Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Cited by 5
  • Print publication year: 2013
  • Online publication date: March 2013

12 - Risk assessment and management of wildfires

References

AgeeJ. K. and SkinnerC. N. (2005) Basic principles of forest fuel reduction treatments. Forest Ecology and Management 211 (1–2): 83–96.
Albertson, K., Aylen, J., Cavan, G., et al. (2009) Forecasting the outbreak of moorland wildfires in the English Peak District. Journal of Environmental Management 90 (8): 2642–2651.
Andreae, M. O. and Merlet, P. (2001) Emission of trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 15 (4): 955–966.
Attewill, F. (2007) Anger at Greek government’s wildfire response. Guardian, 28 August. www.guardian.co.uk/world/2007/aug/28/naturaldisasters.features11 (accessed 13 April 2011).
Azuma, D. L., Donnegan, J. and Gedney, D. (2004) Southwest Oregon Biscuit Fire: an analysis of forest resources and fire severity. US Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station Research Paper PNW-RP 560 (May): 1–32.
Badia, A., Saurí, D., Cerdan, R., et al. (2002) Causality and management of forest fires in Mediterranean environments: an example from Catalonia. Global Environmental Change Part B: Environmental Hazards. 4 (1): 23–32.
Balling, R. C., Meyer, G. A. and Wells, S. G. (1992) Relation of surface climate and burned area in Yellowstone National Park. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 60 (3–4): 285–293.
Beer, T. (1991) The interaction of wind and fire. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 54 (3): 287–308.
Blake, W. (2009) Impacts of wildfire on downstream water quality. Presentation at the Wildfire 2009 Conference, Lyndhurst, New Hampshire. www.wildfire2009.org.uk.
Blake, W. H., Wallbrink, P. J., Wilkinson, S., et al. (2009) Deriving hillslope sediment budgets in wildfire-affected forests using fallout radionuclide tracers. Geomorphology 104: 105–116.
Boer, M., Sadler, R. and Grierson, P. (2008) Objective characterisation of fire regimes for science-based management of fire-prone landscapes. The International Bushfire Research Conference 2008, incorporating the 15th annual AFAC Conference, Adelaide, Australia.
Bond, W. J. and Keeley, J. E. (2005) Fire as a global ‘herbivore’: the ecology and evolution of flammable ecosystems. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 20 (7): 387–394.
Bowman, D. M. J. S., Balch, J. K., Artaxo, P., et al. (2009) Fire in the Earth system. Science 324: 481–484.
Brillinger, R. D., Autrey, B. S. and Cattaneo, M. D. (2009) Probabilistic risk modeling at the wildland urban interface: the 2003 Cedar Fire. Environmetrics 20: 607–620.
Brown, P. M. and Schoettle, A. W. (2008) Fire and stand history in two limber pine (Pinus flexilis) and Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata) stands in Colorado. International Journal of Wildland Fire 17 (3): 339–347.
Brown, T. J., Hall, B. L., Mohrle, C. R., et al. (2002) Coarse assessment of federal wildland fire occurrence data. Report for the National Wildfire Coordinating Group, Program CEFA (Climate, Ecosystem and Fire Applications) Report 02-04.
Brunstein, F. C. and Yamaguchi, D. K. (1992) The oldest known Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines (Pinus aristata Engelm.). Arctic and Alpine Research 24: 253–256.
Butler, B. W., Finney, M. A., Andrews, P. L., et al. (2004) A radiation-driven model for crown fire spread. Canadian Journal of Forest Research–Revue Canadienne De Recherche Forestiere 34 (8): 1588–1599.
Byram, G. M. (1959) Combustion of forest fuels. In Forest Fire: Control and Use, ed. K. P. Davis, New York: McGraw Hill, pp. 61–89.
Camia, A., San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., Oehler, F., et al. (2008) Forest Fires in Europe 2008. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.
Castellnou, M., Kraus, D. and Miralles, M. (2010) Prescribed burning and suppression fire techniques: from fuel to landscape management. In Best Practices of Fire Use: Prescribed Burning and Supression Fire Programmes in Selected Case-Study Regions in Europe, ed. H. Hasenauer and M. Korhonen, Joensuu: European Forest Institute.
Certini, G. (2005) Effects of fire on properties of forest soils: a review. Oecologia 143 (1): 1–10.
Chafer, C. J., Noonan, M. and Macnaught, E. (2004) The post-fire measurement of fire severity and intensity in the Christmas 2001 Sydney wildfires. International Journal of Wildland Fire 13 (2): 227–240.
Chappell, C. B. and Agee, J. K. (1996) Fire severity and tree seedling establishment in Abies magnifica forests, Southern Cascades, Oregon. Ecological Applications 6 (2): 628–640.
Chen, X. and Goodwin, B. K. (2011) Spatio-temporal modeling of wildfire risks in the U.S. forest sector. Paper presented at the Agricultural and Applied Economics Association 2011 Annual Meeting. http://purl.umn.edu/103628.
Chuvieco, E., Giglio, L. and Justice, C. (2008) Global characterization of fire activity: toward defining fire regimes from Earth observation data. Global Change Biology 14 (7): 1488–1502.
Clark, J. S. (1990) Fire and climate change during the last 750 yr in Northwestern Minnesota. Ecological Monographs 60 (2): 135–159.
