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The Political Philosophy of Muhammad Iqbal
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Book description

This book reflects upon the political philosophy of Muhammad Iqbal, a towering intellectual figure in South Asian history, revered by many for his poetry and his thought. He lived in India in the twilight years of the British Empire and, apart from a short but significant period studying in the West, he remained in Punjab until his death in 1938. The book studies Iqbal's critique of nationalist ideology and his attempts to chart a path for the development of the 'nation' by liberating it from the centralizing and homogenizing tendencies of the modern state structure. Iqbal frequently clashed with his contemporaries over his view of nationalism as 'the greatest enemy of Islam'. He constructed his own particular interpretation of Islam - forged through an interaction with Muslim thinkers and Western intellectual traditions - that was ahead of its time, and since his death both modernists and Islamists have continued to champion his legacy.


'… concise, complete, and consistent.'

Thierry DiCostanzo Source: H-Nationalism

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Manuscript Sources

British Library [BL]

Sir Sheikh Iqbal Papers, Mss Eur Photo Eur 209.

Iqbal Academy Pakistan, Lahore [IAP]

  • File on Iqbal, vols. 1–25.

  • File on Iqbal’s Works, vols. 1–4.

  • Iqbal in All-India Muslim League Paper Project, 1st and 2nd Installment.

National Archives of India, Delhi [NAI]

  • Badruddin Tyabji Papers, (1871–1919) (Microfilm).

  • Home Department (Political), 1908–1938.

  • Foreign Department (Political), 1835.

Nehru Memorial Library, Delhi [NML]

  • M. A. Ansari Private Papers (Microfilm).

  • M. A. Ansari Papers, Press Clippings (Microfilm).

  • M. C. Chagla Papers (1922–1981).

  • Papers of M. C. Chagla, Bombay Presidency and the All-India Muslim League, File no: 2.

  • Minutes Book of Jamiyyat-i-Ulema-i-Hind, 1925–1951 (Executive) (Microfilm).

  • Minutes Book of Jamiyyat-i-Ulema-i-Hind, 1947–1967 (Administration) (Microfilm).

  • Khutbat-i-Sardarat Jamiyyat-i-Ulema-i-Hind, 1921–1972 (Microfilm).

Published Sources

Official Publications

Census of India, 1901, vol. XVII, Punjab and NWFP, part 1.
Census of India, 1911, vol. XIV, Punjab, parts 1 and 2.
General Report on Public Instruction in the Bengal Presidency for 1842–43 (Calcutta, 1843).
General Report on Public Instruction in the North-Western Provinces and Oudh for the Year 1899–1900 (Allahabad, 1901).
Joint Committee on Indian Constitutional Reform [Session 1933–1934], Volume I (Part I), Report (London, 1934).
Report of the Indian Statutory Commission: Volume II – Recommendations, Presented by the Secretary of State for the Home Department to Parliament by Command of His Majesty. May, 1930.
The Simon Report on India, an Abridgement with a Foreword by Viscount Burnhem (London, 1930).

Newspapers and Periodicals

  • Aligarh Institute Gazette (Aligarh), 1875–1878. BL.

  • Asar-i-Jadid (Meerut). School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS).

  • Indian Review (Madras), 1912–1919. Indian Institute Library, University of Oxford.

  • Islamic Culture (Hyderabad). SOAS.

  • Ithehad, 1922 (Calcutta). NML.

  • al Jamiyyat (Delhi), 1920–1940 (Microfilm). NML.

  • Makhzan (Lahore). SOAS.

  • Oriental College Magazine (Lahore). SOAS.

  • Paigham, 1921 (Calcutta). NML.

  • Review of Religions (Qadian). BL and SOAS.

  • Tahzib al-Akhlaq: The Mohammedan Social Reformer (Aligarh), 1879–1880. SOAS.

  • The Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College Magazine (Aligarh), 1897–1899. SOAS.

