Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 1
  • Print publication year: 2014
  • Online publication date: June 2014

Chapter 47 - Evidence-based benefit of rehabilitation after stroke

from Section 7 - Disease-specific neurorehabilitation systems

Related content

Powered by UNSILO


1.Stroke Rehabilitation. Canadian Stroke Strategy–Canadian Best Practice Recommendations For Stroke Care. 2010; 99–127.
2. Langhorne P, Duncan P. Does the organization of postacute stroke care really matter? Stroke 2001; 32: 268–75.
3. Teasell R, Foley N, Salter K, et al. Evidence-based Review of Stroke Rehabilitation. 13th edn. London: EBRSR, 2010.
4. Van Exel J, Koopmanschap MA, Van Wijngaarden JD, et al. Cost of stroke and stroke services: determinants of patient costs and a comparison of costs of regular care and care organised in stroke services. Cost Eff Resour Alloc 2003; 1: 2.
5. Antithrombotic Trialist's Collaboration. Collaborative meta-analysis of randomised trials of antiplatelet therapy for prevention of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke in high-risk patients. BMJ 2002; 324: 71–86.
6. Baigent C, Blackwell L, Collins R, et al. Aspirin in the primary and secondary prevention of vascular disease: collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data from randomised trials. Lancet 2009; 373: 1849–60.
7. Chiu D, Krieger D, Villar-Cordova C, et al. Intravenous tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke: feasibility, safety, and efficacy in the first year of clinical practice. Stroke 1998; 29: 1476–7.
8. Riopelle R, Howse D, Bolton C, et al. Regional access to acute ischemic stroke interventions. Stroke 2001; 32: 652–5.
9. Gilligan AK, Thrift AG, Sturm JW, et al. Tissue plasminogen activator, aspirin and neuroprotection: which stroke intervention could provide the greatest community benefit? Cerebrovasc Dis 2005; 20: 239–44.
10. Ween JE, Alexander MP, D'Esposito M, et al. Factors predictive of stroke outcome in a rehabilitation setting. Neurology 1996; 47: 388–92.
11. Alexander MP. Stroke rehabilitation outcome. A potential use of predictive variables to establish levels of care. Stroke 1994; 25: 128–34.
12. Lo RC. Recovery and rehabilitation after stroke. Can Fam Physician 1986; 32: 1851–3.
13. Astrup J, Siesjo BK, Symon L. Thresholds in cerebral ischemia: the ischemic penumbra. Stroke 1981; 12: 723–5.
14. Nudo RJ, Plautz EJ, Frost SB. Role of adaptive plasticity in recovery of function after damage to motor cortex. Muscle Nerve 2001; 24: 1000–18.
15. Nudo RJ. Adaptive plasticity in motor cortex: implications for rehabilitation after brain injury. J Rehabil Med 2003; 41: 7–10.
16. Coq JD, Xerri C. Tactile impoverishment and sensorimotor restriction deteriorate the forepaw cutaneous map in the primary somatosensory cortex of adult rats. Exp Brain Res. 1999; 129: 518–31.
17. Cramer SC. Functional magnetic resonance imaging in stroke recovery. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am 2003; 14: S47–55.
18. Bergsneider M, Hovda D, Shalmon E, et al. Cerebral hyperglycolysis following severe traumatic brain injury in humans: a positron emission tomography study. J Neurosurg 1997; 86: 241–51.
19. Maeda T, Lee SM, Hovda DA. Restoration of cerebral vasoreactivity by an L-type calcium channel blocker following fluid percussion brain injury. J Neurotrauma 2005; 22: 763–71.
20. Kelly DE, Martin NA, Kordestani R, et al. Cerebral blood flow as a predictor of outcome following traumatic brain injury. J Neurosurg 1997; 86: 633–41.
21. Ip E, Giza C, Griesbach GS, et al. Effects of enriched environment and fluid percussion injury on dendritic arborization within the cerebral cortex of the developing rat. J Neurotrauma 2002; 19: 573–85.
22. Humm JL, Kozlowski DA, Bland ST, et al. Use-dependent exaggeration of brain injury: is glutamate involved? Exp Neurol 1999; 157: 349–58.
23. Giza CC, Maria NSS, Hovda DA. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit changes after traumatic injury to the developing brain. J Neurotrauma 2006; 23: 950–61.
