Skip to main content Accessibility help
Richard Nixon and Europe
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 10
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the print book

Book description

The US-European relationship remains the closest and most important alliance in the world. Since 1945, successive American presidents each put their own touches on transatlantic relations, but the literature has reached only into the presidency of Lyndon Johnson (1963–9). This first study of transatlantic relations during the era of Richard Nixon shows a complex, turbulent period during which the postwar period came to an end, and the modern era came to be on both sides of the Atlantic in terms of political, economic, and military relations.


'In his extremely well-researched, well-written, and carefully balanced account of Richard Nixon’s significant political and economic relations with Europe, Luke A. Nichter has brilliantly filled a major gap in our understanding of the administration’s foreign policy.'

Melvin Small - Wayne State University

'Steeped in transatlantic archives and written for a general audience, Richard Nixon and Europe is a landmark contribution that provides the first sophisticated analysis of how President Richard Nixon fit the Western European alliance into American foreign policy and how the Nixon Doctrine extended far beyond Vietnam to Western Europe.'

Irwin F. Gellman - Franklin and Marshall College, Pennsylvania

'Impressively researched and persuasively argued, Luke A. Nichter’s book fills an important gap in the literature of the Nixon presidency. Overshadowed by China, the Soviet Union, and Vietnam, Europe was nevertheless an important arena in which Nixon sought to change American policies. Nichter has written a fascinating narrative of Nixon’s efforts, using the White House tapes to detail the end of the Bretton Woods system, and provided an insightful account of the divisions created between the United States and Europe over the Yom Kippur War.'

Thomas Schwartz - Vanderbilt University, Tennessee

'This is the first monograph that attempts to evaluate comprehensively President Richard Nixon’s impact on US-European relations … The book is based on extensive multi-archival research in the US, Britain, France, Germany, and Italy, as well as the NATO, Council of Europe, and European Economic Community (EEC) archives. The author has consulted a huge spectrum of published sources, while he places special emphasis on the White House tapes, a large part of them published and co-edited by him in 2014–15. Thus, he is in a position to present an authoritative interpretation of Nixon’s European policies.'

Evanthis Hatzivassiliou Source: H-Diplo Roundtable Review

'History does not offer repeat performances, but themes in relations between nation states and alliances nonetheless recur in modified forms. That is not the least of the lessons to be drawn from Nichter’s searching and intelligent account of US foreign policy towards Europe during Nixon’s Presidency.'

Nigel Bowles Source: H-Diplo Roundtable Review

'This book is a very welcome addition to the literature of contemporary transatlantic relations. It is a detailed archival-based study of the Nixon administration’s policy towards Europe and it presents a rich account of how Nixon and Kissinger worked to put relations between the United States of America and Western Europe on a new footing.'

Mark Gilbert Source: Journal of Contemporary History

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.


  • Historical Archives of the European Commission (HAEC), Brussels:

    • Commissions of the European Economic Community, 1957–1975 (BAC)

  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Archives Division, Brussels:

    • North Atlantic Council (C-)

      • Verbatim Records (C-VR)

    • North Atlantic Military Committee (MC)

  • Centre d’accueil et de recherche des Archives Nationales (CARAN), Paris:

    • Papiers des Chefs de l’État:

      • Présidence de la République, Georges Pompidou (5 AG 2)

        • Entretiens franco-américains, conférences des chefs d’état de la CEE, notes, télégrammes, correspondance, voyages officiels, 1969–1974

  • Council of Europe Archives Division (COE), Strasbourg:

    • United Nations (889/031/2)

    • United States of America (889/031/1)

  • Politisches Archiv des Auswärtigen Amts (PAAA), Berlin:

    • Economic Policy: B52, IIIA2

    • North American File:

      • B31, 1968–1971

      • B32, 1955–1969

      • B32/204, 1971–1975

      • ZA (various)

  • Historical Archives of the European Union (HAEU), Florence:

    • Papers of Emanuele Gazzo (EG)

    • Papers of Edoardo Martino (EM)

    • Papers of Klaus Meyer (KM)

    • Papers of Robert Triffin (RT)

  • National Archives (Public Record Office), Kew Gardens, Surrey:

    • Cabinet Papers (CAB)

    • Papers of the Prime Minister (PREM)

    • Papers of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO)

  • Bentley Historical Library, Ann Arbor, Michigan:

    • Papers of Paul W. McCracken

  • Hoover Institution Archives (HIA), Stanford University, Palo Alto, California:

    • Papers of John Ehrlichman

    • Papers of Milton Friedman

    • Richard M. Nixon Notes (1968 Campaign)

  • Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.:

