What conclusions can be drawn from this study? What can we learn from answers to the questions that motivated this study?: namely (1) what are the patterns and dimensions of inequality across the world? (2) What causes inequality? (3) Why does inequality persist? (4) Why is inequality an important focus for political economic analysis? (5) What can and is being done about inequality and by whom? What are the implications of these conclusions, these arguments, for policy and for the study of African economics, the study of the political economy of the global south? This concluding chapter seeks to address these questions by successively reinforcing the arguments, drawing out their implications for development policy, and reflecting on what the study can contribute to economics. Both development policy and development economics can better recognise and account for the political economic interests that shape the thinking about Africa. In this process, stratification economics provides both a point of departure and a compass for navigating the future. While many obstacles impede the possibilities of change, there are, indeed, countervailing forces that can propel the needed transformation.