Skip to main content Accessibility help
Spinoza and Medieval Jewish Philosophy
  • Cited by 7
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the print book

Book description

Over the last two decades there has been an increasing interest in the influence of medieval Jewish thought upon Spinoza's philosophy. The essays in this volume, by Spinoza specialists and leading scholars in the field of medieval Jewish philosophy, consider the various dimensions of the rich, important, but vastly under-studied relationship between Spinoza and earlier Jewish thinkers. It is the first such collection in any language, and together the essays provide a detailed and extensive analysis of how different elements in Spinoza's metaphysics, epistemology, moral philosophy, and political and religious thought relate to the views of his Jewish philosophical forebears, such as Maimonides, Gersonides, Ibn Ezra, Crescas, and others. The topics addressed include the immortality of the soul, the nature of God, the intellectual love of God, moral luck, the nature of happiness, determinism and free will, the interpretation of Scripture, and the politics of religion.


‘This is a book which will obviously interest students of Spinoza, but it also represents a valuable scholarly contribution to the study of Jewish philosophy's greatest figure, Moses Maimonides.'

Menachem Kellner - Hebrew University of Jerusalem

'This is a solid collection of essays. It is as important for what it forces one to understand about how to do philosophy in a historically interesting and revisionist way, as it is in presenting Spinoza both as a spoiler of what preceded him and as a foundational figure for what followed in his train.'

Daniel Frank Source: Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Save to Kindle
  • Save to Dropbox
  • Save to Google Drive

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.



Abrahamov, Binyamin (2003). Divine Love in Islamic Mysticism. London: Routledge.
Abravanel, Isaac (1993). Perush ‘al ha-Torah. Jerusalem: Bene Arabel.
Abulafia, Abraham (2001). Or ha-Sekhel. Jerusalem: Amnon Gross.
Adamson, Peter (2005). “On Knowledge of Particulars,” Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 105: 273–294.
Adamson, Peter (2010). “The Arabic Tradition,” in The Routledge Companion to Ethics, ed. John Skorupski. London: Routledge, 63–75
Adamson, Peter, and Richard C. Taylor (2005). “Introduction,” in Cambridge Companion to Arabic Philosophy, eds. Peter Adamson and Richard C. Taylor. Cambridge University Press, 1–9.
Adler, Jacob (1996). “Spinoza’s Physical Philosophy,” Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 78: 253–276.
Adler, Jacob (1999). “Epistemological Categories in Delmedigo and Spinoza,” Studia Spinozana 15: 205–230.
Adler, Jacob (2008). “J. S. Delmedigo as Teacher of Spinoza: The Case of Noncomplex Propositions,” Studia Spinoza 16: 177–183.
Adler, Jacob (2013). “The Strange Case of the Missing Title Page: An Investigation in Spinozistic Bibliography,” Intellectual History Review 23: 259–262.
Adler, Jacob (forthcoming). “The Education of Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus (1651–1708),” Journal of Medical Biography.
Alexander of Aphrodisias (1495). Enarratio de Anima ex Aristotelis Institutione, trans. Girolamo Donato. Brescia: Bernardinus de Misintis.
Alexander of Aphrodisias (1887). De anima liber cum mantissa, ed. Ivo Bruns. Berlin: Reimer.
Alexander of Aphrodisias (1980). The De Anima of Alexander of Aphrodisias: A Translation and Commentary, trans. Athanasios P. Fotinis. Washington, D. C: University Press of America.
Alexander of Aphrodisias (2012). On the Soul. Part 1, Soul as Form of the Body, Parts of the Soul, Nourishment, and Perception, trans. Victor Caston. London: Bristol Classical Press.
Al-Farabi, Abu Nasr (1964). Al-Siyāsah al-Madaniyyah, ed. Fauzi M. Najjar. Beirut: Imprimerie Catholique.
Al-Farabi (1985). On the Perfect State (Al-Madīnah al-Fadilah), ed. and trans. Richard Walzer. Oxford University Press.
Al-Farabi (2007). The Political Regime, ed. and trans. J. McGinnis and D. C. Reisman, in Classical Arabic Philosophy. Indianapolis: Hackett.
Alfonso de Valladolid (Abner of Burgos) (1990). Ofrenda de zelos (Minḥat Ḳĕna’ot) und Libro de la ley, ed. Walter Mettman. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag.
Alfonso de Valladolid (Abner of Burgos) (1994–1996). Mostrador de justicia, ed. Walter Mettmann, 2 vols. Opladen: Estdeutscher Verlag.
Al-Ghazali, Abu Hamid (1997). The Incoherence of the Philosophers, trans. Michael E. Marmura. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University Press.
Al-Ghazali, Abu Hamid (2011). Love, Longing, Intimacy, and Contentment (Book XXXVI of the Revival of the Religious Sciences), trans. Eric Ormsby. Cambridge: Islamic Texts Society.
Allison, Henry (1987). Benedict de Spinoza: An Introduction. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Alquié, Ferdinand (1981). Le Rationalisme de Spinoza. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
Altmann, Alexander (1969). “Essence and Existence in Maimonides,” in Studies in Religious Philosophy and Mysticism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Altmann, Alexander (1987). “Maimonides on the Intellect and the Scope of Metaphysics,” in Von der mittelalterlichen zur modernen Aufklarung. Studien zur jȕdischen Geistesgeschichte von Alexander Altmann. Tübingen: J. C. B. Mohr, 60–129.
Anscombe, G. E. M. (1963). Intention, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press.
Arama, Isaac (1868). ‘Akedat Yitsḥak, 5 vols. Lemberg: A. J. Madfes.
Aristotle (1991). The Complete Works of Aristotle, ed. Jonathan Barnes, 2 vols. Princeton University Press.
Aspasius (2006). On Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics 1–4, 7–8, trans. David Konstan. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Averroës (2002). Middle Commentary on Aristotle’s De anima, ed. and trans. Alfred L. Ivry. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University Press.
Averroës (2003). Ha-Be’ur ha-emẓa’i shel Ibn Rushd le-Sefer ha-nefesh le-Arisṭo: be-targum Mosheh Ibn Tibon, ed. Alfred Ivry. Jerusalem: Israel Academic of Sciences.
Avicenna (1507/1964). Liber Canonis. Venice: Paganino de Paganini; rpt., Hildesheim: Olms.
Avicenna (1892). Le livre des théorèmes et des avertissements, ed. J. Forget. Leiden: E. J. Brill.
Avicenna (1930). A Treatise on the Canon of Medicine of Avicenna Incorporating a Translation of the First Book, trans. O. Cameron Gruner. London: Luzac.
Avicenna (1951). Livre des directives et remarques (Kitāb al-Irt wa l-tanbht), trans. A. M. Goichon. Beyrouth: Commission internationale pour la traduction des chefs-d’oeuvre.
Avicenna (1960). Al-Shifā’, al-Ilāhiyyāt, ed. M. Y. Moussa, S. Dunya, S. Sayet, and I. Madkour. Cairo: Imprimeries Gouvernementales.
Avicenna (1966). The General Principles of Avicenna’s Canon of Medicine, trans. Mazhar H. Shah. Karachi: Naveed Clinic.
Avicenna (1973). The Metaphysica of Avicenna (Ibn Sīnā): A Critical Translation-Commentary and Analysis of the Fundamental Arguments in Avicenna’s Metaphysica in the Dānish Nāmai ‘ala’i (The Book of Scientific Knowledge), trans. Parviz Morewedge. New York: Columbia University Press.
Avicenna (2004). The Metaphysics of The Healing: A Parallel English-Arabic Text/ al-Ilahīyāt min al-Shifā’, ed. and trans. Michael E. Marmura. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University Press.
Baer, Yizhaq (1940). “Minḥat Qenaot by Abner of Burgos and its Influence on Ḥasdai Crescas,” Tarbiz 11: 188–302.
Barbone, Steve, and Lee Rice (2000). Introduction in Spinoza (2000), 1–30.
Barzilay, Isaac (1974). Yoseph Shlomo Delmedigo, Yashar of Candia: His Life, Works and Times. Leiden: Brill.
Basnage, Jacques (1716). Histoire des Juifs. La Haye.
Batniksky, Leora (2003–2004). “Spinoza’s Critique of Miracles,” Cardozo Law Review 25: 507–518.
Belo, Catarina (2007). Chance and Determinism in Avicenna and Averroes. Leiden: Brill.
Bennett, Jonathan (1984). A Study of Spinoza’s Ethics. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing.