Clark, T. L., Jenkins, M. A., Coen, J., et al. (1996) A coupled atmosphere–fire model: convective feedback on fire-line dynamics. Journal of Applied Meteorology 35 (6): 875–901.
Cocke, A. E., Fule, P. Z. and Crouse, J. E. (2005) Comparison of burn severity assessments using Differenced Normalized Burn Ratio and ground data. International Journal of Wildland Fire 14 (2): 189–198.
Cofer, W. R., Koutzenogii, K. P. and Kokorin, A., et al. (1997) Biomass burning emissions and the atmosphere. In Sediment Records of Biomass Burning and Global Change, ed. J. S. Clark, H. Cachier, J. G. Goldammer, et al., Berlin: Springer, pp. 189–206.
Commonwealth of Australia (2010) The Incidence and Severity of Bushfires across Australia, Canberra: The Senate Select Committee on Agricultural and Related Industries.
Conedera, M., Tinner, W., Neff, C., et al. (2009) Reconstructing past fire regimes: methods, applications, and relevance to fire management and conservation. Quaternary Science Reviews 28 (5–6): 555–576.
CSIRO (2008) Fire-generated wind. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) Fact sheet. www.csiro.au/resources/FireGeneratedWind.html (accessed 11 April 2011).
Cui, W. and Perera, A. H. (2008) What do we know about forest fire size distribution, and why is this knowledge useful for forest management? International Journal of Wildland Fire 17: 234–244.
Cunningham, P. and Linn, R. R. (2007) Numerical simulations of grass fires using a coupled atmosphere–fire model: dynamics of fire spread. Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres 112 (D5): n.p.
DCLG (2011) Fire and resiliance. UK Department for Communities and Local Government. www.communities.gov.uk/fire/ (accessed 12 May 2011).
DeBano, L. F., Neary, D. G. and Ffolliott, P. F. (1998) Fire’s Effects on Ecosystems. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
de GrootW. J., Pritchard, J. M. and Lynham, T. J. (2009) Forest floor fuel consumption and carbon emissions in Canadian boreal forest fires. Canadian Journal of Forest Research – Revue Canadienne De Recherche Forestiere 39 (2): 367–382.
Disney, M. I., Lewis, P., Gomez-Dans, J., et al. (2011) 3D radiative transfer modelling of fire impacts on a two-layer savanna system. Remote Sensing of Environment 115 (8): 1866–1881.
DoI/USGS (2011) GeoMAC Wildland Fire Support (internet-based mapping application). US Department of the Interior and US Department of Agriculture. www.geomac.gov (accessed 12 May 2011).
Dold, J. W., Weber, R. O., Gill, M., et al. (2005) Unusual phenomena in an extreme bushfire. In Proceedings of 5th Asia-Pacific Conference on Combustion 2005, ed. G. J. Nathan, B. B. Dally, M. Kalt, et al., Adelaide: University of Adelaide, pp. 309–312.
Drossel, B. and Schwabl, F. (1992) Self-organized critical forest fire model. Physical Review Letters 69: 1629–1632.
Eckmann, T. C., Roberts, D. A. and Still, C. J. (2009) Estimating subpixel fire sizes and temperatures from ASTER using multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis. International Journal of Remote Sensing 30 (22): 5851–5864.
EFFIS (European Forest Fire Information System) (2011) Fire history online tools. effis.jrc.ec.europa.eu/fire-history (accessed 1 April 2011).
Eidenshink, J. and Klaver, J. (2005) USGS fire science: fire danger monitoring and forecasting. US Department of the Interior, US Geological Survey, Fact Sheet 2005-3066. egsc.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/factsheets/FS-2005-3066.pdf (accessed 13 May 2011).
ESA (2011a) European Space Agency. Multimedia Gallery. www.esa.int/esa-mmg/mmghome.pl (accessed 12 May 2011).
ESA (2011b) ATSR world fire atlas. European Space Agency, data user element. http://due.esrin.esa.int/wfa/ (accessed 2 September 2011).
Evans, M., Hastings, N. and Peacock, B. (2000) Statistical Distributions, New York: Wiley-Interscience.
FAO (2011) Global fire information management system (GFIMS). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. www.fao.org/nr/gfims/en (accessed 21 July 2011).
FDS (2011) Fire Dynamics Simulator and Smokeview (FDS-SMV). National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). www.fire.nist.gov/fds/ (accessed 22 February 2011).
Fenner, M. (1992) Seeds: The Ecology of Regeneration. Wallingford: CABI Publishing.
Finney, M. A. and McAllister, S. S. (2011) A review of fire interactions and mass fires. Journal of Combustion, doi: 10.1155/2011/548328.
Firehouse (2005) King County Creek, Alaska fire continues to grow, spreading smoke. Firehouse news archives, 30 June. www.firehouse.com (accessed 10 April 2011).
FIRES (2009) Economic impacts of wildfires and adaptive land management to reduce wildfire risk and impact. FIRES Seminar 4. Fire Interdisciplinary Research on Ecosystem Services: Fire and Climate Change in UK Moorlands and Heaths. 14 May. www.fires-seminars.org.uk (accessed 21 July 2011).
Fitzgerald, W. F., Engstrom, D. R., Mason, R. P., et al. (1998) The case for atmospheric mercury contamination in remote areas. Environmental Science & Technology 32 (1): 1–7.