Records, Published and Unpublished Sources of Organisations

Anjuman-i-Himayat-i-Islam, Anjuman Himayat-e-Islam Lahore: Diamond Jubilee, 24–26 March 1967.
Anjuman-i-Himayat-i-Islam, Anjuman-i-Himayat-i-Islam, Lahore: A Short History and Account of its Constructive Activities (Lahore,1986 (?)).
Foundations of Pakistan: All-India Muslim League Documents 1906–1947, edited S. S. Pirzada (2 vols, New Delhi,1982).
History of the Dar-ul-Ulum Deoband: The Great Religious Achievement of the Muslims of the Subcontinent, The Headspring of Islamic Education and Culture and the Revival of the Community – A Historical Survey of the Great Religious and Educational Services and Political Activities of the Dar al-Ulum, Deoband, compiled by Sayyid Mahboob Rizvi and translated by Mumtaz Husain F. Quraishi (2 vols., Deoband, 1980).
Jamiyyat-i-Ulama-i-Hind ki Sha-ari Ahmiyyat aur is ke Agraz-o-Maqasud-o-Faharsat Khidmat, compiled and published by Maulana Muhammad Mian (Delhi, 1927 (?)).
Muslim League Documents 1900–1947, edited by Sarif al Mujahid (2 vols., Karachi, 1990).
National Integration and Jamaat-e-Islami Hind: An Interview Regarding the Discussions Between the Amir Jamaat-e-Islami Hind and the Committee on National Integration and Communalism (Delhi, 1962).
Papers Connected with the Punjab University Question (Collected and Published by the Executive Committee of the Indian Association, Lahore, for Submission to the Right Honourable The Secretary of State for India, (Lahore, 1881).
Report of the Unjuman-i-Punjab or The Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge for the Year 1865 with Papers Connected with the Proposal for the Establishment of an Oriental University, Lahore, 30th June,1866.
Sheikh-ul-Hind Hazrat Maulana Mehmood Hussein Sahib ka Khutbat Sardarat jo Jalsa Ifteta Muslim National University Aligarh Mein 14 Safar 1339 Mutabiq 29 August ko Maulana Shabbir Ahmad Usmani ne Parh Kar Sunaya (Delhi, Jamiyyat-i-Ulema-i-Hind, no date).

Published Works of Muhammad Iqbal


‘Urdu Zuban Punjab Mein’ in Mazhzan, 7, 1 (Oct., 1903), pp. 25–40.
‘Abadi’ in Mazhzan, 7, 1 (April, 1904), pp. 1–9.
‘Qawmi Zindagi’ in Makhzan, 8, 1 (Oct., 1904), pp. 23–32.
‘Qawmi Zindagi’ in Makhzan, 8, 6 (March, 1905), pp. 35–45.
‘Islam and Khilafat’, Sociological Review (1908), pp.84–97.
‘Political Thought in Islam’, The Sociological Review, 1, 3 (1908) pp. 527–533.
‘Islam as a Moral and Political Ideal’, Hindustan Review, 20, 119 (1909), pp. 29–38.
‘Islam as a Moral and Political Ideal – II’, Hindustan Review, 20, 120 (1909), pp. 166–171.
‘Notes on Muslim Democracy’, The New Era (28th July, 1916), p. 251.
‘Self in the Light of Relativity’, The Crescent (1925), pp. 11–23.
‘Inner Synthesis of Life’, Indian Review, 27 (1926), p. 2.
‘Masnawi Safa Nama az Khwaja Imad Fazir Kirmani’ in Oriental College Magazine, 5, 1 (1928), pp. 41–49.
‘McTaggart’s Philosophy’, Indian Art and Letters, 6 (1932), pp.25–31.
‘Madrasa Sipah Salar’ in Oriental College Magazine, 12, 2 (Feb., 1936), pp. 105–112.
‘Imam Moufiq Nishapuri’ in Oriental College Magazine, 14, 1 (Nov. 1937), pp. 81–91.
‘Bahar Al-Fuaeed’ in Oriental College Magazine, 13, 2 (Feb., 1937), pp. 16–27.
‘Al-Huadis Al-Jamuani Al-Mattah Al-Sabah’ in Oriental College Magazine, 14, 2 (Feb., 1938) pp. 68–75.
The Development of Metaphysics in Persia: A Contribution to the History of Muslim Philosophy (Lahore, 1959).
Stray Reflections: A Notebook of Allama Iqbal, edited by J. Iqbal (Lahore, 1961).
The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam (New Delhi, 2003).
Ilm-o-Iqtisad, (Karachi, undated).