Berzin, Gabriella (2004). “Happiness, Pleasure, and Good in Maimonides and Hasdai Crescas” (in Hebrew), in Shefa‘ Tal: Studies on Jewish Thought and Culture Presented to Bracha Sack, eds. Zeev Gries, Howard Kreisel and Boaz Huss. Beersheba: Ben-Gurion University of the Negev Press.
Biale, David (2011). Not in the Heavens: The Tradition of Jewish Secular Thought. Princeton University Press.
Black, Deborah (2004). “Models of the Mind: Metaphysical Presuppositions of the Averroist and Thomistic Accounts of Intellection,” Documenti e studi sulla tradizione filosofica medievale 15: 319–352.
Black, Deborah (2005). “Psychology: Soul and Intellect,” in Cambridge Companion to Arabic Philosophy, eds. Peter Adamson and Richard C. Taylor. Cambridge University Press, 308–325.
Blumenthal, David R. (1977). “Maimonides’ Intellectual Mysticism,” Studies in Mediaeval Culture 10: 51–68.
Barbone, Steve, and Lee Rice (1987). “Maimonides: Prayer, Worship, and Judaism,” in Prière, mystique, et judaïsme, ed. R. Goetchel. Paris: Presses Universitaires France, 86–106.
Boyer, Carl B., and Uta C. Merzbach (1991). A History of Mathematics. New York: Wiley.
Boyle, Robert (1772). The Works. London: J. and F. Rivington.
Brann, H. W. (1977). “Spinoza and the Kabbalah,” in Speculum Spinozanum, ed. Sitgfried Hessing. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Broydé, Isaac (1906). “Levi ben Gershon,” in Encyclopedia Judaica. New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 7: 26–32.
Bruaire, C. (1974). Le Droit de Dieu. Paris: Aubier Montaigne.
Brykman, Geneviève (1972). La Judéité de Spinoza. Paris: J. Vrin.
Chalier, Catherine (2006). Spinoza Lecteur de Maimonide. La question theologico-politique. Paris: Les Editions du Cerf.
Charlap, Luba (2001). “Another View on Rabbi Abraham Ibn-Ezra’s Contribution to Medieval Hebrew Grammar,” Hebrew Studies 42:67–80.
Coert, Hendrik Jan (1938). Spinoza’s Betrekking tot de Geneeskunde en haar Beoefenaren. Mededeelingen van wege het Spinozahuis 4. Leiden: Brill.
Cohen, Hermann (1924). “Spinoza über Staat und Religion, Judentum und Christentum,” in Jüdische Schriften, ed. Bruno Strauss, 3 vols. Berlin: Schwetschke, 290–372.
Cohen, Morris Raphael (1946). The Faith of a Liberal. New York: Holt and Co.
Cohoe, Caleb (forthcoming). Review of Alexander of Aphrodisias on the Soul (London: Bristol Classical Press, 2012). To appear in Journal of the History of Philosophy,, accessed November 20, 2013.
Collier, Andrew (1991). “The Materiality of Morals: Mind, Body and Interests in Spinoza’s Ethics,” Studia Spinozana 7: 69–93.
Cooper, Julie (forthcoming). Secular Powers: Humility in Modern Political Thought. University of Chicago Press.
Crescas, Hasdai (1990). ‘Or Hashem, ed. Shlomo Fisher. Jerusalem: Sifre Ramot.
Curley, Edwin (1969). Spinoza’s Metaphysics: An Essay in Interpretation. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Curley, Edwin (1988). Behind the Geometrical Method. Princeton University Press.
Curley, Edwin (1990). “Notes on a Neglected Masterpiece: The Theological-Political Treatise as a Prolegomenon to the Ethics,” in Central Themes in Early Modern Philosophy, eds. Jan Cover and Mark Kulstad. Indianapolis: Hackett, pp. 109–159.
Curley, Edwin (1991–1992). “A Good Man Is Hard to Find,Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 65: 29–45.
Curley, Edwin (1992). “‘I durst not write so boldly’ or, How to read Hobbes’s Theological-Political Treatise,” in Hobbes e Spinoza, ed. Daniela Bostrenghi. Naples: Bibliopolis, 1992, 497–593.
Curley, Edwin (1994). “Notes on A Neglected Masterpiece: Spinoza and the Science of Hermeneutics,” in Spinoza: The Enduring Questions, ed. Graeme Hunter. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 67–76.
Curley, Edwin (2002). “Maimonides, Spinoza and the Book of Job,” in Jewish Themes in Spinoza’s Philosophy, eds. Heidi Ravven and Lenn Goodman. Albany NY: State University of New York Press.
Curley, Edwin (forthcoming). “Spinoza’s Contribution to Biblical Scholarship,” Proceedings of the Tȕbingen Conference on the Tractatus Theologico-Politicus.
D’Ancona, Christina (2005). “Greek into Arabic: Neoplatonism in Translation,” in Cambridge Companion to Arabic Philosophy, eds. Peter Adamson and Richard C. Taylor. Cambridge University Press, 11–31.
D’Ancona, J. 1940. “Delmedigo, Menasseh Ben Israël en Spinoza,” Bijdragen en Mededelingen van het Genootschap voor de Joodsche Wetenschap in Nederland 6: 105–152.
Davidson, Herbert (1988). “Averroes’ Commentary on Alexander of Aphrodisias’ Treatise on the Intellect” [Hebrew], Jerusalem Studies in Jewish Thought 7: 205–217.
Davidson, Herbert (1992a). Alfarabi, Avicenna, and Averroes on Intellect. New York: Oxford University Press.
Davidson, Herbert (1992b) “Gersonides on the Material and Active Intellects,” in Studies on Gersonides: A Fourteenth Century Jewish Philosopher-Scientist, ed. Gad Freudenthal. Leiden: Brill, 195–265.
Davidson, Herbert (1992–1993). “Maimonides on Metaphysical Knowledge,” Maimonidean Studies 4: 1–13.
Davidson, Herbert (2005). Maimonides: The Man and His Works. Oxford University Press.
DeBrabander, Firmin (2007). Spinoza and the Stoics: Power, Politics, and the Passions. London: Continuum.
Della Rocca, Michael (2008). Spinoza. London: Routledge.
Delmedigo, Joseph Solomon (1629–1631). Novelot Ḥokhmah (vol. 2 of Ta’alumot Ḥokhmah). Basel: Samuel Ashkenazi.
Delmedigo, Joseph Solomon (1864). Sefer ‘Elim. Odessa: M. E. Belinson.
Den Uyl, Douglas (1983). God, Man, and Well Being. Assen, the Netherlands: Van Gorcum.
Descartes, René (1964–1976). Oeuvres de Descartes, eds. Charles Adam and Paul Tannery, 12 vols. Paris: J. Vrin.
Descartes, René (1985). The Philosophical Writings of Descartes, trans. John Cottingham, Robert Stoothoff, and Dugald Murdoch, 2 vols. Cambridge University Press.
Diesendruck, Zvi (1936). “Samuel and Moses Ibn Tibbon on Maimonides’ Theory of Providence,” Hebrew Union College Annual 11: 341–356.
Dobbs-Weinstein, Idit (1994). “Maimonidean Aspects in Spinoza’s Thought,” Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 17: 153–174.
Dobbs-Weinstein, Idit (1998). “Gersonides’s Radically Modern Understanding of the Agent Intellect,” in Meeting of the Minds: The Relations Between Medieval and Classical Modern European Philosophy, ed. Stephen F. Brown. Turnhout: Brepols, 191–213.
Dobbs-Weinstein, Idit (2004). “Thinking Desire in Gersonides and Spinoza,” in Women and Gender in Jewish Philosophy, ed. Hava Samuelson. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 51–77.
Dobbs-Weinstein, Idit (2006). “Tensions within and between Maimonides’ and Gersonides’ Account of Prophecy,” in Écriture et réécriture des texts philosophiques médiévaux, eds. J. Hamesse and O. Weijers, Textes et études du moyen âge 34. Turnhout: Brepols, 63–88.
Dobbs-Weinstein, Idit (2014). “Aristotle on the Natural Dwelling of Intellect,” in The Bloomsbury Companion to Aristotle, ed. Claudia Baracchi. New York: Bloomsbury Publishing, 297–310.
Einstein, Albert (1949). Philosopher-Scientist, vol. 1, ed. Paul Arthur Schilpp. New York: Harper & Row.
Einstein, Albert (1954). Ideas and Opinions, trans. S. Bargmann. New York: Crown.