Flannigan, M. D., Stocks, B. J. and Wotton, B. M. (2000) Climate change and forest fires. Science of the Total Environment 262 (3): 221–229.
Flannigan, M. D., Amiro, B. D., Logan, K. A., et al. (2005) Forest fires and climate change in the 21st Century. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 11: 847–859.
Forestry Commission (2011) The Forestry Commission. www.forestry.gov.uk (accessed 13 May 2011).
Foster, D. R. (1985) Vegetation development following fire in Picea Mariana (black Spruce) – Pleurozium forests of south-eastern Labrador, Canada. Journal of Ecology 73 (2): 517–534.
Fried, J. S. and Gilless, J. K. (1999) CFES2: The California Fire Economics Simulator Version 2 User’s Guide, Oakland: University of California.
Fromm, M., Bevilacqua, R., Servranckx, R., et al. (2005) Pyro-cumulonimbus injection of smoke to the stratosphere: observations and impact of a super blowup in northwestern Canada on 3–4 August 1998. Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres 110 (D8): n.p.
FWS (2011) US Fish and Wildlife Service National Digital Library. digitalmedia.fws.gov/ (accessed 12 May 2011).
Gabban, A., San-Miguel-Ayanz, J. and Viegas, D. X. (2006) On the suitability of the use of normalized difference vegetation index for forest fire risk assessment. International Journal of Remote Sensing 27 (22): 5095–5102.
Gabban, A., San-Miguel-Ayanz, J. and Viegas, D. X. (2008) A comparative analysis of the use of NOAA-AVHRR NDVI and FWI data for forest fire risk assessment. International Journal of Remote Sensing 29 (19): 5677–5687.
GAO (2008) Wildland fire management: federal agencies lack key long- and short-term management strategies for using program funds effectively. United States Government Accountability Office.
GAO (2009) Wildland fire management: federal agencies have taken important steps forward, but additional, strategic action is needed to capitalize on those steps. United States Government Accountability Office Report to Congressional Addressees.
Gazzard, R. (2009a) UK vegetation fire standard. Presentation at the Wildfire 2009 Conference, Lyndhurst, New Hampshire.
Gazzard, R. (2009b) UK vegetation fire standard: data fields and terminology for wildfire incidents and prescribed burning operations within Great Britain and Northern Ireland. www.forestry.gov.uk/website/forestresearch.nsf/ByUnique/INFD-7WKJDJ.
Giglio, L., Kendall, J. D. and Mack, R. (2003) A multi-year active fire dataset for the tropics derived from the TRMM VIRS. International Journal of Remote Sensing 24 (22): 4505–4525.
Giglio, L., Randerson, J. T., van der Werf, G. R., et al. (2010) Assessing variability and long-term trends in burned area by merging multiple satellite fire products. Biogeosciences 7 (3): 1171–1186.
Gill, A. M. and Allan, G. (2008) Large fires, fire effects and the fire-regime concept. International Journal of Wildland Fire 17 (6): 688–695.
Givelet, N., Roos-Barraclough, F. and Shotyk, W. (2003) Predominant anthropogenic sources and rates of atmospheric mercury accumulation in southern Ontario recorded by peat cores from three bogs: comparison with natural ‘background’ values (past 8000 years). Journal of Environmental Monitoring 5 (6): 935–949.
Graham, R. T. (ed.) (2003) Hayman Fire Case Study, Ogden, UT: US Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station.
Grell, G. A., Peckham, S. E., Schmitz, R., et al. (2005) Fully coupled ‘online’ chemistry within the WRF model. Atmospheric Environment 39 (37): 6957–6975.
Guyette, R. P., Muzika, R. M. and Dey, D. C. (2002) Dynamics of an anthropogenic fire regime. Ecosystems 5 (5): 472–486.
Haight, R. G. and Fried, J. S. (2007) Deploying wildland fire suppression resources with a scenario-based standard response model. INFOR 45 (1): 31–39.
Hammill, K. A. and Bradstock, R. A. (2006) Remote sensing of fire severity in the Blue Mountains: influence of vegetation type and inferring fire intensity. International Journal of Wildland Fire 15: 213–226.
Hawbaker, T. J., Radeloff, V. C., Syphard, A. D., et al. (2008) Detection rates of the MODIS active fire product in the United States. Remote Sensing of Environment 112 (5): 2656–2664.
Heyerdahl, E. K., Berry, D. and Agee, J. K. (1995) Fire History Database of the Western United States. Seattle, WA: US Environmental Protection Agency, USDA Forest Service, University of Washington.
Hill, B. T. (2000) Lessons Learned from the Cerro Grande (Los Alamos) Fire, Washington, DC: United States General Accounting Office.
Ito, A. and Penner, J. E. (2004) Global estimates of biomass burning emissions based on satellite imagery for the year 2000. Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres 109 (D14): n.p.
Jiang, Y., Zhuang, Q., Flannigan, M. D., et al. (2009) Characterization of wildfire regimes in Canadian boreal terrestrial ecosystems. International Journal of Wildland Fire 18: 992–1002.
Johnson, E. A. (1992) Fire and Vegetation Dynamics: Studies from the North American Boreal Forest, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Johnston, F. H. (2009) Bushfires and human health in a changing environment. Australian Family Physician 38: 720–725.