24. Griesbach GS, Hovda DA, Molteni R, et al. Voluntary exercise following traumatic brain injury: brain-derived neurotrophic factor upregulation and recovery of function. Neuroscience 2004; 125: 129–39.
25. Biernaskie J, Chernenko G, Corbett D. Efficacy of rehabilitation experience declines with time after focal ischemic brain injury. J Neurosci 2004; 24: 1245–54.
26. Cifu D, Stewart D. Factors affecting functional outcome after stroke: a critical review of rehabilitation interventions. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1999; 80: S35–9.
27. Paolucci S, Antonucci G, Grasso M, et al. Early versus delayed inpatient stroke rehabilitation: a matched comparison conducted in Italy. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2000; 81: 695–700.
28. Salter K, Jutai J, Hartley M, et al. Impact of early vs delayed admission to rehabilitation on functional outcomes in persons with stroke. J Rehabil Med 2006; 38: 113–17.
29. Cumming TB, Thrift AG, Collier JM, et al. Very early mobilization after stroke fast-tracks return to walking: further results from the phase II AVERT randomized controlled trial. Stroke 2011; 42: 153–8.
30. Dromerick AW, Lang CE, Birkenmeier RL, et al. Very early constraint-induced movement during stroke rehabilitation (VECTORS): a single-center RCT. Neurology 2009; 73: 195–201.
31. De Wit L, Putman K, Dejaeger E, et al. Use of time by stroke patients: a comparison of four European rehabilitation centers. Stroke 2005; 36: 1977–83.
32. De Wit L, Putman K, Schuback B, et al. Motor and functional recovery after stroke: a comparison of 4 European rehabilitation centers. Stroke 2007; 38: 2101–7.
33. Conroy BE, DeJong G, Horn SD. Hospital-based stroke rehabilitation in the United States. Top Stroke Rehabil 2009; 16: 34–43.
34. Brunnstrom S. Motor testing procedures in hemiplegia; based on sequential recovery stages. Phys Ther 1966; 46: 357–75.
35. Lance J. The control of muscle tone, reflexes, and movement: Robert Wartenberg lecture. Neurology 1980; 30: 1303–13.
36. Gustafsson L, McKenna K. A programme of static positional stretches does not reduce hemiplegic shoulder pain or maintain shoulder range of motion–a randomized controlled trial. Clin Rehabil 2006; 20: 277–86.
37. Borisova Y, Bohannon R. Positioning to prevent or reduce shoulder range of motion impairments after stroke: a meta-analysis. Clin Rehabil 2009; 23: 681–6.
38. McCrory P, Turner-Stokes L, Baguley I, et al. Botulinum toxin A for treatment of upper limb spasticity following stroke: a multi-centre randomized placebo-controlled study of the effects on quality of life and other person-centred outcomes. J Rehabil Med 2009; 41: 536–44.
39. Childers M, Brashear A, Jozefczyk P, et al. Dose-dependent response to intramuscular botulinum toxin type A for upper-limb spasticity in patients after a stroke. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004; 85: 1063–9.
40. Bakheit A, Pittock S, Moore A, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin type A in upper limb spasticity in patient with stroke. Eur J Neurol 2001; 8: 559–65.
41. Gelber D, Good D, Dromerick A, et al. Open-label dose-titration safety and efficacy study of tizanidine hydrochloride in the treatment of spasticity associated with chronic stroke. Stroke 2001; 32: 1841–6.
42. Kamen L, Henney HR, Runyan J. A practical overview of tizanidine use for spasticity secondary to multiple sclerosis, stroke, and spinal cord injury. Curr Med Res Opin 2008; 24: 425–39.
43. Winstein C, Wolf S. Task oriented training to promote upper extremity recovery. In Stein RH, Macko CJ, Winstein RD, et al, eds. Recovery and Rehabilitation. New York, NY: Demos Medical Publishing, 2009.
44. Barreca S, Sigouin C, Lambert C, et al. Effects of extra training on the ability of stroke survivors to perform an independent sit-to-stand: a randomized controlled trial. J Geriatr Phys Ther 2004; 27: 59–64.
45. Dean C, Richards C, Malouin F. Task-related circuit training improves performance of locomotor tasks in chronic stroke: a randomized, controlled pilot trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2000; 81: 409–17.