    • Manuscript Division:

      • Papers of Stephen Hess

      • Papers of Daniel Patrick Moynihan

      • Papers of Elliot Richardson

      • Papers of William L. Safire

  • National Archives and Records Administration (NARA):

    • Archives II, College Park, Maryland:

      • Record Group 59, State Department: Central Foreign Policy Files (CFPF)

    • Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library, Ann Arbor, Michigan:

      • Papers of Arthur Burns: Handwritten Journals, 1969–1974

      • Papers of Melvin Laird

      • National Security Adviser:

        • Chronological File

        • Memoranda of Conversations

        • Outside the System Chronological File

        • Presidential Correspondence with Foreign Leaders

        • Presidential Country Files for Europe and Canada

      • Presidential Speeches, Reading Copies:

    • White House Central Files:

      • Name File

      • Subject File

    • White House Photographic Office

  • Lyndon B. Johnson Presidential Library, Austin, Texas:

    • National Security File (NSF)

    • Oral History Interviews

  • Richard M. Nixon Presidential Library, Yorba Linda, California:

    • National Security Council Files:

      • Henry A. Kissinger Telephone Conversation Transcripts (Telcons)

      • Country Files, Europe:

        • France

        • Germany

        • United Kingdom

      • Henry A. Kissinger Office Files: Country Files

      • Presidential Correspondence

      • Presidential/HAK Memcons

      • President’s Trip Files

      • Subject Files:

        • European Common Market

        • National Security Decision Memoranda

        • National Security Study Memoranda

      • VIP Visits

      • National Security Council Institution Files (H-Files):

        • Study Memorandums: National Security Study Memorandums

    • White House Central Files:

      • Name File: Papers of Paul W. McCracken

      • Presidential Daily Diaries

    • White House Photographic Office

    • White House Special Files:

      • President’s Office Files

      • President’s Personal File

    • White House Tapes (also accessed at

  • United States Air Force Museum, MUA Research Division, Wright Patterson Air Force Base and Archive, Dayton, Ohio:

    • Papers of Stanley Goodwin

Akten zur Auswärtigen Politik der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Munich: R. Oldenbourg Verlag, 2000–2006.

  • 1969: Rainer A Blasius; Franz Eibl; Hubert Zimmermann.

  • 1971: Ilse Dorothee Pautsch; Martin Koopmann

  • 1973: Ilse Dorothee Pautsch; Matthias Peter; Hans-Peter Schwarz

  • 1974: Ilse Dorothee Pautsch; Daniela Taschler; Fabian Hilfrich; Michael Ploetz

  • 1975: Ilse Dorothee Pautsch; Michael Kieninger; Mechthild Lindemann; Daniela Taschler

de France, Ambassade. Address Delivered by Maurice Schumann, French Minister of Foreign Affairs, Before the National Assembly on November 3, 1971. New York: Service de presse et d’information, 1971.
Burr, William. “U.S. Secret Assistance to the French Nuclear Program, 1969–1975: From ‘Fourth Country’ to Strategic Partner.” Wilson Center Nuclear Proliferation International History Project Research Update #2 (2011). Available from
Central Intelligence Agency. Directorate of Intelligence. “Basic Factors and Main Tendencies in Current Soviet Policy.” National Intelligence Estimate (NIE) Number 11–69. February 27, 1969.
Central Intelligence Agency. Directorate of Intelligence. “Central Intelligence Bulletin.” July 15, 1969.
Central Intelligence Agency. Directorate of Intelligence. “Soviet Nuclear Doctrine: Concepts of Intercontinental and Theater War.” National Intelligence Estimate (NIE). July 1973.
Commission of the European Community. “The Unacceptable Situation and the Correcting Mechanism.” Document COM(75)40, January 30, 1975.
Digital National Security Archive (DNSA) [online]. Available from
“The Effects on the United Kingdom of Membership of the European Communities.” European Parliament: Directorate General for Research and Documentation, February 1975.
Elwell, Craig K. “Brief History of the Gold Standard in the United States.” Washington, D.C.: Congress Research Service, 2011.
Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS), 1969–1976. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.