Eisen, Robert (2004). The Book of Job in Medieval Jewish Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
Ewald, William, ed. (1996). From Kant to Hilbert: A Source Book in the Foundation of Mathematics, 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press.
Fackenheim, Emil (1945). “A Treatise on Love by Ibn Sīnā,Mediaeval Studies 7: 208–228.
Feldman, Seymour (1973). “Gersonides on the Possibility of Conjunction,” AJS Review 3: 99–120.
Feldman, Seymour (1978). “Gersonides on the Possibility of Conjunction with the Agent Intellect,” ASS Review 3: 99–120.
Feldman, Seymour (1984). “A Debate concerning Determinism in Late Medieval Jewish Philosophy,” Proceedings of the American Academy for Jewish Research 51: 15–54.
Feldman, Seymour (1992). “Platonic Themes in Gersonides’s Doctrine of the Active Intellect,” in Neoplatonism and Jewish Thought, ed. L. E. Goodman. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press,255–277.
Feldman, Seymour (1997). “1492: A House Divided,” in Crisis and Creativity in the Sephardic World: 1391–1648, ed. Benjamin R. Gampel. New York: Columbia University Press, 38–58.
Feldman, Seymour (2008). “The Theory of Eternal Creation in Hasdai Crescas and Some of His Predecessors,” Viator 11: 289–320.
Feldman, Seymour (2010). Gersonides: Judaism within the Limits of Reason. Oxford: Littman Library of Jewish Civilization.
Feldman, Seymour (2012). “On Plural Universes: A Debate in Medieval Jewish Philosophy and the Duhem-Pires Thesis,” Aleph: Historical Studies in Science and Judaism 12(2): 329–366.
Fischer, I. (1921). “De Geneesheeren onder Spinoza’s Vrienden,Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, Part 1, 1856–1873.
Fraenkel, Carlos (2006). “Maimonides’ God and Spinoza’s Deus sive Natura,” Journal of the History of Philosophy 44: 169–215.
Fraenkel, Carlos (2009). “From Maimonides to Samuel ibn Tibbon: Interpreting Judaism as a Philosophical Religion,” in Traditions of Maimonideanism, ed. Carlos Fraenkel. Leiden: Brill, 177–212.
Fraenkel, Carlos (2010). “Spinoza on Philosophy and Religion: The Averroistic Sources,” in The Rationalists: Between Tradition and Innovation, eds. Carlos Fraenkel, Dario Perinetti, and Justin Smith. The New Synthese Historical Library. Boston: Springer Academic Publishers, 27–43.
Fraenkel, Carlos (2012). “Reconsidering the Case of Elijah Delmedigo’s Averroism and its Impact on Spinoza,” in Renaissance Averroism and its Aftermath: Arabic Philosophy in Early Modern Europe, eds. Anna Akasoy and Guido Guiglioni. Boston: Springer Academic Publishers, 213–236.
Fraenkel, Carlos and Rudolf Smend (2007). “Spinoza, Baruch (Bento, Benedictus),” in Encyclopaedia Judaica, eds. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Detroit: Macmillan Ref, 111–119.
Frank, Daniel H. and Oliver Leaman, eds. (2003). The Cambridge Companion to Medieval Jewish Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
Frankel, Steven (1999). “Politics and Rhetoric: The Intended Audience of Spinoza’s Tractatus Theologico-Politicus,” The Review of Metaphysics 52: 897–924.
Frankel, Steven (2002). “Spinoza’s Liberal Theology: A Practical Solution to the Quarrel Between Religion and Revelation,” Archiv für Geshichte der Philosophie 84: 273–296.
Frankel, Steven (2011). “Determined to be Free: Spinoza on the Meaning of Freedom,” Review of Politics: 73: 55–76.
Frede, Michael (2011). A Free Will: Origins of the Notion in Ancient Thought, ed. Halszka Osmolska. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Freudenthal, Gad (1995). “Science in the Medieval Jewish Culture of Southern France,” History of Science 33: 23–58.
Freudenthal, Gad, and Mauro Zonta (2012). “Avicenna among Medieval Jews: The Reception of Avicenna’s Philosophical, Scientific and Medical Writings in Jewish Cultures, East And West,” Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 22: 217–287.
Freudenthal, Jacob (1899). Die Lebensgeschichte Spinoza’s. Leipzig: Veit.
Funkenstein, Amos (1993). Theology and the Scientific Imagination from the Middle Ages to the Seventeenth Century. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Gabbey, Alan (1996). “Spinoza’s Natural Science and Methodology,” in The Cambridge Companion to Spinoza, ed. Don Garrett. Cambridge University Press, 142–191.
Garrett, Aaron (2007). Meaning in Spinoza’s Method. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Garrett, Don (1979). “Spinoza’s ‘Ontological’ Argument,” Philosophical Review 88: 198–223.
Garrett, Don (1996). “Spinoza’s Ethical Theory,” in The Cambridge Companion to Spinoza, ed. Don Garrett. Cambridge University Press, 267–314.
Gatti, Roberto (2004). “Sensory Experience and Metaphysics in Medieval Jewish Philosophy: Once Again on the Limitations of Human Knowledge according to Maimonides and Gersonides,” Quaestio 4: 91–112.
Gatti, Roberto (2007). “Matter from the Point of View of Psychology and Noetic: Do the Intelligible Forms Have a Matter? And If Yes, Which Kind of Matter?Quaestio 7: 283–315.
Gebhardt, Carl (1922). Die Schriften des Uriel da Costa. Amsterdam: M. Hertzberger.
Gilden, Hilail (1973). “Spinoza and the Political Problem,” in Spinoza: A Collection of Critical Essays, ed. Marjorie Grene. New York: Anchor Press, 377–87.
Girsel, Maria (2012). A Publication that Changed the Face of Renaissance Philosophy,, accessed October 28, 2013.
Glasner, Ruth (1995). “Levi Ben Gershom and the Study of Ibn Rushd in the Fourteenth Century Author,” Jewish Quarterly Review 86: 51–90.
Glasner, Ruth (2002). “On Gersonides’ Knowledge of Languages,” Aleph 2: 235–257.
Goichon, A. M. (1938). Lexique de la langue philosophique d’Ibn Sīnā. Paris: Desclée de Brouwer.
Goldstein, Bernard (1996). “Astronomy and Astrology in the Works of Abraham ibn Ezra,Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 6: 9–21.
Gottlieb, Michah (2007). “Spinoza’s Method of Biblical Interpretation Reconsidered,Jewish Studies Quarterly 14: 286–317.
Gouldman, Francis (1664). A Copious Dictionary. London: John Field.
Gueroult, Martial (1968). Spinoza, 2 vols. Paris: Aubier.
Guttmann, Julius (1973). Philosophies of Judaism. New York: Aronson.
Guttmann, Julius, and Alfred L. Ivry (2007). “Alexander of Aphrodisias,” in Encyclopaedia Judaica, ed. Fred Skolnik, 2nd edn. Detroit: Macmillan.
Halevi, Judah (1905). The Kuzari, trans. Hartwig Hirschfeld. New York: Routledge.
Hardenberg, Friedrich von (1960–2006). Novalis Schriften, eds. R. Samuel, H. J. Mähl, and G. Schulz, 6 vols. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer.
Harris, Jay M. (1993). “Ibn Ezra in Modern Jewish Perspective,” in Rabbi Abraham Ibn Ezra: Studies in the Writings of a Twelfth-Century Jewish Polymath, eds. Isadore Twersky and Jay M. Harris. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 129–170.
Harvey, Steven (1991). “Maimonides in the Sultan’s Palace,” Perspectives on Maimonides, ed. J. Kraemer. Oxford University Press, 47–75.
Harvey, Steven (1992). “Did Maimonides’ Letter to Samuel Ibn Tibbon Determine Which Philosophers Would Be Studied by Later Jewish Thinkers?The Jewish Quarterly Review 83: 51–70.
Harvey, Steven (1997). “The Meaning of Terms Designating Love in Judaeo-Arabic Thought,” in Judaeo-Arabic Studies, ed. N. Golb. Amsterdam: Harwood, 175–196.
Harvey, Steven (2000). “On the Nature and Extent of Jewish Averroism: Renan’s Averroès et l’Averroïsme Revisited,” Jewish Studies Quarterly 7: 100–119.
Harvey, Steven (2003). “Arabic into Hebrew: The Hebrew Translation Movement and the Influence of Averroes upon Medieval Jewish Thought,” in The Cambridge Companion to Medieval Jewish Philosophy, eds. D. H. Frank and O. Leaman. New York: Cambridge University Press, 258–280.
