1. , , , , . Stroke. Lancet 2003; 362:1211–24.
2. , , , et al. Neurorehabilitation nach Hirnschlag. Schweiz Med Forum 2007; 7:294–7.
3. , . Neurorehabilitation of stroke. J Neurol 2012; 259:817–32.
4. , , , et al. Management of Adult Stroke Rehabilitation Care: a clinical practice guideline. Stroke 2005; 36:e100–43.
5. . Degeneration and Regeneration of The Nervous System. London: Oxford University Press; 1928.
6. . Übungstherapie. In: , , eds. Handbuch der Neurologie, Vol. 8, Allgemeine Neurologie. 1936; 316–414.
7. . Neurorehabilitation: a bridge between basic science and clinical practice. Eur J Neurol 2001; 8:221–5.
8. . The Organization of Behavior: A Neuropsychological Approach. New York: Wiley; 1949.
9. . Basis for neural plasticity. In: , Neural Plasticity and Disorders of the Nervous System. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2006: 7–32.
10. . Neuronale Plastizität. In: , ed. Neurologische Rehabilitation. Stuttgart: Thieme; 2004: 1–13.
11. . Brain plasticity: from pathophysiological mechanisms to therapeutic applications. J Clin Neurosci 2006; 13:885–97.
12. . Mechanisms for recovery of motor function following cortical damage. Curr Opin Neurobiol 2006; 16:638–44.
13. . Future perspectives in functional neuroimaging in stroke recovery. Eura Medicophys 2007; 43:285–94.
14. , . Reorganization of movement representations in primary motor cortex following focal ischemic infarcts in adult squirrel monkeys. J Neurophysiol 1996; 75:2144–9.
15. , , , . Use-dependent alterations of movement representations in primary motor cortex of adult squirrel monkeys. J Neurosci 1996; 16:785–807.
16. , , , , . Training-induced changes of motor cortex representations in stroke patients. Acta Neurol Scand 2000; 101:321–6.
17. , , , , . Vicarious function within the human primary motor cortex? A longitudinal fMRI stroke study. Brain 2005; 128:1122–38.
18. , . Mechanisms underlying recovery of motor function after stroke. Arch Neurol 2004; 61:1844–8.
19. , , , . Neural correlates of motor recovery after stroke: a longitudinal fMRI study. Brain 2003; 126:2476–96.
20. , , , . Neural correlates of outcome after stroke: a cross-sectional fMRI study. Brain 2003; 126:1430–48.
21. , . Functional neuroimaging studies of motor recovery after stroke in adults: a review. Stroke 2003; 34:1553–66.
22. , , . Compensatory role of the cortico-rubro-spinal tract in motor recovery after stroke. Neurology 2012; 79:515–22.
23. , , , et al. Direct demonstration of interhemispheric inhibition of the human motor cortex produced by transcranial magnetic stimulation. Exp Brain Res 1999; 124:520–4.
24. , , , et al. Motor cortical disinhibition in the unaffected hemisphere after unilateral cortical stroke. Brain 2002;125:1896–907.
25. , , . Efficacy of rehabilitative experience declines with time after focal ischemic brain injury. J Neurosci 2004; 24:1245–54.
26. , . Formation of new connections in adult rat brains after partial deafferentation. Nature 1971; 232:542–5.
27. . Lesion-induced plasticity as a potential mechanism for recovery and rehabilitative training. Curr Opin Neurol 1998;11:655–62.
28. . Die Lokalisation in Grosshirn und der Abbau der Funktion durch kortikale Herde. Wiesbaden: Bergmann; 1914.
29. , . Environment, social interaction, and physical activity as determinants of functional outcome after cerebral infarction in the rat. Exp Neurol 1996; 139:322–7.
30. , , , . Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for improving function after stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013; 5:CD008862.
31. , , , et al. Non-invasive brain stimulation in neglect rehabilitation: an update. Front Hum Neurosci 2013; 7:248.
32. , , , . One session of repeated parietal theta burst stimulation trains induces long-lasting improvement of visual neglect. Stroke 2009; 40:2791–6.
33. , , . The use of non-invasive brain stimulation techniques to facilitate recovery from post-stroke aphasia. Neuropsychol Rev 2011; 21:288–301.