Johnston, F. H., Bailie, R. S., Pilotto, L. S., et al. (2007) Ambient biomass smoke and cardio-respiratory hospital admissions in Darwin, Australia. BMC Public Health 7: 240.
Jost, H. J., Drdla, K., Stohl, A., et al. (2004) In-situ observations of mid-latitude forest fire plumes deep in the stratosphere. Geophysical Research Letters 31 (11): L11101.
Joyce, K. E., Belliss, S. E., Samsonov, S. V., et al. (2009) A review of the status of satellite remote sensing and image processing techniques for mapping natural hazards and disasters. Progress in Physical Geography 33 (2): 183–207.
JRC (2010) Forest fires in Europe 2009. JRC-IES/Land Management & Natural Hazards Unit. effis.jrc.ec.europa.eu/reports/fire-reports/doc/34/raw (accessed 1 April 2011).
Kaiser, J. W., Benedetti, A., Flemming, J., et al. (2010) From fire observations to smoke plume forecasting in the MACC services. ESA Special Publication, SP-688.
Kaiser, J. W., Heil, A., Andreae, M. O., et al. (2011) Biomass burning emissions estimated with a global fire assimilation system based on observed fire radiative power. Biogeosciences Discussions 8 (4): 7339–7398.
Karter, M. J. (2008) Fire loss in the United States 2007. National Fire Protection Association Fire Reports, Quincy, MA. www.nfpa.org/assets/files/PDF/Public Education/FireLoss2007.pdf (accessed 5 April 2011).
Kasischke, E. S., Christensen, N. L. and Stocks, B. J. (1995) Fire, global warming, and the carbon balance of boreal forests. Ecological Applications 5 (2): 437–451.
Keeley, J. E. (2009) Fire intensity, fire severity and burn severity: a brief review and suggested usage. International Journal of Wildland Fire 18: 116–126.
Keeley, J. E., Fotheringham, C. J. and Morais, M. (1999) Reexamining fire suppression impacts on brushland fire regimes. Science 284 (5421): 1829–1832.
Kijko, A. (2004) Estimation of the maximum earthquake magnitude, mmax. Pure and Applied Geophysics 161: 1655–1681.
King’s College London (2011) Wildfire research at King’s College London. wildfire.geog.kcl.ac.uk (accessed 1 July 2011).
KPB (2010) Wildfires (section 3) Kenai Peninsula Borough (KPB) All-Hazard Mitigation Plan. KPB, Soldotna, Alaska. www.borough.kenai.ak.us/emergency/hazmit/plan.htm (accessed 10 April 2011).
Krenn, R. and Hergarten, S. (2009) Cellular automaton modelling of lightning-induced and man made forest fires. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 9: 1743–1748.
Krinner, G., Viovy, N., de Noblet-Ducoudre, N., et al. (2005) A dynamic global vegetation model for studies of the coupled atmosphere–biosphere system. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 19 (1): n.p.
Lamarque, J. F., Edwards, D. P., Emmons, L. K., et al. (2003) Identification of CO plumes from MOPITT data: application to the August 2000 Idaho–Montana forest fires. Geophysical Research Letters 30 (13): n.p.
Landhäusser, S. M. and Lieffers, V. J. (1997) Seasonal changes in carbohydrate storage and regrowth in rhizomes and stems of four boreal forest shrubs: applications in Picea glauca understorey regeneration. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research 12 (1): 27–32.
Lentile, L. B., Holden, Z. A., Smith, A. M. S., et al. (2006) Remote sensing techniques to assess active fire characteristics and post-fire effects. International Journal of Wildland Fire 15 (3): 319–345.
Linn, R., Reisner, J., Colman, J. J., et al. (2002) Studying wildfire behavior using FIRETEC. International Journal of Wildland Fire 11 (3–4): 233–246.
MACC (2011) Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate Project (MACC): global fire emissions. www.gmes-atmosphere.eu/services/gac/fire/ (accessed 1 July 2011).
Malamud, B. D. and Turcotte, D. L. (2000) Cellular-automata models applied to natural hazards. IEEE Computing in Science and Engineering 2: 42–51.
Malamud, B. D., Morein, G. and Turcotte, D. L. (1998) Forest fires: an example of self-organized critical behavior. Science 281: 1840–1842.
Malamud, B. D., Millington, J. D. A. and Perry, G. L. W. (2005) Characterizing Wildfire Regimes in the U.S.A. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 102: 4694–4699.
Mandel, J., Beezley, J. D., Bennethum, L. S., et al. (2007) A dynamic data driven wildland fire model. Computational Science–ICCS 2007, Pt 1, Proceedings 4487: 1042–1049.
Mandel, J., Bennethum, L. S., Beezley, J. D., et al. (2008) A wildland fire model with data assimilation. Mathematics and Computers in Simulation 79 (3): 584–606.
Marlon, J. R., Bartlein, P. J., Walsh, M. K., et al. (2009) Wildfire responses to abrupt climate change in North America. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106: 2519–2524.
Matthews, S. (2009) A comparison of fire danger rating systems for use in forests. Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Journal 58 (1): 41–48.
McKenzie, D., Gedalof, Z., Peterson, D. L., et al. (2004) Climatic change, wildfire, and conservation. Conservation Biology 18 (4): 890–902.