  • I: Foundations of Foreign Policy, 1969–1972 (2003)

  • III: Foreign Economic Policy, 1969–1972 (2001)

  • XLI: Western Europe, NATO, 1969–1972 (2012)

  • E-15, Part 2: Documents on Western Europe, 1973–1976 (2014)

Meeting of the Heads of Government, December 9–10, 1974. Brussels: Bulletin of the European Communities, No. 12, 1974.
Merrill, Dennis, and Paterson, Thomas G.. Major Problems in American Foreign Relations: Documents and Essays, Volume II: Since 1914, Sixth Edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2005.
Myth and Reality: A Reference Manual on US-European Community Relations, 4th Ed. Washington, D.C.: European Community Information Service, 1974.
Nixon: The Fifth Year of His Presidency. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, Inc., 1974.
Nixon: The Second Year of His Presidency. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, Inc., 1971.
Rumsfeld, Donald. The Rumsfeld Papers [online]. Available from:
Woolley, John, and Peters, Gerhard. The American Presidency Project [online]. Santa Barbara: University of California (hosted), Gerhard Peters (database). Available from:
Brandt, Willy. My Life in Politics. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1992.
Brandt, Willy. People and Politics: The Years 1960–1975. London: Collins, 1978.
Connally, John. In History’s Shadow: An American Odyssey. New York: Hyperion, 1993.
Couve de Murville, Maurice. Une Politique Étrangère, 1958–1969. Paris: Plon, 1971.
De Gaulle, Philippe. De Gaulle Mon Père, Vol. 1: Entretiens avec Michel Tauriac. Paris: Plon, 2003.
Friedman, Milton, and Rose, D. Two Lucky People: Memoirs. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998.
Haldeman, H. R. The Haldeman Diaries: Inside the Nixon White House. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1994.
Heath, Edward. The Course of My Life: My Autobiography. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1998.
Hillenbrand, Martin J. Fragments of Our Time: Memoirs of a Diplomat. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1998.
Jobert, Michel. L’Autre Regard. Paris: Bernard Grasset, 1976.
Kissinger, Henry. The White House Years. Boston: Little, Brown, and Company, 1979.
Kissinger, Henry. Years of Upheaval. Boston: Little, Brown, and Company, 1982.
Kissinger, Henry. Years of Renewal: The Concluding Volume of His Memoirs. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1999.
Nixon, Richard. RN: The Memoirs of Richard Nixon. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1978.
Nixon, Richard.1999: Victory without War. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1988.
Safire, William. Before the Fall: An Inside View of the Pre-Watergate White House. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1975.
Schmidt, Helmut. Men and Powers: A Political Perspective. New York: Random House, 1989.
Volcker, Paul A., and Gyohten, Toyoo. The World’s Money and the Threat to American Leadership. New York: Times Books, 1992.
Bergsten, C. Fred. “Reforming the Dollar: An International Monetary Policy for the United States.” New York: Council on Foreign Relations, Inc., 1972.
Bossuat, Gérard. “Jean Monnet et le partenariat atlantique des années soixante.” Relations Internationales 119 (2004): 285301.
Brzezinski, Zbignew. “America and Europe,” Foreign Affairs 49 (October 1970): 1130.
Buchan, Alastair. “Europe and America: From Alliance to Coalition.” Paris: The Atlantic Institute for International Affairs, 1973.
Caldwell, Dan. “The Legitimation of the Nixon-Kissinger Grand Design and Grand Strategy.” Diplomatic History 33:4 (September 2009): 633652.
Calleo, David P.The European Coalition in a Fragmenting World.” Foreign Affairs 54 (October 1975): 98112.
Chance, James. “The Concert of Europe,” Foreign Affairs 52 (October 1973): 96108.
Douglas-Home, Alec. “Our European Destiny.” London: Conservative Group for Europe, 1971.
Emminger, Otmar. “The D-Mark in the Conflict Between Internal and External Equilibrium, 1948–1975.” Princeton: Essays in International Finance, 1977.
Goldsborough, James O.France, The European Crisis and the Alliance.” Foreign Affairs 52 (April 1974): 538555.
Gray, William Glenn. “Floating the System: Germany, the United States, and the Breakdown of Bretton Woods, 1969–1973.” Diplomatic History 31, no. 1 (April 2007): 295323.
Gueldry, Michel. “La Grande-Bretagne et l’Europe: du pragmatisme insulaire au partenariat sceptique.” L’Europe en formation no. 353–354 (automne-hiver 2009): 93110.
Hanhimäki, Jussi M.Kissinger et l’Europe: entre intégration et autonomie.” Relations Internationales 119 (2004): 319332.
Heath, Edward. “Realism in British Foreign Policy.” Foreign Affairs 48 (October 1969): 3950.
Kaiser, Karl. “Europe and America: A Critical Phase.” Foreign Affairs 52 (July 1974): 725741.
Kimball, Jeffrey. “The Nixon Doctrine: A Saga of Misunderstanding.” Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 36, No. 1 (March 2006): 5974.