34. , . Noninvasive cortical stimulation in neurorehabilitation: a review. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2006; 87:S84–93.
35. , , . Transcranial direct current stimulation in stroke recovery. Arch Neurol 2008; 65:1571–6.
36. , , , . Pattern-specific role of the current orientation used to deliver Theta Burst Stimulation. Clin Neurophysiol 2007; 118:1815–23.
37. , , . Exploring Theta Burst Stimulation as an intervention to improve motor recovery in chronic stroke. Clin Neurophysiol 2007; 118:333–42.
38. , . Does brain stimulation after stroke have a future? Curr Opin Neurol 2006; 19:543–50.
39. . Neural plasticity and recovery of function. Prog Brain Res 2005; 150:527–35.
40. , , . Functional electrical stimulation (FES) may modify the poor prognosis of stroke survivors with severe motor loss of the upper extremity: a preliminary study. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2008; 87:627–36.
41. , , . Functional electrical stimulation enhancement of upper extremity functional recovery during stroke rehabilitation: a pilot study. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2007; 21:207–15.
42. , , , et al. A randomized, placebo-controlled study of donepezil in poststroke aphasia. Neurology 2006; 67:1687–9.
43. , , , et al. Memantine and constraint-induced aphasia therapy in chronic poststroke aphasia. Ann Neurol 2009; 65:577–85.
44. , , , , . Methylphenidate in early poststroke recovery: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1998; 79:1047–50.
45. , , , . Piracetam improves activated blood flow and facilitates rehabilitation of poststroke aphasic patients. Stroke 2000; 31:2112–16.
46. , , , et al. Levodopa improves procedural motor learning in chronic stroke patients. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2008; 89:1633–41.
47. , , , . Effect of levodopa in combination with physiotherapy on functional motor recovery after stroke: a prospective, randomised, double-blind study. Lancet 2001; 358:787–90.
48. , , , et al. Noradrenergic enhancement improves motor network connectivity in stroke patients. Ann Neurol 2011; 69:375–88.
49. , , , et al. Fluoxetine for motor recovery after acute ischaemic stroke (FLAME): a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Neurol 2011; 10:123–30.
50. , . Reorganization of cerebral networks after stroke: new insights from neuroimaging with connectivity approaches. Brain 2011; 134:1264–76.
51. . Safety in pharmacological enhancement of stroke rehabilitation. Eur J Phys Rehabil Med 2013; 49:261–7.
52. , , , . Pharmacological modulation of plasticity in the human motor cortex. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2006; 20:243–51.
53. , , , . Very early versus delayed mobilisation after stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009; 1:CD006187.
54. . How do stroke units improve patient outcomes? A collaborative systematic review of the randomized trials. Stroke 1997; 28:2139–44.
55. , . Does the organization of postacute stroke care really matter? Stroke 2001; 32:268–74.
56. , , , . Inactive and alone: physical activity within the first 14 days of acute stroke unit care. Stroke 2004; 35:1005–9.
57. . Neuroscience and clinical practice: a personal postscript. Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2001; 36:285–6.
58. , , , . Immediate constraint-induced movement therapy causes local hyperthermia that exacerbates cerebral cortical injury in rats. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2004; 82:231–7.
59. , , , , . Use-dependent exacerbation of brain damage occurs during an early post-lesion vulnerable period. Brain Res 1998; 783:286–92.
60. , , . Use-dependent exaggeration of neuronal injury after unilateral sensorimotor cortex lesions. J Neurosci 1996; 16:4776–86.
61. , , , et al. Behavioral and neurophysiological effects of delayed training following a small ischemic infarct in primary motor cortex of squirrel monkeys. Exp Brain Res 2006; 169:106–16.
62. , , , et al. The effect of voluntary exercise exposure on histological and neurobehavioral outcomes after ischemic brain injury in the rat. Physiol Behav 2003; 80:167–75.
63. , , , , . Treatment in a combined acute and rehabilitation stroke unit: which aspects are most important? Stroke 1999; 30:917–23.
64. , , , . Early and long-term outcome of rehabilitation in stroke patients: the role of patient characteristics, time of initiation, and duration of interventions. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2003; 84:551–8.