McLennan, J. and Birch, A. (2006) A potential crisis in wildfire emergency response capability? Australia’s volunteer firefighters. Global Environmental Change Part B: Environmental Hazards. 6 (2): 101–107.
McMorrow, J. and Legg, C. (2009) Ways forward for the management of wildfire in the UK. Paper presented at Wildfire 2009, Lyndhurst, Hampshire, 16–17 June.
MCS (2009) The 6th Mediterranean Combustion Symposium, Workshop on Wildfire Research. www.ichmt.org/mcs-6/content/view/41/54/ (accessed 8 October 2009).
Mell, W., Jenkins, M. A., Gould, J., et al. (2007) A physics-based approach to modelling grassland fires. International Journal of Wildland Fire 16 (1): 1–22.
MFSL (2011) FireModels. Fire behaviour and fire danger software, Missoula Fire Sciences Laboratory. www.firemodels.org/ (accessed 12 May 2011).
Millington, J. D. A., Perry, G. L. W. and Malamud, B. D. (2006) Models, data and mechanisms: quantifying wildfire regimes. In Fractal Analysis for Natural Hazards, ed. G. Cello and B. D. Malamud, London: Geological Society, pp. 155–167.
Montiel, C. and Kraus, D. (eds) (2010) Best practices of fire use: prescribed burning and suppression fire programmes in selected case-study regions in Europe. European Forest Institute Research Report 24.www.efi.int/files/attachments/publications/efi_rr24.pdf (accessed 13 April 2011).
Moody, J. A. and Martin, D. A. (2001) Hydrological and sedimentologic response of two burned watersheds. US Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigation report.
Moody, J. A. and Martin, D. A. (2009a) Forest fire effects on geomorphic processes. In Fire Effects on Soils and Restoration Strategies, Enfield, NH: Science Publishers Inc., pp. 41–79.
Moody, J. A. and Martin, D. A. (2009b) Synthesis of sediment yields after wildland fire in different rainfall regimes in the western United States. International Journal of Wildland Fire 18: 96–115.
Munich Re. (2009) Topics Geo: Natural Catastrophes 2008, Analyses, Assessments, Positions, Munchen: Munchener Ruck.
NASA (2011a) Visible Earth (NASA image catalogue). EOS Project Science Office, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. visibleearth.nasa.gov (accessed 7 July 2011).
NASA (2011b) Earth Observatory Images. EOS Project Science Office, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. earthobservatory.nasa.gov (accessed 21 July 2011).
NFPA (2011) Firewise communities program. US National Fire Protection Association. www.firewise.org/ (accessed 13 May 2011).
NIFC (2009) Guidance for implementation of federal wildland fire management policy. US National Interagency Fire Center. http://www.nifc.gov/policies/policies_main.html (accessed 2 September 2011).
NIFC (2010a) Lightning and human caused fires (by geographic area): wildland fire statistics, provided by the National Interagency Coordination Center. National Interagency Fire Center. www.nifc.gov/fire_info/fire_stats.htm (accessed 3 December 2010).
NIFC (2010b) Total wildland fires and acres: wildland fire statistics, provided by the National Interagency Coordination Center. National Interagency Fire Center. www.nifc.gov/fire_info/fires_acres.htm (accessed 3 December 2010).
Niklasson, M. and Granstrom, A. (2000) Numbers and sizes of fires: long-term spatially explicit fire history in a Swedish boreal landscape. Ecology 81: 1484–1499.
Nilsson, M. C. and Wardle, D. A. (2005) Understory vegetation as a forest ecosystem driver: evidence from the northern Swedish boreal forest. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 3 (8): 421–428.
Noble, J. C. (1991) Behaviour of a very fast grassland wildfire on the riverine plain of southeastern Australia. International Journal of Wildland Fire 1 (3): 189–196.
NPS (2009) Wildland fire in Yellowstone. National Park Service, US Department of the Interior. www.nps.gov/yell/naturescience/wildlandfire.htm (accessed 2 October 2009).
NRC (2011a) Canadian wildland fire information system. Natural Resources Canada. cwfis.cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/ (accessed 6 May 2011).
NRC (2011b) Fire monitoring, mapping, and modeling (Fire M3): data sources and methods. Natural Resources Canada. cwfis.cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/en_CA/background/dsm/fm3 (accessed 13 May 2011).
Nunes, J. R. S., Soares, R. V. and Batista, A. C. (2008) Prometheus: an integrated wildfire control system. Modelling, monitoring and management of forest fires I. Ecology and the Environment 119: 253–263.
OEHHA (2008) Wildfire guide: a guide for public health officials. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency. www.oehha.ca.gov/air/risk_assess/wildfire.html.
Omi, P. N. (2005) Forest Fires: A Reference Handbook, Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
Page, S. E., Siegert, F., Rieley, J. O., et al. (2002) The amount of carbon released from peat and forest fires in Indonesia during 1997. Nature 420 (6911): 61–65.
Pastor, E., Zárate, L., Planas, E., et al. (2003) Mathematical models and calculation systems for the study of wildland fire behaviour. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 29: 139–153.
Perry, D. A. and Lotan, J. E. (1979) A model of fire selection for serotiny in lodgepole pine. Evolution 33 (3): 958–968.