Harvey, Steven (2013). “Avicenna and Maimonides on Prayer and Intellectual Worship,” in Exchange and Transmission across Cultural Boundaries, eds. H. Ben-Shammai, S. Shaked, and S. Stroumsa. Proceedings of an International Workshop in Memory of Professor Shlomo Pines. Jerusalem: Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, 82–105.
Harvey, Warren Zev (1973). “Ḥasdai Crescas’s Critique of the Theory of the Acquired Intellect,” Ph.D. Diss., Columbia University.
Harvey, Warren Zev (1981). “A Portrait of Spinoza as a Maimonidean,” Journal of the History of Philosophy 19: 151–172.
Harvey, Warren Zev (1988). “Crescas vs. Maimonides on Knowledge and Pleasure,” in A Straight Path: Essays in Honor of Arthur Hyman, ed. R. Link-Salinger. Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 113–123.
Harvey, Warren Zev (1998). Physics and Metaphysics in Hasdai Crescas. Amsterdam: J. C. Gieben.
Harvey, Warren Zev (1999). “The Biblical Term ‘Glory’ in Spinoza’s Ethics [Hebrew], Iyyun 48: 447–449 (English summary in 49 [2000]: 111).
Harvey, Warren Zev (2008). “Maimonides’ Avicennianism,” Maimonidean Studies 5: 107–119.
Harvey, Warren Zev (2010a). “Spinoza on Ibn Ezra’s ‘Secret of Twelve’,” in Spinoza’s Theological-Political Treatise: A Critical Guide, eds. Yitzhak Y. Melamed and Michael A. Rosenthal. Cambridge University Press, pp. 41–55.
Harvey, Warren Zev (2010b). Rabbi Hasdai Crescas [Hebrew]. Jerusalem: Zalman Shazar Center.
Harvey, Warren Zev (2012). “Gersonides and Spinoza on Conatus,Aleph 12: 273–297.
Hasse, Dag N. (2007). “Averroica secta: Notes on the Formation of Averroist Movements in Fourteenth-Century Bologna and Renaissance Italy,” in Averroes et les Averroismes juif et latin, ed. J.-B. Brenet. Textes et études du moyen âge 40. Turnhout: Brepols, 307–331.
Hawking, Stephen (2010). The Grand Design. New York: Bantam Books.
Hayoun, Maurice-Ruben (1996). “Moses Maimonides und Muhammad al-Tabrisi: Ausgabe der hebraeischen [anonymen] Uebersetzung des Kommentars al-Tabrisis zu den XXV Leitsaetzen des Maimonides im II. Teil des Moreh Nebuchim,” Trumah. Zeitschrift der Hochschule für Jüdische Studien Heidelberg 5: 201–245.
Heereboord, Adriaan (1665). Philosophia Naturalis, in Meletemata Philosophica. Amsterdam: Apud Joannem Ravesteinium.
Heurne, Johan van (1609). Institutiones Medicinae, ed. Otto van Heurne, 2nd edn. Leiden: Ex officinal Plantiniana Raphelengii.
Hourani, George F. (1966). “Ibn Sina’s ‘Essay on the Secret of Destiny’,Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 29: 25–48.
Hourani, George F. (1972). “Ibn Sina on Necessary and Possible Existence,” Philosophical Forum 4: 74–86.
Hubbeling, H. G. (1977), “The Logical and Experiential Roots of Spinoza’s Mysticism,” in Speculum Spinozanum, ed. Siegfried Hessing. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Ibn Ezra, Abraham (1874). Sefer ha-‘ibur. Lyck: Im selbstverlage des vereins M’kize Nirdamin (Poland).
Ibn Ezra, Abraham (1977). Perushe ha-Torah le-rabbenu Avraham ibn Ezra: bereshit, ed. A. Weiser. Jerusalem: Mossad ha-rav Kook.
Ibn Ezra, Abraham (1984). Yesod Dikduk hu Sfat Yeter, ed. N. Allony. Jerusalem: Mossad ha-Rav Kook.
Ibn Ezra, Abraham (1988a). Ibn Ezra’s Commentary on the Pentateuch: Genesis, Vol. 1, trans. Norman H. Strickman and Arthur M. Silver. New York: Menorah Publishing Co.
Ibn Ezra, Abraham (1988b). Ibn Ezra’s Commentary on the Pentateuch: Exodus, Vol. 2, trans. Norman H. Strickman and Arthur M. Silver. New York: Menorah Publishing Co.
Ibn Ezra, Abraham (1988c). Ibn Ezra’s Commentary on the Pentateuch: Deuteronomy, Vol. 5, trans. Norman H. Strickman and Arthur M. Silver. New York: Menorah Publishing Co.
Ibn Shem Tov, Joseph ben Shem Tov, Commentary on the Ethics, Oxford: Budley Mich. 404 (o1. 197) [Neub. 1431] fol. 566.
Ibn Shem Tov, Joseph ben Shem Tov, (1555). Kevod ‘Elohim. Ferrara: Abraham Usque.
Isaac bar Sheshet (n.d.). She’elot u-Teshuvot. New York: Merkaz ha-Sefarim.
Idel, Moshe (1979). “On the Influence of Or ha-Sekhel on Moses Narboni and Abraham Shalom” [in Hebrew], AJS Review 4: 1–6.
Idel, Moshe (1988). Studies in Ecstatic Kabbalah. Albany, NY: State University at New York Press.
Idel, Moshe (2000). “Abraham Abulafia and Unio Mystica,” in Studies in Medieval Jewish History and Literature, eds. I. Twersky and J. M. Harris. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 3: 147–178.
Ivry, Alfred (1983). “Remnants of Jewish Averroism in the Renaissance,” in Jewish Thought in the Sixteenth Century, ed. Bernard Dov Cooperman. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 243–265.
Ivry, Alfred (1984). “Destiny Revisited: Avicenna’s Concept of Determinism,” in Islamic Theology and Philosophy: Studies in honor of George F. Hourani, ed. Michael E. Marmura. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 160–171.
Ivry, Alfred (2009). “Maimonides’ Psychology,” in Maimonides and His Heritage, eds. Idit Dobbs-Weinsteinet al. Albany, NY: State University New York Press, 51–60.
James, Susan (1993). “Spinoza the Stoic,” in The Rise of Modern Philosophy, ed. Tom Sorrell. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 289–316.
James, Susan (1997). Passion and Action: The Emotions in Seventeenth Century Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
James, Susan (2012). Spinoza on Philosophy, Religion, and Politics: The Theologico-Political Treatise. Oxford University Press.
Janssens, J. (1996). “The Problem of Human Freedom in Ibn Sīnā,” in Actes del Simposi Internacional di Filosofia de l’Edat Mitjana, ed. Paloma Llorenk. Vic-Girona: patronat d’Estudis Osonencs, 112–118.
Joël, Manuel (1866). Don Chasdai Creskas’ Religionsphilosophische lehren in ihrem geschichtlichen einflusse. Breslau: Schletter.
Jospe, Raphael (2009). Jewish Philosophy in the Middle Ages. Brighton, MA: Academic Studies Press.
Kashap, Paul (1987). Spinoza and Moral Freedom. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Kellner, Menachem (1976). “Gersonides and his Cultured Despisers: Arama and Abravanel,The Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies 6: 269–296.
Kellner, Menachem (1991). “Reading Rambam: Approaches to the Interpretation of Maimonides,Jewish History 5: 73–93.
Kellner, Menachem (1994). “Gersonides on the Role of the Active Intellect in Human Cognition,” Hebrew Union College Annual 65: 233–259.
Kellner, Menachem (2013). “Gersonides’ To’aliyyot: Sixteenth Century Italy Versus Nineteenth-Century Poland,” in As a Perennial Spring: A Festschrift Honoring Rabbi Dr. Norman Lamm, ed. Bentsi Cohen. New York: Downhill Publishing.
King, Lester S. (1970). The Road to Medical Enlightenment. London: Macdonald.
King, Lester S. (1974). “The Transformation of Galenism,” in Medicine in Seventeenth Century England, ed. Allen G. Debus. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Kisner, Matthew J. (2011) Spinoza on Human Freedom: Reason, Autonomy and the Good Life. Cambridge University Press
Klatzkin, Jakob (1926–1933). Thesaurus Philosophicus Linguae Hebraicae. Berlin: Eshkol.
Klein, Julie (2002). “By Eternity I Understand: Eternity According to Spinoza,” Iyyun: The Jerusalem Philosophical Quarterly 51: 295–324.