65. , , , , . Timing of initiation of rehabilitation after stroke. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2005; 86:S34–40.
66. , , . The relation between therapy intensity and outcomes of rehabilitation in skilled nursing facilities. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2005; 86:373–9.
67. , , , . The Rivermead Mobility Index: a further development of the Rivermead Motor Assessment. Int Disabil Stud 1991; 13:50–4.
68. , . The modified Rivermead mobility index: validity and reliability. Disabil Rehabil 2000; 22:833–9.
69. , , , . Investigation of a new motor assessment scale for stroke patients. Phys Ther 1985; 65:175–80.
70. , . Reliability of the Modified Motor Assessment Scale and the Barthel Index. Phys Ther 1988; 68: 1077–81.
71. , , . Balance in elderly patients: the “get-up and go” test. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1986; 67:387–9.
72. . A performance test for assessment of upper limb function in physical rehabilitation treatment and research. Int J Rehabil Res 1981; 4:483–92.
73. , , , et al. Grip and pinch strength: normative data for adults. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1985; 66:69–74.
74. , . Functional Evaluation: The Barthel Index. Md State Med J 1965; 14:61–5.
75. , , , . The Barthel ADL Index: a reliability study. Int Disabil Stud 1988; 10:61–3.
76. , , , et al. Del Erweiterte Barthel-Index (EBI) – eine neue Skala zur Erfassung von Fähigkeitsstörungen bei neurologisachen patienten. Neurol Rehabil 1996; 2:7–13.
77. . Der Frühreha-Barthelindex (FRB) – eine Frührehabilitationsorientiere Erwieterung des Barthelindex. Rehabilitation (Stuttg) 1995; 34:69–73.
78. , . Measuring Health: A Guide to Rating Scales and Questionnaires. New York: Oxford University Press; 1996.
79. . Measurement in stroke: activity and quality of life. In: , , , eds. Recovery After Stroke. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2005: 135–60.
80. , , , et al. The stroke impact scale version 2.0. Evaluation of reliability, validity, and sensitivity to change. Stroke 1999; 30:2131–40.
81. , , , et al. Gait outcomes after acute stroke rehabilitation with supported treadmill ambulation training: a randomized controlled pilot study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002; 83:1258–65.
82. , . Comparison of partial body weight-supported treadmill gait training versus aggressive bracing assisted walking post stroke. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2000; 14:13–19.
83. , , , et al. Walking training of patients with hemiparesis at an early stage after stroke: a comparison of walking training on a treadmill with body weight support and walking training on the ground. Clin Rehabil 2001; 15:515–27.
84. , , . Step training with body weight support: effect of treadmill speed and practice paradigms on poststroke locomotor recovery. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002; 83:683–91.
85. , , , . A new approach to retrain gait in stroke patients through body weight support and treadmill stimulation. Stroke 1998; 29:1122–8.
86. , . The impact of rehabilitation on stroke outcomes: what is the evidence. In: , , , eds. Recovery After Stroke. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2005: 162–88.
87. , , , et al. Multicenter randomized clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of the Lokomat in subacute stroke. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2009; 23:5–13.
88. , , , et al. The effectiveness of locomotor therapy using robotic-assisted gait training in subacute stroke patients: a randomized controlled trial. PM R 2009; 1:516–23.
89. , , . Transfer of scientific concepts to clinical practice: recent robot-assisted training studies. Funct Neurol 2009; 24:173–7.
90. , , , , . Electromyographic versus rhythmic positional biofeedback in computerized gait retraining with stroke patients. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1990; 71:649–54.
91. , , . Rhythmic facilitation of gait training in hemiparetic stroke rehabilitation. J Neurol Sci 1997; 151:207–12.
92. , , , et al. Technique to improve chronic motor deficit after stroke. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1993; 74:347–54.
93. , , , et al. Effect of constraint-induced movement therapy on upper extremity function 3 to 9 months after stroke: the EXCITE randomized clinical trial. JAMA 2006; 296:2095–104.
94. , , , et al. Retention of upper limb function in stroke survivors who have received constraint-induced movement therapy: the EXCITE randomised trial. Lancet Neurol 2008; 7:33–40.
95. , , . Motor recovery after stroke: a systematic review. Lancet Neurol 2009; 8:741–54.