Power, M. J., Marlon, J., Ortiz, N., et al. (2008) Changes in fire regimes since the Last Glacial Maximum: an assessment based on a global synthesis and analysis of charcoal data. Climate Dynamics 30 (7–8): 887–907.
Preisler, H. K., Burgan, R. E., Eidenshink, J. C., et al. (2009) Forecasting distributions of large federal-lands fires utilizing satellite and gridded weather information. International Journal of Wildland Fire 18 (5): 508–516.
Prentice, I. C., Bondeau, A., Cramer, W., et al. (2007) Dynamic global vegetation modeling: quantifying terrestrial ecosystem responses to large-scale environmental change. In Terrestrial Ecosystems in a Changing World, ed. J. G. Canadell, D. A. Pataki and L. Pitelka, Berlin: Springer, pp. 175–192.
Pyne, S. J., Andrews, P. L. and Laven, R. D. (1996) Introduction to Wildland Fire, New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Radeloff, V. C., Hammer, R. B., Stewart, S. I., et al. (2005) The wildland–urban interface in the United States. Ecological Applications 15 (3): 799–805.
Randerson, J. T., Liu, H., Flanner, M. G., et al. (2006) The impact of boreal forest fire on climate warming. Science 314 (5802): 1130–1132.
Rasmussen, J. H. and Fogarty, L. G. (1997) A case study of grassland fire behaviour and suppression: the Tikokino Fire of 31 January 1991. New Zealand Forest Research Institute, Rotorua, in association with the National Rural Fire Authority, Wellington. FRI Bulletin No. 197, Forest and Rural Fire Scientific and Technical Series, Report No. 2.
Raybould, S. and Roberts, T. (2006) A matrix approach to fire prescription writing. Fire Management Today 66 (1): 79–82.
Reed, W. J. and McKelvey, K. S. (2002) Power-law behaviour and parametric models for the size-distribution of forest fires. Ecological Modelling 150: 239–254.
RIA Novosti (2010) Wildfires in Russia in 2010. en.rian.ru/trend/wildfires_2010/.
Ricotta, C., Avena, G. and Marchetti, M. (1999) The flaming sandpile: self-organized criticality and wildfires. Ecological Modelling 119: 73–77.
Ricotta, C., Arianoutsou, M., Díaz-Delgado, R., et al. (2001) Self-organized criticality of wildfires ecologically revisited. Ecological Modelling 141: 307–311.
Robinson, J. M. (1991) Fire from space: global fire evaluation using infrared remote sensing. International Journal of Remote Sensing 12 (1): 3–24.
Robischaud, P. R. and Elenbeer, H. (2001) Wildfire and superficial processes. Hydrological Processes 15: 2865–3091.
Rothermel, R. C. (1972) A Mathematical Model for Predicting Fire Spread in Wildland Fuels. Ogden, UT: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station.
Roy, D. P., Jin, Y., Lewis, P. E., et al. (2005) Prototyping a global algorithm for systematic fire-affected area mapping using MODIS time series data. Remote Sensing of Environment 97 (2): 137–162.
Roy, D. P., Boschetti, L., Justice, C. O., et al. (2008) The collection 5 MODIS burned area product: global evaluation by comparison with the MODIS active fire product. Remote Sensing of Environment 112 (9): 3690–3707.
Russell Smith, J., Ryan, P. G. and Durieu, R. (1997) A LANDSAT MSS-derived fire history of Kakadu National Park, monsoonal northern Australia, 1980–94: seasonal extent, frequency and patchiness. Journal of Applied Ecology 34 (3): 748–766.
Schlobohm, P. and Brain, J. (2002) Gaining an understanding of the national fire danger rating system. National Wildfire Coordinating Group Fire Danger Working Team, National Interagency Fire Center, NFES document number 2665, PMS 932.
Schoenberg, F. P., Peng, R. and Woods, J. (2003) On the distribution of wildfire sizes. Environmetrics 14: 583–592.
Schoennagel, T., Nelson, C. R., Theobald, D. M., et al. (2009) Implementation of National Fire Plan treatments near the wildland–urban interface in the western United States. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106 (26): 10706–10711.
Schroeder, W., Csiszar, I. and Morisette, J. (2008a) Quantifying the impact of cloud obscuration on remote sensing of active fires in the Brazilian Amazon. Remote Sensing of Environment 112 (2): 456–470.
Schroeder, W., Prins, E., Giglio, L., et al. (2008b) Validation of GOES and MODIS active fire detection products using ASTER and ETM plus data. Remote Sensing of Environment 112 (5): 2711–2726.
Schuster, E. G., Cleaves, D. A. and Bell, E. F. (1997) Analysis of USDA Forest Service Fire-related Expenditures 1970–1995. Pacific Southwest Research Station, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Research Paper PSW-RP-230.
Scott, A. C. (2000) The Pre-Quaternary history of fire. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 164: 281–329.
Scott, A. C. (2009) Forest fire in the fossil record. In Fire Effects on Soils and Restoration Strategies., ed. A. Cerdà and P. Robichaud, Enfield, NH: Science Publishers Inc., pp. 1–37.
Scott, A. C. and Glasspool, I. J. (2007) Observations and experiments on the origin and formation of inertinite group macerals. International Journal of Coal Geology 70 (1–3): 53–66.
Scott, J. H. and Reinhardt, E. D. (2001) Assessing Crown Fire Potential by Linking Models of Surface and Crown Fire Behavior, Fort Collins, CO: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station.