Klein, Julie (2003). “Spinoza’s Debt to Gersonides,” Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 24: 19–43.
Klein, Julie (2006). “‘Gersonides’ Approach to Emanation and Transcendence: Evidence from the Theory of Intellection,” in Intellect and Imagination. Proceedings of the Eleventh International Congress of the Société Internationale Pour L’étude de La Philosophie Médiévale (Porto, 26–31 August 2002), eds. M. C. Pacheco and J. F. Meirinhos. Turnhout: Brepols, 653–664.
Klein-Braslavy, Sara (2006). “Maimonides’ Exoteric and Esoteric Biblical Interpretations in the Guide of the Perplexed,” in Study and Knowledge in Jewish Thought, ed. Howard Kreisel. Beer-Sheva: Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, 137–164.
Klein-Braslavy, Sara (2011). Without Any Doubt: Studies in Gersonides’ Methods of Inquiry (Supplements to the Journal of Jewish Thought and Philosophy 13). Leiden: Brill.
Klever, W. N. A. (1991). Verba et Sententiae Spinozae, or, Lambertus van Velthuysen (1622–1685) on Benedictus de Spinoza. Amsterdam: APA–Holland University Press.
Klibansky, Raymondet al. (1964). Saturn and Melancholy. New York: Basic Books.
Knuuttila, Simo (1993). Modalities in Medieval Philosophy. London: Routledge.
Kraemer, Joel L. (2008). Maimonides: The Life and World of One of Civilization’s Greatest Minds. New York: Doubleday.
Kreisel, Howard (1994). “On the Term Kol in Abraham ibn Ezra: A Reappraisal,Revue des Etudes Juives 153: 29–66.
Lachterman, David (1977). “The Ethics of Spinoza’s Physics,” Southwestern Journal of Philosophy 8: 71–111.
Lachterman, David (1991). “Laying Down the Law: The Theological-Political Matrix of Spinoza’s Physics,” in Leo Strauss’s Thought: Toward A Critical Engagement, ed. Alan Udoff. Colorado: Lynne Rienner, 123–153.
Laerke, Mogens (2011a). “Spinoza’s Cosmological Argument in the Ethics,” Journal of the History of Philosophy 49: 439–462.
Laerke, Mogens (2011b). “Leibniz’s Cosmological Argument for the Existence of God,Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 93: 58–84.
Laerke, Mogens (2012). “Deus quatenus … sur l’emploi de particules réduplicatives dans l’Éthique,” in Lectures Contemporaines de Spinoza, eds. C. Cohen-Boulakia, P.-F. Moreau, and M. Delbraccio. Paris: Les Presses de l’Université Paris-Sorbonne, 261–275.
Lancaster, Irene (2003). Deconstructing the Bible: Abraham Ibn Ezra’s Introduction to the Torah. London: Routledge Curzon.
Lang, Helen S. (1986). “Bonaventure’s Delight in Sensation,The New Scholasticism 60: 72–90.
Langermann, Y. Tzvi (1993). “Some Astrological Themes in the Thought of Abraham ibn Ezra,” in Rabbi Abraham ibn Ezra: Studies in the Writings of a Twelfth-Century Polymath, eds. Isadore Twersky and Jay M. Harris. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Langermann, Y. Tzvi (1999). The Jews and the Sciences in the Middle Ages. Aldershot, Hampshire: Ashgate.
Langermann, Y. Tzvi (2012). “No Reagent, No Reaction: The Barren Transmission of Avicennan Dynamics to Hasdai Crescas,” Aleph 12: 161–188.
Leaman, Oliver (1995). Evil and Suffering in Jewish Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm (1923–). Sämtliche Schriften und Briefe, ed. Deutsche Akademie der Wissenschaften, multiple vols. in seven series. Darmstadt/Leipzig/Berlin: Akademie Verlag.
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm (1985). Theodicy: Essays on the Goodness of God, the Freedom of Man and the Origin of Evil, trans. E. M. Huggard. La Salle, IL: Open Court.
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm (2001). The Labyrinth of the Continuum, trans. Richard T. W. Arthur. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Lenz, Martin. “Whose Freedom? Spinoza’s Compatibilism,”
León Hebreo (1937). Dialoghi d’Amore, trans. F. Friedeberg-Seeley and Jean H. Barnes as The Philosophy of Love. London: Soncino.
Levene, Nancy (2004). Spinoza’s Revelation. Cambridge University Press.
Levi ben Gershom (1560). Milḥamot Hashem, ed. Jacob Marcaria. Riva di Trento: Jacob Marcaria.
Levi ben Gershom (1866). Sefer Milḥamot ha-Shem. Leipzig: Carl Lorck.
Levi ben Gershom (1888). Be’urim on Ezra, Nehemiah, and Chronicles. Krakow: Eisig Gräber.
Levi ben Gershom (1981). Supercommentary on Averroes’ Epitome of Aristotle’s de Anima, in “Chapters 9–12 of Gersonides’ Supercommentary on Averroes’ Epitome of the de Anima: The Internal Senses,” J. S. Mashbaum, Ph.D. dissertation. Brandeis University, UMI.
Levi ben Gershom (1984). The Wars of the Lord, Vol. 1, trans. Seymour Feldman. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society.
Levi ben Gershom (1987). The Wars of the Lord, Vol. 2, trans. Seymour Feldman. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society.
Levi ben Gershom (1992). The Logic of Gersonides: A Translation of “Sefer ha-Heqqesh ha-Yashar” (The Book of the Correct Syllogism) of Rabbi Levi ben Gershom, with Introduction, Commentary, and Analytical Glossary, trans. Charles H. Manekin, New Synthese Historical Library Series. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Levi ben Gershom (1993–). Be’ur on Pentateuch, eds. B. Braner, E. Freiman, and C. Cohen. Ma’aleh Adummim: Ma’aliyyot.
Levi ben Gershom (1998). Commentary on Song of Songs, trans. Menachem Kellner. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Levi ben Gershom (1999). The Wars of the Lord, Vol. 3, trans. Seymour Feldman. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society.
Levi ben Gershom (2001). Perush l’Shir ha-Shirim, ed. Menachem Kellner. Ramat Gan: Bar Ilan University Press.
Levinas, Emmanuel (1990). “The Spinoza Case,” in Difficult Freedom: Essays on Judaism. London: The Athlone Press, 111–118.
Levy, Tony (1987). Figures de l’infini. Les mathématiques au miroir des cultures. Paris: Éditions du Seuil.
Levy, Ze’ev (1972). Spinoza’s Interpretation of Judaism: A Concept and Its Influence on Jewish Thought. Tel Aviv: Sefirot Poelim [Hebrew].
Levy, Ze’ev (1989). Baruch or Benedict: On Some Jewish Aspects of Spinoza’s Philosophy. New York: Peter Lang.
Lewis, Charlton Thomas, and Charles Short (1879). A Latin Dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Lobel, Diana (2000). Between Mysticism and Philosophy. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Locke, John (1877). An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. London: William Tegg and Co.
Lucas, Jean-Maximilien (1863). La Vie de M. Benoît de Spinoza, in Oeuvres complètes de B. de Spinoza, ed. J. G. Prat. Paris: L. Hachette, 1: iii–xxxvi.
Luzzatto, S. D. (1970). Meḥqerei-hayahadut (Studies in Judaism). Jerusalem: Maqor.
Machiavelli, Niccolo (1998). The Prince, trans. Harvey Mansfield. University of Chicago Press.
Maimon, Solomon (1793). Solomon Maimon’s Lebengeschichte von ihm selbst beschrieben. Berlin: N. P.
Maimonides, Moses (1856–1866). Le Guide des égarés, French trans. Salamon Munk, 3 vols. Paris: Franck.
Maimonides, Moses (1872). Moreh Nebukhim, Hebrew trans. Samuel ibn Tibbon with commentaries of Ephodi, Shem Tov ben Joseph ibn Shem Tov, Asher Crescas, and Isaac Abrabanel. Warsaw: Goldman.
Maimonides, Moses (1912). The Eight Chapters of Maimonides on Ethics, trans. Joseph I. Gorfinkle. New York: Columbia University Press.
Maimonides, Moses (1931). Dalālat al-Hā’irīn, eds. S. Munk and I. Joel. Jerusalem: Junovitch.
Maimonides, Moses (1962). Book of Knowledge, ed. and trans. Moses Hyamson. Jerusalem: Boys Town.
Maimonides, Moses (1963). Guide of the Perplexed, trans. Shlomo Pines. 2 vols University of Chicago Press.