96. . Virtual reality and motor rehabilitation of the upper limb after stroke: a generation of progress? J Rehabil Med 2009; 41:1003–100.
97. , , . An estimated 30–60% of adult patients after stroke do not achieve satisfactory motor recovery of the upper limb despite intensive rehabilitation. J Rehabil Med 2009; 41:953.
98. , , . Effects of robot-assisted therapy on upper limb recovery after stroke: a systematic review. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2008; 22:111–21.
99. . Robotics in neuro-rehabilitation. J Rehabil Med 2009; 41:955–60.
100. , , , , . Evidence of the efficacy of occupational therapy in different conditions: an overview of systematic reviews. Clin Rehabil 2005; 19:247–54.
101. , , , et al. Virtual reality-augmented rehabilitation for patients following stroke. Phys Ther 2002; 82:898–915.
102. , , , et al. Effectiveness of virtual reality using Wii gaming technology in stroke rehabilitation: a pilot randomized clinical trial and proof of principle. Stroke 2010; 41:1477–84.
103. , , , et al. Does repetitive task training improve functional activity after stroke? A Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis. J Rehabil Med 2010; 42:9–14.
104. , , , et al. Repetitive task training for improving functional ability after stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007; 4:CD006073.
105. , , . Whole-body intensive rehabilitation is feasible and effective in chronic stroke survivors: a retrospective data analysis. Top Stroke Rehabil 2008; 15:247–55.
106. , , , et al. Relationship between maximal exercise capacity and walking capacity in adult hemiplegic stroke patients. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2006; 85:436–42.
107. , , , et al. Water-based exercise for cardiovascular fitness in people with chronic stroke: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004; 85:870–4.
108. , , . Task-related circuit training improves performance of locomotor tasks in chronic stroke: a randomized, controlled pilot trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2000; 81:409–17.
109. , , , , . Systematic muscle building exercises in the rehabilitation of stroke patients. NeuroRehabilitation 2002; 17:211–14.
110. , , , et al. Mirror therapy improves hand function in subacute stroke: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2008; 89:393–8.
111. , , , et al. Rehabilitation of hemiparesis after stroke with a mirror. Lancet 1999; 353:2035–6.
112. , , , . Body scheme gates visual processing. J Neurophysiol 2004; 91:2376–9.
113. , , , et al. A randomized controlled trial of mental imagery augment generalization of learning in acute poststroke patients. Stroke 2009; 40:2222–5.
114. , , , et al. Mental practice with motor imagery in stroke recovery: randomized controlled trial of efficacy. Brain 2011; 134(Pt 5):1373–86.
115. , , , . Intensive language therapy in chronic aphasia: Which aspects contribute most? Aphasiology 2008; 22:408–21.
116. , , . Intensity of aphasia therapy, impact on recovery. Stroke 2003; 34:987–93.
117. , , , , . Long-term stability of improved language functions in chronic aphasia after constraint-induced aphasia therapy. Stroke 2005; 36:1462–6.
118. , , , . Disturbance and recovery of language function: correlates in PET activation studies. Neuroimage 2003; 20 (Suppl 1):S42–9.
119. , , , et al. The right inferior frontal gyrus and poststroke aphasia: a follow-up investigation. Stroke 2007; 38:1286–92.
120. , , , et al. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and aphasia rehabilitation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2012; 93:S26–34.
121. , . A proposed regional hierarchy in recovery of post-stroke aphasia. Brain Lang 2006; 98:118–23.
122. , , , et al. Ventral and dorsal pathways for language. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2008; 105:18 035–40.
123. , , , , . How the ventral pathway got lost: and what its recovery might mean. Brain Lang 2011; 118:29–39.
124. , , , et al. Improved naming after transcranial direct current stimulation in aphasia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2008; 79:451–3.
125. , , , et al. Effects of noninvasive brain stimulation on language networks and recovery in early poststroke aphasia. Stroke 2013; 44:2240–6.
126. , , , et al. Theta burst stimulation over the right Broca’s homologue induces improvement of naming in aphasic patients. Stroke 2012; 43:2175–9.
127. . Current to the brain improves word-finding difficulties in aphasic patients. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2008; 79:364.