Poetical Works and Collections

The Secrets of the Self, Asrar-i-Khudi: A Philosophical Poem, translated with introduction and notes by Reynold A. Nicholson (London, 1920).
Poems from Iqbal, edited by V. G. Kiernan (Bombay, 1947).
Persian Psalms, translation of Zabur-i-Ajam, translated by A. J. Arberry (Lahore, 1949).
The Mystery of Selflessness : A Philosophical Poem, English translation of Rumuz-i-Bekhudi by A. J. Arberry (Great Britain, 1953).
Baqiyat-i-Iqbal, edited by S. A. Vahid (Lahore, 1954).
The Pilgrimage of Eternity, translated by Shaikh Mahmud Ahmad (Lahore, 1961).
Gulshan-i-Raz Jadid (New Garden of Mystery) and Bandagi Namah (Book of Servitude), translated by B. A. Dar (Lahore, 1964).
A Message from the East: A Selective Verse Rendering of Iqbal’s Payam-i-Mashriq, translated by M. Hadi Hussain (Karachi, 1971).
Kulliyat-i-Iqbal (Farsi) (Lahore, 1973).
What Should Then Be Done O People of the East: English Rendering of Iqbal’s Pas Chih Bayad Kard Ay Aqwam-i-Sharq, translated by B. A. Dar (Lahore, 1977).
Secrets of Collective Self: Being a Descriptive and Comprehensive Translation of Alama Iqbal’s Rumuz-i-Bekhudi (Lahore, 1977).
Iqbal: A Selection of the Urdu Verse, translated by D. J. Matthews (London, 1993).
Tulip in the Desert: A Selection of the Poetry of Muhammad Iqbal, translated by M. Mir (London, 2000).
Kulliyat-i-Iqbal (Lahore, 2002).

Speeches and Statements

Speeches and Statements of Iqbal, compiled by Shamloo, (Lahore, 1944).
Islam as an Ethical and Political Ideal:Iqbal’s Maiden English Lecture 1908, edited by S. Y. Hashimy (Lahore, 1955).
Qadianism, (Lahore, 1957).
Qadianism, 2nd edn. (Colombo, 1957).
Thoughts and Reflections of Iqbal, edited by Syed Abdul Vahid, (Lahore, 1964).
Letters and Writings of Iqbal, compiled by B. A. Dar (Karachi, 1967).
Speeches and Statements of Iqbal, compiled by A. R. Tariq, (Lahore, 1973).
Speeches, Writings and Statements of Iqbal, edited by Latif Ahmed Sherwani, 3rd edn., (Revised and Enlarged), (Lahore, 1977).
The Muslim Community: A Sociological Study, edited with an introduction by Muzaffar Abbas (undated).


Letters of Iqbal to Jinnah, edited by M. Ashraf (Lahore, 1963).
Letters and Writings of Iqbal, edited by B. A. Dar (Karachi, 1967).
Letters of Iqbal, edited by B. A. Dar (Lahore, 1978).
Ahmad, S. H., Iqbal: His Political Ideas at Crossroads – A Commentary on Unpublished Letters to Professor Thompson (Aligarh, 1979).
Iqbal Nama, edited by A. Akhlaq (Bhopal, 1991) (Urdu).
Kulliyat Makatib-i-Iqbal, edited by Syed Muzaffar Husain Burney (4 vols., Delhi, 1999) (Urdu).
Iqbal Nama: Hissah Awal – Majmuah Makatib-i-Iqbal, compiled by Ita Allah Ayeem (Lahore, undated) (Urdu).
Maktubat-i Iqbal, edited by Sayid Nazir Niazi, (n.d.) (Urdu).

