Five key questions beg for answers, namely: (1) what are the patterns and dimensions of inequality across the world? (2) What causes inequality? (3) Why does inequality persist? (4) Why is inequality an important focus for political economic analysis? (5) What can and is being done about inequality and by whom? This chapter seeks to answer these questions with reference to Africa as a point of departure for preparing the grounds for a new political economy of the Global South.