Maimonides, Moses (1989). Mishneh Torah, trans. Eliyahu Touger. New York: Moznaim Publishing Corp.
Malcolm, Noel (2002). Aspects of Hobbes. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Mancosu, Paolo (1996). Philosophy of Mathematics and Mathematical Practice in the Seventeenth Century. New York: Oxford University Press.
Manekin, Charles H. (1988). “Problems of ‘Plenitude’ in Maimonides and Gersonides,” in A Straight Path: Studies in Medieval Philosophy and Culture: Essays in Honor of Arthur Hyman, eds. R. James Long and Charles H. Manekin. Washington, DC: Catholic University Press, 183–194.
Manekin, Charles H. (1991). “Logic and its Applications in the Philosophy of Gersonides,” in Gersonide en son temps, ed. Gilbert Dahan. Louvain-Paris: E. Peeters, 133–149.
Manekin, Charles H. (1997). “Freedom Within Reason? Gersonides on Human Choice,” in Freedom and Moral Responsibility: General and Jewish Perspectives, eds. Charles H. Manekin and Menachem Kellner. College Park: University Press of Maryland, 165–204.
Manekin, Charles H. (2003). “Conservative Tendencies in Gersonides’ Religious Philosophy,” in The Cambridge Companion to Medieval Jewish Philosophy, eds. Daniel H. Frank and Oliver Leaman. New York: Cambridge University Press, 304–344.
Manekin, Charles H. (2007). Medieval Jewish Philosophical Writings. Cambridge University Press.
Manzini, Frédéric (2009) Spinoza. Une lecture d’Aristote. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
Manzini, Frédéric, ed. (2011). Spinoza et ses scolastiques. Retour aux sources et nouveaux enjeux. Groupe de Recherches Spinozistes, Travaux et documents 13. Paris: PUPS.
Marx, Alexander (1935). “Texts by and about Maimonides,Jewish Quarterly Review 25: 371–428.
Matheron, Alexandre (1969). Individu et communauté chez Spinoza. Paris: Editions de Minuit.
Maull, Nancy (1986). “Spinoza in the Century of Science,” in Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science: Spinoza and the Sciences, eds. Marjorie Grene and Debra Nails. Dordrecht: D. Reidel, 3–14.
McKeon, Richard (1928). The Philosophy of Spinoza. New York: Longmans, Green & Co.
Méchoulan, Henri (1991). Être juif à Amsterdam au temps de Spinoza. Paris: Albin Michel.
Meijer, Lodewijk (1660a). Disputatio Philosophica Inauguralis, de Materia, Ejusque Affectionibus Motu, et Quiete. Leiden: Ex Officinâ Francisci Hackii; reproduction in Chronicon Spinozanum 2 (1922): 185–195.
Meijer, Lodewijk (1660b). Disputatio Medica Inauguralis de Calido Nativo, Ejusque Morbis. Leiden: Ex Officina Francisci Hackii.
Melamed, Yitzhak Y. (2000). “The Exact Science of Non-Beings: Spinoza’s View of Mathematics,” Iyyun – The Jerusalem Philosophical Quarterly 49: 3–22.
Melamed, Yitzhak Y. (2009). “Spinoza’s Metaphysics of Substance: The Substance-Mode Relation as a Relation of Inherence and Predication,Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 78 (1).
Melamed, Yitzhak Y. (2012). “Spinoza’s Deification of Existence,” Oxford Studies in Early Modern Philosophy, 6: 75–104
Melamed, Yitzhak Y. (2013a). Spinoza’s Metaphysics: Substance and Thought. Oxford University Press.
Melamed, Yitzhak Y. (2013b). “Response to Colin Marshall and Martin Lin,” Leibniz Review 23: 207–222.
Melamed, Yitzhak Y. (forthcoming). “The Building Blocks of Spinoza’s Metaphysics: Substance, Attributes, and Modes,” in The Oxford Handbook of Spinoza, ed. Michael Della Rocca. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Menasseh ben Israel (1995). Nishmat Ḥayyim. Jerusalem: Yerid ha-Sefarim.
Middleton, W. E. Knowles (1966). A History of the Thermometer and Its Use in Meteorology. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Mignini, Filippo (1984). “Theology as the Work and Instrument of Fortune,” in Spinoza’s Political and Theological Thought, ed. Cornelis de Deugd. Amsterdam: Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences.
Miller, Jon (forthcoming). Spinoza and the Stoics. Cambridge University Press.
Mitchell, Stephen, ed. (1991). The Enlightened Mind. New York: Harper Collins.
Moses of Narbonne (1852). Be’ur le-Sefer Moreh Nevukhim. Vienna: K. K. Hof- und Staatsdruckerei.
Müller, Ingo (1991). Iatromechanische Theorie und ärztliche Praxis im Vergleich zur galenstischen Medizin. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner.
Nadler, Steven (1999). Spinoza: A Life. Cambridge University Press.
Nadler, Steven (2001). Spinoza’s Heresy: Immortality and the Jewish Mind. Oxford University Press.
Nadler, Steven (2005a). “Spinoza’s Theory of Divine Providence: Rationalist Solutions, Jewish Sources,” Mededelingen vanwege Het Spinozahuis87.
Nadler, Steven (2005b). “Rationalism in Jewish Philosophy,” in A Companion to Rationalism, ed. Alan Nelson. Boston: Blackwell Publishing, 100–118.
Nadler, Steven (2005c). “Hope, Fear, and the Politics of Immortality,” in Analytic Philosophy and History of Philosophy, eds. Tom Sorrell and G. A. J. Rogers. New York: Oxford University Press, 201–217.
Nadler, Steven (2006). Spinoza’s Ethics: An Introduction. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Nadler, Steven (2008). “Theodicy and Providence,” in The Cambridge History of Jewish Philosophy: From Antiquity through the Seventeenth Century, eds. Steven Nadler and Tamar Rudavsky. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 619–658.
Nadler, Steven (2009). “The Jewish Spinoza,” Journal of the History of Ideas 70: 491–510.
Nadler, Steven (2011). A Book Forged in Hell: Spinoza’s Scandalous Treatise and the Birth of the Secular Age. Princeton University Press.
Nagel, Thomas (1979). “Moral Luck,” in Mortal Questions, ed. Thomas Nagel. Cambridge University Press, 24–38.
Narboni, Moses (1852). Commentary on Maimonides’ Moreh ha-Nebukhim, ed. J. Goldenthal. Vienna: Imperial and Royal Press.
Nehorai, M. Z. (1988). “Maimonides and Gersonides: Two Approaches to the Nature of Providence,” Da’at 20: 51–64 [Hebrew].
Niehoff, Maren (2011). Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria. Cambridge University Press.
Norris, Christopher (1991). Spinoza and the Origins of Modern Critical Theory. Cambridge, MA: Basil Blackwell.
Nuriel, Avraham (1980). “Providence and Governance in the Guide of the Perplexed,” Tarbiz 49: 346–55 [Hebrew].
Offenberg, Adri (1977). “Spinoza Autodidacte?,” in Spinoza. Troisième centenaire de la mort du philosophe, ed. Judith C. E. Belinfante. Paris: Institut Néerlandais, 30–31.
Owens, Joseph (1963). An Elementary Christian Metaphysics. Milwaukee: Brunce Publishing.
Parens, Joshua (2012). Maimonides and Spinoza: Their Conflicting Views of Human Nature. University of Chicago Press.
Pereboom, Derk (2001). Living Without Free Will. Cambridge University Press.
Petrus de Abano (1523). Conciliator Differentiarum Philosophorum ac Medicorum. Papie: Mandato et expensis Gerardi de Zeis, et Bartholomei de Morandis.
Pfeffer, Jeremy (2010). “Authorship in a Hebrew Codex … MS 199: Tracing Two Lost Works by Delmedigo,” Christ Church Library Newsletter 6.3: 1–6.
Pines, Shlomo (1963). “The Philosophic Sources of The Guide of the Perplexed,” in Maimonides 1963.
Pines, Shlomo (1967). “Scholasticism after Thomas Aquinas and the Teaching of Hasdai Crescas and his Predecessors,” Proceedings of the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities 1: 1–101.
Pines, Shlomo (1968). “Spinoza’s Tractatus Theologico-Politicus, Maimonides, and Kant,” Scripta Hierosolymitana 20: 3–54.
Pines, Shlomo (1979), “The Limitations of Human Knowledge According to Al-Farabi, ibn Bajja, and Maimonides,” in Studies in Medieval Jewish History, ed. I. Twersky. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 82–109.