Works, Speeches and Letters by South Asian Intellectuals Cited

Ahmad, Khan A., The Founder of Pakistan: Through Trial to Triumph (London, 1942).
Ahmed, Ghulam, Dastur Istate Madina Quran Izam Hisah Madani (2 vols., Hyderabad, 1961) (Urdu).
Ali, Ameer, The Right Hon’ble Syed Ameer Ali-Political Writings (New Delhi, 1989).
Ali, Ameer, The Spirit of Islam: A History of the Evolution and Ideals of Islam with a Life of the Prophet (Delhi, 2002).
Ali, Chaudhari Rahmat, ‘Menace of Indianism’ in Ashraf, K. M. (editor), Pakistan (Delhi, 1940), pp. 28–36.
Ali, Chaudhari Rahmat, What Does the Pakistan National Movement Stand For, 3rd edn. (Cambridge, 1942).
Ali, Chaudhari Rahmat, The Millat and Her Minorities: Foundation of Haideristan for Muslims of Hindoostan (Cambridge, 1943).
Ali, Chaudhari Rahmat, The Millat and the Mission (Cambridge, 1944).
Ali, Chaudhari Rahmat, The Millat and Her Ten Nations (Cambridge, 1944).
Ali, Chaudhari Rahmat, Pakistan, The Fatherland of the Pak Nation (Cambridge, 1947).
Ali, Chiragh, The Proposed Political, Legal and Social Reforms in the Ottoman Empire and Other Mohammadan States (Bombay, 1883).
Ali, Chiragh, A Critical Exposition of the Popular ‘Jihád’, Showing that All the Wars of Mohammad were Defensive; and that Aggressive War, or Compulsory Conversion, is not Allowed in the Koran: With Appendices Proving that the Word ‘Jihad’ Does Not Exegetically Mean ‘Warfare’, and that Slavery is Not Sanctioned by the Prophet of Islam (Calcutta, 1885).
Ali, Mohammad, Selections From Maulana Mohammad Ali’s Comrade, selected and compiled by Syed Rais Ahmad Jafri (Lahore, 1965).
Ali, Muhammad, A Manual of Hadith (Lahore, 1944).
Ali, Muhammad, ‘Collection and Preservation of Hadith’ in P. K. Koya (ed.) Hadith and Sunnah: Ideals and Realities, 2nd edn. (Kuala Lumpur, 2003), pp. 23–57.
Ali, Muhammad, My Life, a Fragment: An Autobiographical Sketch of Maulana Muhammad Ali, edited and annoted by Mushirul Hassan, (New Delhi, 1999).
Ali, A. Y., ‘The Religious Polity of Islam’ in Islamic Culture, 7 (January, 1933).
Appasamy, The Cultural Problem: Oxford Pamphlets on Indian Affairs, 2nd edn., April 1943.
Ashraf, K. M., Pakistan (Delhi, 1940).
Azad, Abul Kalam, Haqiqat-i-Fana-o-Baqa: Kufr-o-Islam (Delhi, 1966).
Azad, Abul Kalam, Tarjuman al-Quran, edited and translated by Syed Abdul Latif (3 vols., New Delhi, 1996).
Azad, Abul Kalam, Dawaat-i-Haq (Delhi, undated).
Azad, Muhammad Hussain, Maqalat Muhammad Hussain Azad, edited by Aga Muhammad Baqr (2 vols., Lahore, 1966).
Bashiruddin, ‘The Political Theory of Islam’ in Islamic Culture, 8 (October, 1934), pp. 585–599.
Bukhsh, S. Khuda, Essays: Indian and Islamic (London, 1912).
Bukhsh, S. Khuda, Studies: Indian and Islamic (London, 1927).
Bukhsh, S. Khuda, Contributions to the History of Islamic Civilisation, 2 vols. (Calcutta, 19291930).
Durani, F. K. Khan, The Future of Islam in India (1929).
Durani, F. K. Khan, The Meaning of Pakistan (Lahore, 1944).
Fyzee, A. A. A., A Modern Approach to Islam (Bombay, 1963).
