Lectures Given in the Medical School of Harvard University. New York, NY: MacMillan.
Kamen, C., Bergstrom, J., Koopman, C., Lee, S., & Gore-Felton, C. (2012). Relationships among childhood trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder, and dissociation in men living with HIV/AIDS. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 13, 102–14.
Lanius, R. A., Frewen, P. A., Vermetten, E., & Yehuda, R. (2010a). Fear conditioning and early life vulnerabilities: two distinct pathways of emotional dysregulation and brain dysfunction in PTSD. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 1, 5467.
Lanius, R. A., Vermetten, E., Loewenstein, R. J., et al. (2010b). Emotion modulation in PTSD: clinical and neurobiological evidence for a dissociative subtype. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 167, 640–7.
Lanius, R. A., Brand, B., Vermetten, E., Frewen, P. A., & Spiegel, D. (2012). The dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder: rationale, clinical and neurobiological evidence, and implications. Depression and Anxiety, 29, 701–8.
Leon, A. C., Olfson, M., Portera, L., Farber, L., & Sheehan, D. V. (1997). Assessing psychiatric impairment in primary care with the Sheehan Disability Scale. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 27, 93105.
Lochner, C., Seedat, S., Hemmings, S. M., et al. (2004). Dissociative experiences in obsessive-compulsive disorder and trichotillomania: clinical and genetic findings. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 45, 384–91.
Nock, M. K., Hwang, I., Sampson, N., et al. (2009). Cross-national analysis of the associations among mental disorders and suicidal behavior: findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. PLOS Medicine, 6, e1000123.
Nugent, N. R., Koenen, K. C., & Bradley, B. (2012). Heterogeneity of posttraumatic stress symptoms in a highly traumatized low income, urban, African American sample. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 46, 1576–83.
Putnam, F. W., Carlson, E. B., Ross, C. A., et al. (1996). Patterns of dissociation in clinical and nonclinical samples. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 184, 673–9.
Resick, P. A., Suvak, M. K., Johnides, B. D., Mitchell, K. S., & Iverson, K. M. (2012). The impact of dissociation on PTSD treatment with cognitive processing therapy. Depression and Anxiety, 29, 718–30.
Spiegel, D., Loewenstein, R. J., Lewis-Fernandez, R., et al. (2011). Dissociative disorders in DSM-5. Depression and Anxiety, 28, E1745.
Steuwe, C., Lanius, R. A., & Frewen, P. A. (2012). Evidence for a dissociative subtype of PTSD by latent profile and confirmatory factor analyses in a civilian sample. Depression and Anxiety, 29, 689700.
Strachey, J. (1955). The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, Volume II (1893–1895): Studies on Hysteria. London, England: The Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psycho-Analysis.
van der Hart, O., Nijenhuis, E., Steele, K., & Brown, D. (2004). Trauma-related dissociation: conceptual clarity lost and found. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 38, 906–14.
van Ijzendoorn, M. H., & Schuengel, C. (1996). The measurement of dissociation in normal and clinical populations: meta-analytic validation of the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES). Clinical Psychology Review, 16, 365–82.
Waelde, L. C., Silvern, L., & Fairbank, J. A. (2005). A taxometric investigation of dissociation in Vietnam veterans. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 18, 359–69.
Waller, N., Putnam, F. W., & Carlson, E. B. (1996). Types of dissociation and dissociative types: a taxometric analysis of dissociative experiences. Psychological Methods, 1, 300–21.
Watson, D. (2003). Investigating the construct validity of the dissociative taxon: stability analyses of normal and pathological dissociation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112, 298305.
Wolf, E. J., Lunney, C. A., Miller, M. W., et al. (2012a). The dissociative subtype of PTSD: a replication and extension. Depression and Anxiety, 29, 679–88.
Wolf, E. J., Miller, M. W., Reardon, A. F., et al. (2012b). A latent class analysis of dissociation and posttraumatic stress disorder: evidence for a dissociative subtype. Archives of General Psychiatry, 69, 698705.
Zucker, M., Spinazzola, J., Blaustein, M., & van der Kolk, B. A. (2006). Dissociative symptomatology in posttraumatic stress disorder and disorders of extreme stress. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 7, 1931.