Pines, Shlomo (1979–1997). Collected Works, 5 vols. Jerusalem: Magnes Press.
Pines, Shlomo (1983). “Medieval Doctrines in Renaissance Garb? Some Jewish and Arabic Sources of Leone Ebreo’s Doctrines,” in Jewish Thought in the Sixteenth Century, ed. B. Cooperman. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 365–398.
Pines, Shlomo (1987a). “Spinoza’s Tractatus Theologico-Politicus and the Jewish Philosophical Tradition,” in Jewish Thought in the Seventeenth Century, eds. Isadore Twersky and Bernard Septimus. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Pines, Shlomo (1987b). “Some Distinctive Metaphysical Conceptions in Themistius’ Commentary on Book Lambda,” in Aristoteles Werk und Wirkung, Paul Moraux gewidmet, ed. J. Wiesner, Vol. 2. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, repr. Pines 1979–1997, Vol. 3, 267–294.
Pines, Shlomo (1990). “Truth and Falsehood Versus Good and Evil: A Study in Jewish and General Philosophy in Connection with the Guide of the Perplexed,” in Studies in Maimonides, ed. Isadore Twersky. Cambridge University Press.
Pines, Shlomo (1991). “Note sur la métaphysique et sur la physique de Gersonide,” in Gersonide en son temps, ed. G. Dahan. Louvain: Peeters, repr. Pines 1979–1997, Vol. 5, 590–594.
Polgar, Isaac (1984). ‘Ezer ha-dat, ed. Jacob S. Levinger. Tel Aviv: Chaim Rosenberg School for Jewish Studies, University of Tel Aviv.
Popkin, Richard (1987). Isaac la Peyrère (1596–1676): His Life, Work and Influence. Leiden: Brill.
Popkin, Richard (1992). “Spinoza, Neoplatonist Kabbalist?,” in Neoplatonism in Jewish Thought, ed. Lenn E. Goodman. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 387–409.
Popkin, Richard (1996). “Spinoza and Bible Scholarship,” in The Cambridge Companion to Spinoza, ed. Don Garrett. Cambridge University Press, 383–407.
Preus, J. Samuel (2001). Spinoza and the Irrelevance of Biblical Authority. Cambridge University Press.
Rabinovith, Nachum L. (1970). “Rabbi Hasdai Crescas on Numerical Infinities,Isis 61: 224–230.
Raffel, Charles M. (1987). “Providence as Consequent Upon the Intellect: Maimonides’ Theory of Providence,” Association for Jewish Studies Review 12: 25–71.
Rapoport, Solomon Judah Leib (1885–86). ‘Igrot Shir. Przemyśl: Eisik Gräber.
Ravitzky, Aviezer (1981). “Samuel ibn Tibbon and the Esoteric Character of the Guide of the Perplexed,” Association for Jewish Studies Review 61: 87–123.
Ravitzky, Aviezer (1988). Drashat ha-pesaḥ le-Rav Ḥasdai Crescas u-meḥkarim be-mishnato ha-filosofit (Crescas “Sermon on the Passover” and Studies in His Philosophy). Jerusalem: Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities.
Ravitzky, Aviezer (1993). “On the Study of Medieval Jewish Philosophy,” Archivio di filosofia 61: 151–166.
Ravven, Heidi (2001a). “Some Thoughts on What Spinoza Learned from Maimonides About the Prophetic Imagination, Part One: Maimonides on Prophecy and the Imagination,” Journal of the History of Philosophy 39: 193–214.
Ravven, Heidi (2001b). “Some Thoughts on What Spinoza Learned from Maimonides About the Prophetic Imagination, Part Two: Spinoza’s Maimonideanism,” Journal of the History of Philosophy 39: 385–406.
Ravven, Heidi (2001c). “The Garden of Eden: Spinoza’s Maimonidean Account of the Genealogy of Morals and the Origin of Society,” Philosophy and Theology 13: 3–47.
Ravven, Heidi (2013). The Self Beyond Itself: An Alternative History of Ethics, the New Brain Sciences, and the Myth of Free Will. New York: The New Press.
Ravven, Heidi, and Lenn E. Goodman, eds. (2002). Jewish Themes in Spinoza’s Philosophy. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Reines, Alvin (1972). “Maimonides’ Concepts of Providence and Theodicy,” Hebrew Union College Annual 43: 169–205.
Reisman, David C. (2005). “Al-Farabi and the Philosophical Curriculum,” in The Cambridge Companion to Arabic Philosophy, eds. Peter Adamson and Richard C. Taylor. Cambridge University Press, 52–71.
Révah, I. S. (1959). Spinoza et Juan de Prado. Paris: Mouton.
Rivière, Lazare (1656). Institutiones Medicae. Lyons: Sumptibus Antonii Cellier.
Rosen, Stanley (1987). “Spinoza,” in History of Political Philosophy, eds. Leo Strauss and Joseph Cropsey. University of Chicago Press.
Rudavsky, T. M. (2001). “Galileo and Spinoza: Heroes, Heretics, and Hermeneutics,Journal of the History of Ideas 62: 611–631.
Rudavsky, T. M. (2003). “The Impact of Scholasticism upon Jewish Philosophy in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries,” The Cambridge Companion to Medieval Philosophy, eds. Daniel H. Frank and Oliver Leaman. New York: Cambridge University Press, 345–370.
Rudavsky, T. M. (2010). Maimonides. Boston, MA and Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell Press.
Sadik, Shalom (forthcoming). “The ‘Will Of God’, ‘God’s Knowledge’ and ‘the Will of Man’ in the Thought of Rabbi Issac Polgar,” Daat 76: 147–172 [Hebrew].
Sainz de la Maza Vicioso, Carlos (1990). “Alfonso de Valladolid: Edición y estudio del manuscrito lat. 6423 de la Biblioteca Apostólica Vaticana,” Ph.D. dissertation, Universidad Complutense. Madrid: Editorial de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid.
Saperstein, Marc (1991). “Saul Levi Morteira’s Treatise on the Immortality of the Soul,Studia Rosenthaliana 25: 131–148.
Saperstein, Marc (2005). Exile in Amsterdam: Saul Levi Morteira’s Sermons to a Congregation of “New Jews.” Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College Press.
Sarna, Nahum (1993). “Abraham Ibn Ezra as Exegete,” in Rabbi Abraham Ibn Ezra: Studies in the Writings of a Twelfth-Century Polymath, eds. Isadore Twersky and Jay M. Harris. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1–27.
Savan, David (1986). “Spinoza: Scientist and Theorist of Scientific Method,” in Spinoza and the Sciences, eds. Marjorie Grene and Debra Nails. Dordrecht: D. Reidel, 95–124.
Scholem, Gershom (1941). Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism. New York: Schocken Books.
Schwartz, Daniel (2012). The First Modern Jew: Spinoza and the History of an Image. Princeton University Press.
Schwartz, Dov (2005). Central Problems of Medieval Jewish Philosophy. Leiden: Brill.
Seeskin, Kenneth (2005). Maimonides on the Creation of the World. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Sela, Shlomo (1999). Astrology and Biblical Exegesis in the Thought of Abraham Ibn Ezra [Hebrew]. Ramat Gan: Bar Ilan University Press.
Sela, Shlomo (2003). Araham Ibn Ezra and the Rise of Medieval Hebrew Science. Boston: Brill.
Sela, Shlomo, and Gad Freudenthal (2006). “Abraham Ibn Ezra’s Scholarly Writings: A Chronological Listing,” Aleph 6: 13–55.
Sennert, Daniel (1641). Institutionum Medicinae Libri Quinque, in Vol. 1 of his Opera Omnia. Venice: Apud Franciscum Baba, 239–846.
Shalom, Abraham (1575). Neveh Shalom. Venice: Zu’an di Gara’.
Shatz, David (2003). “The Biblical and Rabbinic Background to Medieval Jewish Philosophy,” in The Cambridge Companion to Medieval Jewish Philosophy, eds. Daniel H. Frank and Oliver Leaman. Cambridge University Press, 16–37.
Siebrand, Heine (1986). “Spinoza and the Rise of Modern Science in the Netherlands,” in Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science: Spinoza and the Sciences, eds. Marjorie Grene and Debra Nails. Dordrecht: D. Reidel, 61–94.
Siegel, Rudolph E. (1968). Galen’s System of Physiology and Medicine: An Analysis of His Doctrines and Observations on Bloodflow, Respiration, Humors, and Internal Diseases. Basil: Karger.