46. Cheng P-T, Wu S-H, Liaw M-Y, et al. Symmetrical body-weight distribution training in stroke patients and its effect on fall prevention. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001; 82: 1650–4.
47. Powell J, Pandyan A, Granat M, et al. Electrical stimulation of wrist extensors in poststroke hemiplegia. Stroke 1999; 30: 1384–9.
48. Pomeroy V, King L, Pollock A, et al. Electrostimulation for promoting recovery of movement or functional ability after stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006; 2: CD003241.
49. Chan M-L, Tong R-Y, Chung K-K. Bilateral upper limb training with functional electric stimulation in patients with chronic stroke. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2009; 23: 357–65.
50. Kottink A, Oostendorp L, Buurke J, et al. The orthotic effect of functional electrical stimulation on the improvement of walking in stroke patients with a dropped foot: a systematic review. Artif Organs 2004; 28: 577–86.
51. Taub E. Somatosensory deafferentation research with monkeys: implication for rehabilitation medicine. In Ince LP, ed. Behavioural Psychology in Rehabilitation Medicine. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins, 1980; 371–401.
52. Wolf SL, Winstein CJ, Miller JP, et al. Effect of constraint-induced movement therapy on upper extremity function 3 to 9 months after stroke: the EXCITE randomized clinical trial. JAMA 2006; 296: 2095–104.
53. Lindgren I, Jonsson A, Norrving B, et al. Shoulder pain after stroke: a prospective population-based study. Stroke 2007; 38: 343–8.
54. Turner-Stokes L, Jackson D. Shoulder pain after stroke: a review of the evidence base to inform the development of an integrated care pathway. Clin Rehabil 2002; 16: 276–98.
55. Gamble G, Barberan E, Bowsher D, et al. Post stroke shoulder pain: more common than previously realized. Eur J Pain 2000; 4: 313–5.
56. Koog Y, Jin S, Yoon K, et al. Interventions for hemiplegic shoulder pain: systematic review of randomized control trials. Disabil Rehabil 2010; 32: 282–91.
57. Black-Schaffer R, Kirsteins A, Harvey R. Stroke rehabilitation. 2. Co-morbidities and complications. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 1999; 80: S8–16.
58. Lee I, Shin Y, Moon T, et al. Sonography of patients with hemiplegic shoulder pain after stroke: correlation with motor recovery stage. Am J Roentgenol 2009; 192: W40–4.
59. Huang Y, Liang P, Pong Y, et al. Physical findings and sonography of hemiplegic shoulder in patients after stroke during rehabilitation. J Rehabil Med 2010; 42: 21–6.
60. Pong Y, Wang L, Wang L, et al. Sonography of the shoulder in hemiplegic patients undergoing rehabilitation after a recent stroke. J Clin Ultrasound 2009; 37: 199–205.
61. Renzenbrick G, Ijzerman M. Percutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation (P-NMES) for treating shoulder pain in chronic hemiplegia. Effects on shoulder pain and quality of life. Clin Rehabil 2004; 18: 359–65.
62. Chae J, Yu D, Walker M, et al. Intramuscular electrical stimulation for hemiplegic shoulder pain: a 12-month follow-up of a multiple-center, randomized clinical trial. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2005; 84: 832–42.
63. Vuagnat H, Chantraine A. Shoulder pain in hemiplegia revisited: contributions of functional electrical stimulation and other therapies. J Rehabil Med 2003; 35: 49–56.
64. Koyuncu E, Nakipoglu-Yuzer G, Dogan A, et al. The effectiveness of functional electrical stimulation for the treatment of shoulder subluxation and shoulder pain in hemiplegic patients: a randomized control trial. Disabil Rehabil 2010; 7: 560–6.
65. Snels I, Beckerman H, Twisk J, et al. Effect of triamcinolone acetonide injections on hemiplegic shoulder pain: a randomized clinical trial. Stroke 2000; 31: 2396–401.
66. Kong K, Neo J, Chua K. A randomized controlled study of botulinum toxin A in the treatment of hemiplegic shoulder pain associated with spasticity. Clin Rehabil 2007; 21: 28–35.
67. Lim J, Koh J, Paik N. Intramuscular botulinum toxin-A reduces hemiplegic shoulder pain: a randomized, double-blind, comparative study versus intraarticular triamcinolone acetonide. Stroke 2008; 39: 126–31.