Ludlow, N. Piers. “The Real Years of Europe? U.S.-West European Relations during the Ford Administration.” Journal of Cold War Studies 15:3 (Summer 2013): 136161.
Marhold, Hartmut. “How to Tell the History of European Integration in the 1970s: A Survey of the Literature and Some Proposals.” L’Europe en formation no. 353–354 (automne-hiver 2009): 1338.
Ogliastro, Jacques. Le Figaro. June 20, 1974.
Pinder, John. “Renegotiation: Britain’s Costly Lesson? International Affairs 51 (April 1975): 153165.
Rowen, Hobart. “Changes Ahead for the Fed?” Washington Post. August 5, 1976.
Schmidt, Helmut. “Germany in the Era of Negotiations.” Foreign Affairs 49 (October 1970): 4050.
Shuster, Alvin. “Ford and Wilson to Discuss Europe.” The New York Times. January 27, 1975.
Simonet, Henri. “Energy and the Future of Europe.” Foreign Affairs 53 (April 1975): 450463.
Ullman, Richard. “The Covert French Connection.” Foreign Policy 75 (Summer 1989): 333.1
Vaïsse, Maurice. “Les ‘relations spéciales’ franco-américains au temps de Richard Nixon et Georges Pompidou.” Relations Internationales 119 (2004): 345362.
Zeiler, Thomas W.Requiem for the Common Man: Class, the Nixon Economic Shock, and the Perils of Globalization.” Diplomatic History 37:1 (January 2013): 123.
Beloff, Max. The Future of British Foreign Policy. New York: Taplinger Publishing Company, 1969.
Blang, Eugenie M. Allies at Odds: America, Europe, and Vietnam, 1961–1968. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2011.
Brands, H. W. The Wages of Globalism: Lyndon Johnson and the Limits of American Power. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
Brinkley, Douglas, and Griffiths, Richard T., eds. John F. Kennedy and Europe. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1999.
Bundy, William. A Tangled Web: The Making of Foreign Policy in the Nixon Presidency. New York: Hill and Wang, 1998.
Burk, Kathleen, and Stokes, Melvyn, eds. The United States and the European Alliance since 1945. Oxford: Berg, 1999.
Butler, David, and Kavanagh, Dennis. The British General Election of February 1974. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1974.
Calleo, David P. The Imperious Economy. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1982.
Carreau, Dominique. Le Système Monétaire International: Aspects Juridiques. Paris: Librairie Armand Colin, 1972.
Cleveland, Harlan. NATO: The Transatlantic Bargain. New York: Harper & Row, 1970.
Cromwell, William C. The United States and the European Pillar: The Strained Alliance. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1992.
Dallek, Robert. Nixon and Kissinger: Partners in Power. New York: HarperCollins, 2007.
Denizet, Jean. Le Dollar: Histoire du Système Monétaire International Depuis 1945. Paris: Fayard, 1985.
Dior, Eric. Un couple infernal: 200 ans de francophobie et d’antiaméricanisme. Paris: Perrin, 2003.
Donoughue, Bernard. Downing Street Diary: With Harold Wilson in No. 10. London: Random House, 2005.
Ebenstein, Larry. Milton Friedman, A Biography. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.
Eichengreen, Barry. The European Economy since 1945: Coordinated Capitalism and Beyond. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007.
Emminger, Otmar. D-Mark, Dollar, Währungskrisen. Stuttgart: Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 1986.
Evans, Rowland, and Novak, Robert. Nixon in the White House: The Frustration of Power. New York: Random House, 1971.
Frick, Daniel. Reinventing Richard Nixon: A Cultural History of an American Obsession. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2008.
Gaddis, John Lewis. Strategies of Containment: A Critical Appraisal of American National Security Policy during the Cold War. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Gavin, Francis J. Gold, Dollars, and Power: The Politics of International Monetary Relations, 1958–1971. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004.
Gowa, Joanne S. Closing the Gold Window: Domestic Politics and the End of Bretton Woods. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1983.
Greider, William. Secrets of the Temple: How the Federal Reserve Runs the Country. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1987.
Grosser, Alfred. The Western Alliance: European-American Relations since 1945. New York: Continuum, 1980.
Haftendorn, Helga, et al., eds. The Strategic Triangle: France, Germany, and the United States in the Shaping of the New Europe. Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 2006.
Hanhimäki, Jussi. The Flawed Architect: Henry Kissinger and American Foreign Policy. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Herring, George C. From Colony to Superpower: U.S. Foreign Relations since 1776. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.
Hess, Stephen. The Professor and the President: Daniel Patrick Moynihan in the Nixon White House. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2014.
Hobsbawm, Eric. Age of Extremes: The Short Twentieth Century, 1914–1991. New York: Viking, 1994.