Scott, A. C., Cripps, J., Nichols, G., et al. (2000) The taphonomy of charcoal following a recent heathland fire and some implications for the interpretation of fossil charcoal deposits. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 164: 1–31l.
Shakesby, R. A. and Doerr, S. H. (2006) Wildfire as a hydrological and geomorphological agent. Earth Science Reviews 74: 269–307.
Sigler, J., Lee, X. and Munger, W. (2003) Emissions and long-range transport of gaseous mercury from a large-scale canadian boreal forest fire. Environmental Science and Technology 37 (19): 4343–4347.
Simmonds, P. G., Manning, A. J., Derwent, R. G., et al. (2005) A burning question: can recent growth rate anomalies in the greenhouse gases be attributed to large-scale biomass burning events? Atmospheric Environment 39 (14): 2513–2517.
Smith, A. M. S. and Wooster, M. J. (2005) Remote classification of head and backfire types from MODIS fire radiative power and smoke plume observations. International Journal of Wildland Fire 14 (3): 249–254.
Song, W. G., Fan, W. C., Wang, B. H., et al. (2001) Self-organized criticality of forest fire in China. Ecological Modelling 145: 61−68.
Stearns, J. R., Zahniser, M. S., Kolb, C. E., et al. (1986) Airborne infrared observations and analyses of a large forest fire. Applied Optics 25: 2554–2562.
Stedinger, J. R., Vogel, R. M., Foufoula-Georgiou, E., et al. (1993) Frequency analysis of extreme events. In Handbook of Hydrology, ed. D. R. Maidment, New York: McGraw-Hill.
Stocks, B. J., Lawson, B. D., Alexander, M. E., et al. (1989) The Canadian forest fire danger rating system: an overview. Forestry Chronicle 65 (6): 450–457.
Stocks, B. J., Mason, J. A., Todd, J. B., et al. (2002) Large forest fires in Canada, 1959–1997. Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres 108 (D1): n.p.
Strauss, D., Bednar, L. and Mees, R. (1989) Do one percent of forest fires cause ninety-nine percent of the damage? Forest Science 35: 319–328.
Sullivan, A. (2009) Improving operational models of fire behaviour. In 18th World IMACS Congress and MODSIM09 International Congress on Modelling and Simulation, July 2009, ed. R. S. Anderssen, R. D. Braddock, and L. T. H. Newham, Christchurch, New Zealand: Modelling and Simulation Society of Australia and New Zealand and International Association for Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, pp. 2377–2383.
Sullivan, A. L. and Knight, I. K. (2008) A hybrid cellular automata/semi-physical model of fire growth. Complexity International 12. www.complexity.org.au/ci/vol12/msid09/.
Sun, R., Jenkins, M. A., Krueger, S. K., et al. (2006) An evaluation of fire-plume properties simulated with the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) and the Clark coupled wildfire model. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 36 (11): 2894–2908.
Swetnam, T. W. and Betancourt, J. L. (1990) Fire–Southern oscillation relations in the southwestern United States. Science 249 (4972): 1017–1020.
Taylor, S. W. and Alexander, M. E. (2003) Considerations in developing a national forest fire danger rating system. In Proceedings of the XII World Forestry Congress (September 21–28, 2003, Quebec, Que.) Volume B – Forest for the Planet, Quebec: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service and Government of Quebec. warehouse.pfc.forestry.ca/pfc/23859.pdf (accessed 31 March 2011), p. 227.
Thompson, M. P. and Calkin, D. E. (2011) Uncertainty and risk in wildland fire management: a review. Journal of Environmental Management 92 (8): 1895–1909.
Thompson, M. P., Calkin, D. E., Finney, M. A., et al. (2011) Integrated national-scale assessment of wildfire risk to human and ecological values. Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment 25 (6): 761–780.
Trouet, V., Taylor, A., Carleton, A., et al. (2009) Interannual variations in fire weather, fire extent, and synoptic-scale circulation patterns in northern California and Oregon. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 95 (3–4): 349–360.
Turcotte, D. L. (1999) Self-organized criticality. Reports on Progress in Physics 62: 1377–1429.
Turcotte, D. L. and Malamud, B. D. (2004) Landslides, forest fires, and earthquakes: examples of self-organized critical behaviour. Physica A 340: 580–589.
Turetsky, M. R., Harden, J. W., Friedli, H. R., et al. (2006) Wildfires threaten mercury stocks in northern soils. Geophysical Research Letters 33 (16): n.p.
Tymstra, C., Bryce, R. W., Wotton, B. M., et al. (2010) Development and Structure of Prometheus: The Canadian Wildland Fire Growth Simulation Model, Edmonton: Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service. firegrowthmodel.ca/documentation.html (accessed 12 May 2011).
Umscheid, M. E., Monteverdi, J. P. and Davies, J. M. (2006) Photographs and analysis of an unusually large and long-lived firewhirl. Electronic Journal of Severe Storms Meteorology 1 (2): n.p.
UNECE (2011) Forest fire statistics. United Nations Economic Commission for Europe and FAO European Forestry Commission. www.unece.org/timber/ff-stats.html (accessed 31 March 2011).
University of Maryland (2011) Fire Information for Resource Management System. maps.geog.umd.edu/firms/ (accessed 1 July 2011).