Fyzee, A. A. A., Outlines of Muhammadan Law, 4th edn. (New Delhi, 2003).
Ghulam-us-Saqlain, ‘Tijarat ke Mutaliq Chand Khiyalat’ in Muhammad Anglo-Oriental College Magazine, 4, 11 (1st November, 1896), pp. 437–442.
Hali, Altaf Hussain, Muqadama-i-Sher-o-Shairi (Lahore, 1950 (?)).
Hassan, Mahdi (Mohsin-ul-Mulk), The Propagation of Islam: A Lecture Delivered in Urdu, translated and published by The Mohammadan Tract and Book Depot, Punjab (Lahore, 1893).
Husain, Waheed, Administration of Justice during the Muslim Rule in India: With A History of the Origin of the Islamic Legal Institutions (Calcutta, 1934).
Hussein, Mehmood, Sheikh-ul-Hind Hazrat Maulana Mehmood Hussein Sahib ka Khutbat Sardarat jo Jalsa Ifteta Muslim National University Aligarh Mein 14 Safar 1339 Mutabiq 29 August ko Maulana Shabbir Ahmad Usmani ne Parh Kar Sunaya (Delhi, undated).
Jalil-ur-Rahman, Muhammad, Insidad-i-Sedition, Home Department (Political) October 1910.
Jung, Nizamat, An Approach to the Study of the Quran (Lahore, 1947).
Karim, Rezaul, Pakistan Examined (Calcutta, 1941).
Khaliquzzaman, Chaudhary, Pathway to Pakistan (1961).
Khan, Abdul Majid, ‘Pakistan is Negation of Islam’, appendix in Rezaul Karim, Pakistan Examined (Calcutta, 1941), pp. 155–158.
Khan, Hafiz Nazir Ahmad, The English Translation of Fitratula: A Lecture, Delivered in Urdu by Maulvi Hafiz Nazir Ahmad Khan of Delhi on the 8th Anniversary of the Anjuman-i-Himayet-i-Islam (Lahore, 1893).
Khan, Sayyid Ahmad Khan, Akhiri Mazamin (1898).
Khan, Sayyid Ahmad Khan, Maqalat-i-Sir Sayyid, collected by Muhammad Ismail Panipati (10 vols., Lahore, 1960).
Khan, Sayyid Ahmad Khan, Sir Syed’s Correspondence: Selected Documents from the Sir Syed Academy Archives, edited by Atiq Ahmad Siddiqi (London, 1967).
Khan, Sayyid Ahmad Khan, Writings and Speeches of Syed Ahmed Khan, edited by Shan Muhammad (Aligarh, 1972).
Khan, Sayyid Ahmad Khan, The Aligarh Movement: Basic Documents: 1864–1898, volume 1, edited by Shan Muhammad (India, 1978).
Khan, Sayyid Ahmad Khan, The Causes of the Indian Revolt, translation and introduction by Francis Robinson (Lahore, 2000).
Latif, Syed Abdul, The Influence of English Literature on Urdu Literature (London, 1924).
Latif, Syed Abdul, The Muslim Problem in India Together with an Alternative Constitution for India (Bombay, 1939).
Latif, Syed Abdul, Toward Reorientation of Islamic Thought (A Fresh Examination of the Hadith Literature): A Critical Resume of Views Advanced by Scholars on the Memorandum of the Academy Suggestion of the Need for a Fresh Examination of the Hadith Literature (Hyderabad, 1954).
Madani, Hussain Ahmad, Civil Marriage aur League (Delhi, 1939).
Madani, Hussain Ahmad, Shariat Bill aur League (Delhi, 1940).
Madani, Hussain Ahmad, Pakistan ki Cheestan: Jamiyyat-i-Ulama-i-Hind ka Wazi Faisla (1940).
Madani, Hussain Ahmad, Maktubat-i-Shiekh-ul-Islam, (3 vols., Delhi, 19501959).
Madani, Hussain Ahmad, Maududi Dastur aur Aqaid ki Haqiqat (Delhi, 1956).