128. , , , et al. Dysarthria in acute ischemic stroke: lesion topography, clinicoradiologic correlation, and etiology. Neurology 2001; 56:1021–7.
129. , , . Swallowing disorders following acute stroke: prevalence and diagnostic accuracy. Cerebrovasc Dis 2000; 10:380–6.
130. , , , et al. Dysphagia after stroke: incidence, diagnosis, and pulmonary complications. Stroke 2005; 36:2756–63.
131. , , , . Complications and outcome after acute stroke. Does dysphagia matter? Stroke 1996; 27:1200–4.
132. , , , et al. Cause-specific mortality after first cerebral infarction: a population-based study. Stroke 2003; 34:1828–32.
133. , , , et al. Formal dysphagia screening protocols prevent pneumonia. Stroke 2005; 36:1972–6.
134. , , , et al. Dysphagia bedside screening for acute-stroke patients: the Gugging Swallowing Screen. Stroke 2007; 38:2948–52.
135. , , , et al. Qualitätskriterien und Standards für die Diagnostik und Therapie von Patienten mit neurologischen Schluckstörungen. Neurogene Dysphagien – Leitlinien der DGNKN. Neurol Rehabil 2003; 9(3–4):157–81.
136. , , . Fiberoptic endoscopic examination of swallowing safety: a new procedure. Dysphagia 1988; 2:216–19.
137. . Endoscopic evaluation of oral and pharyngeal phases of swallowing. GI Motility online (2006), doi:101038/gimo28, naturecom 2006.
138. . How to perform video-fluoroscopic swallowing studies. GI Motility online (2006), doi:101038/gimo95, naturecom 2006.
139. , , , , . A penetration-aspiration scale. Dysphagia 1996; 11:93–8.
140. , , , et al. Rehabilitation neurogener Dysphagien. In: , ed. Leitlinien für Diagnostik und Therapie in der Neurologie. Stuttgart: Thieme; 2005:746–56.
141. . Tracheostomy tubes and related appliances. Respir Care 2005; 50:497–510.
142. . Spasticity treatment with botulinum toxins. J Neural Transm 2008; 115:607–16.
143. , . Evidence-based systematic review on the efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin-A therapy in post-stroke spasticity. J Neural Transm 2008; 115:617–23.
144. , , , et al. EFNS guidelines on cognitive rehabilitation: report of an EFNS task force. Eur J Neurol 2005; 12:665–80.
145. , , , et al. Right spatial neglect after left hemisphere stroke: qualitative and quantitative study. Neurology 2004; 63:1600–5.
146. , , . Decrease of contralateral neglect by neck muscle vibration and spatial orientation of trunk midline. Brain 1993; 116(Pt 2):383–96.
147. , , , , . Impact of alertness training on spatial neglect: a behavioural and fMRI study. Neuropsychologia 2006; 44:1230–46.
148. , , , et al. Compensatory visual field training for patients with hemianopia after stroke. Neurosci Lett 2001; 306:189–92.
149. , . Recovery of visual fields in brain-lesioned patients by reaction perimetry treatment. J Neuroeng Rehabil 2007; 4:31.
150. . Pusher syndrome–a frequent but little-known disturbance of body orientation perception. J Neurol 2007; 254:415–24.
151. . The Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology of Stroke. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2013: 1–442.
152. , , , et al. Cognitive function in the locked-in syndrome. J Neurol 2008; 255:323–30.
153. , . Locked-in syndrome. BMJ 2005; 330:406–9.
154. , , , et al. Arthrographic and clinical findings in patients with hemiplegic shoulder pain. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2003; 84:1786–91.
155. , , . The shoulder-hand syndrome after stroke: a prospective clinical trial. Ann Neurol 1994; 36:728–33.
156. , , , . Interventions for preventing depression after stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008; 3:CD003689.
157. . Driver health and crash involvement: a case-control study. Accid Anal Prev 2006; 38:28–34.
158. , , . Driving after stroke: driving exposure, advice, and evaluations. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1997; 78:1338–45.
159. , , , et al. Effect of simulator training on driving after stroke: a randomized controlled trial. Neurology 2005; 65:843–50.
160. , , . Sexual function in men and women with neurological disorders. Lancet 2007; 369:512–25.