Horne, Alistair. Kissinger: 1973, The Crucial Year. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2009.
James, Harold. International Monetary Cooperation since Bretton Woods. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
Judt, Tony. Postwar: A History of Europe since 1945. New York: Penguin Press, 2005.
Kagan, Robert. Of Paradise and Power: America and Europe in the New World Order. New York: Knopf, 2003.
Kaplan, Lawrence. NATO and the United States: The Enduring Alliance. New York: Twayne, 1994.
Kintner, William R., and Foster, Richard B.. National Strategy in a Decade of Change: An Emerging U.S. Policy. Lexington, Mass.: D.C. Heath and Company, 1973.
Kissinger, Henry. Nuclear Weapons and Foreign Policy. New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 1957.
Kissinger, Henry. American Foreign Policy: Three Essays. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1969.
Kissinger, Henry. Crisis: The Anatomy of Two Major Foreign Policy Crises. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2003.
Lacouture, Jean. De Gaulle: The Ruler, 1945–1970. New York: Norton, 1992.
Logevall, Fredrik, and Preston, Andrew, eds., Nixon in the World: American Foreign Relations, 1969–1974. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.
Lundestad, Geir. “Empire’ by Integration: The United States and European Integration, 1945–1997. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Macmillan, Margaret. Nixon and Mao: The Week That Changed the World. New York: Random House, 2007.
Maresca, John J. To Helsinki: The Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, 1973–1975. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1987.
Möckli, Daniel. European Foreign Policy during the Cold War: Heath, Brandt, Pompidou and the Dream of Political Unity. London: I. B. Tauris, 2009.
Nouailhat, Yves-Henri. Les Etats-Unis et le monde au 20e siècle. Deuxième édition. Paris: Armand Colin, 2000.
Perlstein, Rick. Nixonland: The Rise of a President and the Fracturing of America. New York: Scribner, 2008.
Perlstein, Rick, ed. Richard Nixon: Speeches, Writings, Documents. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008.
Pope, Philip H. “Foundations of Nixonian Foreign Policy: The Pre-Presidential Years of Richard M. Nixon, 1946–1968, Volume I.” Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Southern California, 1988.
Reeves, Richard. President Nixon: Alone in the White House. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001.
Reis, Jaime, ed. International Monetary Systems in Historical Perspective. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1995.
Schurmann, Franz. The Foreign Politics of Richard Nixon: The Grand Design. Berkeley, Calif.: Institute of International Studies, 1987.
Schwartz, Thomas A. America’s Germany: John McCloy and the Federal Republic of Germany. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1991.
Schwartz, Thomas A.. Lyndon Johnson and Europe: In the Shadow of Vietnam. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2003.
Sloan, Stanley. NATO’s Future: Toward a New Transatlantic Bargain. Washington, D.C.: National Defense University Press, 1985.
Sloan, Stanley. NATO, the European Union, and the Atlantic Community. 2nd Ed. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2005.
Steil, Benn. The Battle of Bretton Woods: John Maynard Keynes, Harry Dexter White, and the Making of a New World Order. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2013.
Stein, Herbert. Presidential Economics: The Making of Economic Policy from Roosevelt to Clinton. Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute, 1994.
Suri, Jeremi. Henry Kissinger and the American Century. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2007.
Trachtenberg, Marc, ed. Empire and Alliance: America and Europe during the Cold War. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2003.
van der Harst, Jan, ed. Beyond the Customs Union: The European Community’s Quest for Deepening, Widening and Completion, 1969–1975. Brussels: Bruylant, 2007.
Volcker, Paul A., and Gyohten, Toyoo. The World’s Money and the Threat to American Leadership. New York: Times Books, 1992.
Weisbrode, Kenneth. The Atlantic Century: Four Generations of Extraordinary Diplomats Who Forged America’s Vital Alliance with Europe. New York: Da Capo Press, 2009.
Wells, Wyatt C. Economist in an Uncertain World: Arthur F. Burns and the Federal Reserve, 1970–78. New York: Columbia University Press, 1994.
Wilkens, Andreas, ed. Willy Brandt et l’unité de l’Europe: de l’objectif de la paix aux solidarités nécessaires. Bruxelles: P. I. E. Peter Lang, 2011.
Witcover, Jules. Very Strange Bedfellows: The Short and Unhappy Marriage of Richard Nixon and Spiro Agnew. New York: Public Affairs, 2007.
Young, David R. “The Presidential Conduct of American Foreign Policy, 1969–1973.” Ph.D. Dissertation. Oxford University, 1981.


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between #date#. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.