68. Marco E, Duarte E, Vila J, et al. Is botulinum toxin type A effective in the treatment of spastic shoulder pain in patients after stroke? A double-blind randomized clinical trial. J Rehabil Med 2007; 39: 440–7.
69. Moseley A, Stark A, Cameron I, et al. Treadmill training and body weight support for walking after stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003; 3: CD002840.
70. Lindsay P, Bayley M, McDonald A, et al. Toward a more effective approach to stroke: Canadian best practice recommendations for stroke care CMAJ 2010; 178: 1418–25.
71. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th edn. Washington: American Psychiatric Association, 1994.
72. Ferro J, Mariano G, Madureira S. Recovery from aphasia and neglect. Cardiovasc Dis 1999; 9: 6–22.
73. Robey R. A meta-analysis of clinical outcomes in the treatment of aphasia. J Speech Lang Hear Res 1998; 41: 172–87.
74. Bhogal SK, Teasell R, Speechley M. Intensity of aphasia therapy, impact on recovery. Stroke 2003; 34: 987–93.
75. Martino R, Pron G, Diamant N. Screening for oropharyngeal dysphagia in stroke: insufficient evidence for guidelines. Dysphagia 2000; 15: 19–30.
76. Jean A. Brain stem control of swallowing: neuronal network and cellular mechanisms. Physiol Rev 2001; 81: 929–69.
77. Horner J, Massey E, Riski J, et al. Aspiration following stroke: clinical correlates and outcome. Neurology 1988; 38: 1359–62.
78. Navarrete-Navarro P, Rivera-Fernadez R, Lopez-Mutuberria M, et al. Outcome prediction in terms of functional disability and mortality at 1 year among ICU-admitted severe stroke patients: a prospective epidemiological study in the south of the European Union. Intens Care Med 2003; 29: 1237–44.
79. Teasell R, Foley N, Bhogal S, et al. A rehabilitation program for patients with severe stroke. Can J Neurol Sci 2005; 32: 512–17.
80. Jorgensen H, Kammersgaard L, Houth J, et al. Who benefits from treatment and rehabilitation in a stroke unit? A community-based study. Stroke 2000; 31: 434–9.
81. Pereira S, Graham R, Teasell R. Discharge destination of severe stroke patients undergoing rehabilitation: development of a predictive model. Stroke 2010; 41: e500.
82. Teasell R, Mehta S, Pereira S, et al. Time to rethink long-term rehabilitation management of stroke patients. Top Stroke Rehabil 2012; 19: 457–62.
83. Mehta S, Pereira S, Janzen S, et al. Cardiovascular conditioning for comfortable gait speed and total distance walked during the chronic stage of stroke: a meta-analysis. Top Stroke Rehabil 2012; 19: 463–70.
84. Mehta S, Pereira S, Viana R, et al. Resistance training for gait speed and total distance walked during the chronic stage of stroke: a meta-analysis. Top Stroke Rehabil 2012; 19: 471–8.
85. McIntyre A, Lee T, Janzen S, et al. Systematic review of the effectiveness of pharmacological interventions in the treatment of spasticity of the hemiparetic lower extremity more than six months post stroke. Top Stroke Rehabil 2012; 19: 479–90.
86. Pereira S, Mehta S, McIntyre A, et al. Functional electrical stimulation for improving gait in persons with chronic stroke. Top Stroke Rehabil 2012; 19: 491–8.
87. McIntyre A, Viana R, Janzen S, et al. Systematic review and meta-analysis of constraint-induced movement therapy in the hemiparetic upper extremity more than six months post stroke. Top Stroke Rehabil 2012; 19: 499–513.
88. Viana R, Pereira S, Mehta S, et al. Evidence for therapeutic interventions for hemiplegic shoulder pain during the chronic stage of stroke: a review. Top Stroke Rehabil 2012; 19: 514–22.
89. Allen L, Mehta S, McClure A, et al. Therapeutic interventions for aphasia initiated more than six months post stroke: a review of the evidence. Top Stroke Rehabil 2012; 19: 523–35.
90. Mehta S, Pereira S, Janzen S, et al. Effectiveness of psychological interventions in chronic stage of stroke: a systematic review. Top Stroke Rehabil 2012; 19: 536–44.