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  • Print publication year: 2021
  • Online publication date: March 2021

Chapter 14 - Biopsy of Testicles

from Section 2 - Assisted Reproductive Procedures


Historically, the absence or a small number of sperm cells in the ejaculate often precluded men from fathering their genetic progeny and relegated couples to the use of donor spermatozoa insemination or adoption or childlessness. With the development of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), men with azoospermia (absence of sperm in the ejaculate) or severe oligozoospermia (less than 5 × 106 spermatozoa in the ejaculate) are able to father a child following single sperm cell injection into the cytoplasm of a single oocyte. In the years after the development of ICSI, it was discovered that sperm retrieved directly from testicular tissue can also be used for oocyte fertilization and enable healthy embryo development.

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