Simon, Uriel, and Raphael Jospe (2007). “Ibn Ezra,” “Abraham Ben Meir,” in Encyclopaedia Judaica, eds. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Detroit: Macmillan Reference, 665–672.
Sirat, Colette (1985). A History of Jewish Philosophy in the Middle Ages. Cambridge University Press.
Skulsky, Harold (2009). Staring into the Void: Spinoza, the Master of Nihilism. Newark: University of Delaware Press.
Slote, Michael (1990). “Ethics Without Free Will,Social Theory and Practice 16: 369–383.
Smith, Steven (1997). Spinoza, Liberalism, and the Question of Jewish Identity. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Smith, Steven (2003). Spinoza’s Book of Life: Freedom and Redemption in the Ethics. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Smithius, Renate (1995). “Abraham Ibn Ezra’s Astrological Works in Hebrew and Latin: New Discoveries and Exhaustive Listings,Aleph 6: 239–338.
Sorabji, Richard (1980). Necessity, Cause, and Blame: Perspectives on Aristotle’s Theory. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Spinoza, Benedictus (1869). Korte Verhandeling van God, de Mensch, en Deszelfs Welstand, ed. Carl Schaarschmidt. Amsterdam: F. Muller.
Spinoza, Benedictus (1910). Spinoza’s Short Treatise on God, Man and His Wellbeing, trans. A. Wolf. London: A. and C. Black.
Spinoza, Benedictus (1925). Spinoza Opera, ed. Carl Gebhardt, 4 vols, Heidelberg: Carl Winters Universitätsverlag (repr. 1972).
Spinoza, Benedictus (1985). The Collected Works of Spinoza, Vol. 1, trans. Edwin Curley. Princeton University Press.
Spinoza, Benedictus (1995). Spinoza: The Letters, trans. Samuel Shirley. Indianapolis: Hackett.
Spinoza, Benedictus (2000). Political Treatise, trans. Samuel Shirley. Indianapolis: Hackett.
Spinoza, Benedictus (2001). Theological-Political Treatise, trans. Samuel Shirley, 2nd ed. Indianpolis: Hackett.
Spinoza, Benedictus (2002). Complete Works, trans. Samuel Shirley, ed. Michael Morgan. Indianapolis: Hackett.
Spinoza, Benedictus (2004). Theological-Political Treatise, trans. Martin Yaffe. Newburyport, MA: Focus Publishing.
Spinoza, Benedictus (2007). Theological-Political Treatise, trans. Michael Silverthorne and Jonathan Israel. Cambridge University Press.
Stern, Josef (2005). “Maimonides Epistemology,” in The Cambridge Companion to Maimonides, ed. Kenneth Seeskin. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Strauss, Leo (1968). Liberalism: Ancient and Modern. New York: Basic Books.
Strauss, Leo (1997). Spinoza’s Critique of Religion, ed. and trans. E. M. Sinclair. University of Chicago Press.
Strickman, Norman H. (2011). “Abraham ibn Ezra’s ‘Yesod Mora’,Hakirah 12: 139–169.
Stroumsa, Sarah (2009). Maimonides in His World: A Portrait of a Mediterranean Thinker. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press.
Suringar, G. C. B. (1864). “Invloed der Cartesiaansche Wijsbegeerte of het Natuur- en Genees-Kundig Onderwijs aan de Leidsche Hoogeschool,Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde 8: 153–170.
Szpiech, Ryan (2010). “In Search of Ibn Sina’s ‘Oriental Philosophy’ in Medieval Castile,” Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 20: 185–206.
Talmage, Frank. (1999). “Apples of Gold: The Inner Meaning of Sacred Texts in Medieval Judaism,” in Apples of Gold in Settings of Silver: Studies in Medieval Jewish Exegesis and Polemics, ed. Barry Dov Wolfish. Toronto: Pontifical Institute Publ., 108–150.
Temkin, Owsei (1973). Galenism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Themistius (1999). Paraphrase de la “Métaphysique” d’Aristote. French translation from Hebrew and Arabic by Rémi Brague. Paris: J. Vrin.
Thomas Aquinas (1947). The Summa Theologica of St. Thomas Aquinas, trans. Fathers of the English Dominican Province. Chicago: Benzinger Brothers, available online at
Thomas Aquinas (1968). On the Unity of the Intellect Against the Averroists, trans. Beatrice H. Zedler. Milwaukee: Marquette University Press.
Thomas Aquinas (n.d.). Quaestiones Disputatae de Anima,, accessed 27 November 2013.
Thorndike, Lynne (1955). “The True Place of Astrology in the History of Science,Isis 46: 273–278.
Totaro, Pina (2002). “‘Ho Certi Amici in Ollandia’: Stensen and Spinoza – Science versus Faith,” in Niccolò Stenone (1638–1686) Anatomista, Geologo, Vescovo, eds. Karen Ascaniet al. Roma: Erma di Bretschneider.
Touati, Charles (1973). La pensée philosophique et théologique de Gersonide. Paris: Éditions de Minuit.
Touati, Charles (1990). “Les deux theories de Maïmonide sur la providence,” in Prophètes, talmudistes, philosophes. Paris: Editions de Cerf.
Twersky, Isadore (1972). A Maimonides Reader. New York: Behrman House.
Vajda, Georges (1955). “The Doctrine of R. Moses b. Joseph Halevi on Providence,” Melilah 5: 163–168 [Hebrew].
Vajda, Georges (1957). L’Amour de Dieu dans la théologie juive du Moyen Âge. Paris: J. Vrin.
Valabregue-Perry, Sandra (2010). Concealed and Revealed: “Ein Sof ” in Theosophic Kabbalah [Hebrew]. Los Angeles: Cherub Press.
Van Bunge, Wiep (2001) “Baruch of Benedictus: Spinoza en de ‘Marranen’,” Mededelingen vanwege het Spinozahuis81.
Vaz Dias, A. M. and W. G. Van der Tak (1932). Spinoza. Mercator & Autodidactus. Oorkonden en andere authentieke documenten betreffende des wijsgeers jeugd en diens betrekkingen. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. English translation in Studia Rosenthaliana 16 (1982): 103–195.
Velthuysen, Lambert van (1657). Tractatus Du Medico-Physici, Unvs, De Liene, Alter, de Generatione. Utrecht: Typis Theodori ab Ackersdijck & Gisberti à Zyll.
Velthuysen, Lambert van (1680). Tractatus de Cultu Naturali, & Origine Moralitatis, in his Opera. Rotterdam: Typis Reineri Leers, 2: 1363–1570.
Verbeek, Theo (2003). Spinoza’s Theological-political treatise: Exploring “the Will of God.”London: Ashgate.
Vermij, Renk H. (2002). “The Calvinist Copernicans: The Reception of the New Astronomy in the Dutch Republic: 1575–1750,History of Science and Scholarship in the Netherlands 1: 241–242.
Vlessing, Odette (1996). “The Jewish Community in Transition: From Acceptance to Emancipation,” Studia Rosenthaliana 30: 195–211.
Waxman, Meyer (1920). The Philosophy of Don Hasdai Crescas. New York: Columbia University Press.
Weiss, Raymond L. (1991). Maimonides’ Ethics. University of Chicago Press.
Werblowsky, R. J. Zwi (1959). “Philo and the Zohar, Part II,” Journal of Jewish Studies 10: 113–135.
Weyl, Hermann (2012). Levels of Infinity, trans. Peter PesicMineola, NY: Dover.
Williams, Bernard (1981). Moral Luck. Cambridge University Press.
Wolfson, Harry A. (1929). Crescas’ Critique of Aristotle: Problems of Aristotle’s Physics in Jewish and Arabic Philosophy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Wolfson, Harry A. (1934). The Philosophy of Spinoza, 2 vols. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press..
Wolfson, Harry A. (1976). The Philosophy of the Kalam. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Wilson, Margaret (1996). “Spinoza’s Theory of Knowledge,” in The Cambridge Companion to Spinoza, ed. Don Garrett. Cambridge University Press, 89–141.
Yovel, Yirmiyahu (1989). Spinoza and Other Heretics. Vol. 1: The Marrano of Reason. Princeton University Press.
Zohar… ‘im ha-Be’urim ha-Nifla’im ha-Sulam (1974–1975). Jerusalem: n.p.
Le Zohar (1981). Translated into French by Charles Mopsik. Paris: Verdier.
Zweifel, Eliezer ben David ha-Kohen (1856). Letter 15, to Senior Sachs. Kerem Ḥemed 9: 80–85.