USDA (2011) Active Fire Mapping Program. USDA Forest Service, Remote Sensing Applications Center. activefiremaps.fs.fed.us (accessed 13 May 2011).
USGS (2006) Wildfire Hazards: A National Threat. US Department of the Interior, US Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2006–3015. pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2006/3015/ (accessed 21 July 2011).
van der Werf, G. R., Randerson, J. T., Giglio, L., et al. (2006) Interannual variability in global biomass burning emissions from 1997 to 2004. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 6: 3423–3441.
van der Werf, G. R., Randerson, J. T., Giglio, L., et al. (2010) Global fire emissions and the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural, and peat fires (1997–2009). Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 10 (23): 11707–11735.
Van Wagner, C. E. (1977) Conditions for the start and spread of crownfire. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 7: 23–24.
Van Wagner, C. E. (1979) A laboratory study of weather effects on the drying rate of jack pine litter. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 9 (2): 267–275.
Van Wagner, C. E. (1993) Prediction of crown fire behavior in two stands of jack pine. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 23: 442–449.
van Wagtendonk, J. W. (2007) The history and evolution of wildland fire use. Fire Ecology 3 (2): 3–17.
VBRC (2009) Victorian Bushfires Royal Commission Final Report. State Government of Victoria. www.royalcommission.vic.gov.au (accessed 3 December 2010).
Viegas, D. X. (2006) Forest fires in Portugal in 2005: an overview. International Forest Fire News 34: n.p.
Wang, H. (2006) Ember attack: its role in the destruction of houses during ACT Bushfire in 2003. Paper presented at the Bushfire Conference 2006, Life in a Fire-Prone Environment: Translating Science into Practice. Brisbane, 6–9 June. www.griffith.edu.au/conference/bushfire2006/ (accessed 6 July 2011).
Ward, P. C., Tithecott, A. G. and Wotton, B. M. (2001) Reply: a re-examination of the effects of fire suppression in the boreal forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 31: 1467–1480.
Weber, R. O. and Dold, J. W. (2006) Linking landscape fires and local meteorology: a short review. JSME International Journal Series B–Fluids and Thermal Engineering 49 (3): 590–593.
Westerling, A. L., Gershunov, A., Brown, T. J., et al. (2003) Climate and wildfire in the western United States. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 84 (5): 595–604.
Westerling, A. L., Hidalgo, H. G., Cayan, D. R., et al. (2006) Warming and earlier spring increase western US forest wildfire activity. Science 313 (5789): 940–943.
White, E., Enquist, B. and Green, J. (2008) On estimating the exponent of power-law frequency distributions. Ecology 89: 905–912.
Whitlock, C. (2004) Land management: forests, fires and climate. Nature 432: 28–29.
Whitlock, C., Skinner, C. N., Bartlein, P. J., et al. (2004) Comparison of charcoal and tree-ring records of recent fires in the eastern Klamath Mountains, California, USA. Canadian Journal of Forest Research–Revue Canadienne De Recherche Forestiere 34 (10): 2110–2121.
Williams, T. (2002) America’s largest weed. Audubon Magazine, January. www.audubonmagazine.org/incite/incite0201.html (accessed 21 July 2011).
Wooster, M. J. and Strub, N. (2002) Study of the 1997 Borneo fires: Quantitative analysis using global area coverage (GAC) satellite data. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 16 (1): n.p.
Wooster, M. J., Zhukov, B. and Oertel, D. (2003) Fire radiative energy for quantitative study of biomass burning: derivation from the BIRD experimental satellite and comparison to MODIS fire products. Remote Sensing of Environment 86 (1): 83–107.
Wooster, M. J., Roberts, G., Perry, G. L. W., et al. (2005) Retrieval of biomass combustion rates and totals from fire radiative power observations: FRP derivation and calibration relationships between biomass consumption and fire radiative energy release. Journal of Geophysical Research 110 (D24): n.p.
Wooster, M. J., Perry, G. L. W. and Zoumas, A. (2011) Fire, drought and El Niño relationships on Borneo during the pre-MODIS era (1980–2000). Biogeosciences Discussions 8: 975–1013.
WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) (2011) WRF Model. www.wrf-model.org (accessed 1 February 2011).
Wright, H. E. (1974) Landscape development, forest fires, and wilderness management. Science 186 (4163): 487–495.
Xanthopoulos, G. (2004) Who should be responsible for forest fires? Lessons from the Greek experience. Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Fire Economics, Planning and Policy: A Global View, Cordoba, Spain, 19–22 April, Albany, CA: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, p. 128.
Xu, W., Wooster, M. J., Roberts, G., et al. (2010) New GOES imager algorithms for cloud and active fire detection and fire radiative power assessment across North, South and Central America. Remote Sensing of Environment 114 (9): 1876–1895.
Zhang, Y. H., Wooster, M. J., Tutubalina, O., et al. (2003) Monthly burned area and forest fire carbon emission estimates for the Russian Federation from SPOT VGT. Remote Sensing of Environment 87: 1–15.
Zhukov, B., Lorenz, E., Oertel, D., et al. (2006) Spaceborne detection and characterization of fires during the bi-spectral infrared detection (BIRD) experimental small satellite mission (2001–2004). Remote Sensing of Environment 100 (1): 29–51.