Madani, Hussain Ahmad, Farmoodat (Deoband, 1966).
Madani, Hussain Ahmad, Maqalat-i-Sheikh-ul-Islam (Delhi, 1974).
Madani, Hussain Ahmad, Composite Nationalism (New Delhi, 2005).
Madani, Hussain Ahmad, Mr. Jinnah Ka Pur Assar Muamma aur Uska Hal (Delhi, undated).
Maududi, Abu A’la, al-Jihad fi al-Islam (Lahore, 1948) (Urdu).
Maududi, Abu A’la, Political Theory Of Islam (Karachi, 1969).
Maududi, Abu A’la, Islamic Law and Constitution, 4th edn. (Lahore, 1969).
Maududi, Abu A’la, A Short History of the Revivalist Movements, translated by Al-Ashari, 2nd revised edn (Lahore, 1972).
Maududi, Abu A’la, West vs Islam, Translated by Abdul Waheed Khan, (Lahore, 1991).
Maududi, Abu A’la, Fundamentals of Islam, 21st edn. (Lahore, 2002).
Muhammad, Hafiz Sher, ‘His Last Years – Opposes Qadianis but Vindicates Lahore Jamaat’. Dr. Sir Muhammad Iqbal and His Views on the Ahmadiyya Movement: His Views of, and Relations with, the Ahmadiyya Movement from Beginning to the End (Columbus, 1995).
Nadwi, Syed Suleiman, Hayat-i-Shibli (Azamgarh, 1970).
Nawaz, Muhammad Shah, Confederacy of India (1933).
Nehru, Jawaharlal, An Autobiography (New Delhi, 2003).
Nehru, Jawaharlal, The Discovery of India (New Delhi, 2004).
Nomani, Muhammad, Whither Muslim India, serial number 1 (Aligarh, 1940).
Parwez, Ghulam Ahmad, Islam: a Challenge to Religion (Lahore, 1968).
Parwez, Ghulam Ahmad, Quran’s Constitution in an Islamic State: The Basis of Legislation and Outlines of the Constitution, compiled by Manzoor-ul-Haq (Lahore, 2002).
Saiyidain, ‘Progressive Trends in Iqbal’s Thought’ in Iqbal as a Thinker – A Collection of Essays on Iqbal by Eight Scholars of Eminence Presenting His Diverse Facets (Lahore, 1944), pp. 42–106.
Savarkar, V. D., Hindutva: Who is a Hindu (New Delhi, 1989).
Shah, Sultan Muhammad, Aga Khan III, Aga Khan III: Selected Speeches and Writings of Sir Sultan Muhammad Shah, edited by K. K. Aziz (2 vols., London, 1988).
Shareef, M. Y., ‘Pakistan – A Remedy Worse Than the Disease’ appendix in Rezaul Karim, Pakistan Examined (Calcutta, 1941), pp. 153–155.
Sherwani, H. K., ‘The Place of Oriental Thought in the Field of Political Science’ in Islamic Culture, 2 (July, 1928), pp. 398–413.
Sherwani, H. K., ‘The Political Thought of Khwaja Nizamu’l-Mulk Tusi’ in Islamic Culture, 8 (Apr., 1934), pp. 290–300.
Sherwani, H. K., ‘El-Ghazzali on the Theory and Practice of Politics’ in Islamic Culture, 9 (July, 1935), pp. 450–474.
Sherwani, H. K., ‘Al-Farabi’s Political Theories’ in Islamic Culture, 12 (July, 1938), pp. 288–305.
Shibli, Numani, Maqalat-i-Shibli, (7 vols., Azamgarh, 1999).
Shibli, Numani, ‘Auranzgeb Alamgir’ in Shibli Numani and Om Prakash Parsad, Auranqzeb Alamgir, edited by Mubarak Ali (Lahore, 2000), pp. 23–138.
Singh, Joginder, The Cultural Problem: Oxford Pamphlets in Indian Affairs, 2nd edn. (April, 1943).
Singh, Joginder, ‘Asia ki Taraqi aur Japan’ in Asar-i-Jadid, 2 (1904), pp. 509–516.
Tagore, Rabindranath, Nationalism (New Delhi, 1994).

Printed Secondary Works Cited

Abdulgani, R., Bandung Spirit: Moving On the Tide of History (Djakarta, 1964).
Acton, J. E. E. D., Essays on Freedom and Power, Selected and with a New Introduction by Gertrude Himmelfarb (Ohio, 1964), pp. 159–161.
Aghnides, N. P., Mohammedan Theories of Finance with an Introduction to Mohammedan Law and a Bibliography (New York, 1916).
Ahmad, A., Islamic Modernism in India and Pakistan, 1857–1964 (London, 1967).
Ahmad, A., ‘Iqbal’s Theory of Pakistan’ in Iqbal: New Dimensions (A Collection of Unpublished and Rare Iqbalian Studies), compiled, annotated and translated by M. Ikram Chagthai (Lahore, 2003), pp. 427–434.
Ahmad, I. (ed.), Ritual and Religion among Muslims in India (New Delhi, 1981).
Ahmad, M., History of the Fara’idi Movement in Bengal 1818–1906 (Karachi, 1965).
Ahmad, M., ‘Iqbal’s Theory of Muslim Community and Islamic Universalism’ in Waheed Qureshi (ed.) Selections from the Iqbal Review (Lahore, 1983).
Ahmed, A. and Grunebaum, G. E., Muslim Self Statement in India and Pakistan, 1857–1968 (Weisbaden, 1970).
Ahsan, A. S., ‘Iqbal on Muslim Fraternity’, Iqbal Review, XXV, 1, (April, 1984), pp.1–20.
Alam, M., The Languages of Political Islam in India c. 1200–1800 (Delhi, 2004).
Ali, P., The Political Philosophy of Iqbal (Lahore, 1978).
Anderson, B., Imagined Communities – Reflections on the Origins and Spread of Nationalism (London, 1994).
Anderson, M., ‘Islamic Law and the Colonial Encounter in British India’ in David Arnold and Peter Robb (eds.) Institutions and Ideologies: A SOAS South Asian Reader (London, 1993), pp. 165–185.
Antlov, H. and Tonnesson, S. (eds.), Asian Forms of the Nation (Richmond, 1998).
Aqeel, M., Iqbal: From Finite to Infinite – Evolution of the Concept of Islamic Nationalism in India (Karachi, 1996).
Asad, T., Genealogies of Religion: Discipline and Reasons of Power in Christianity and Islam (Baltimore, 1993).
Ashraf, N., Pujangga Iqbal (Singapore, 1985).
Aslam, S., ‘Pan-Islamism and Iqbal’ in Iqbal Review (Journal of Iqbal Academy Pakistan), 35, 3 (1994), pp. 23–38.
Ayubi, N. N., Political Islam – Religion and Politics in the Arab World (London, 1991).
Ayoob, M., ‘Two Faces of Political Islam : Iran and Pakistan Compared’ in Asian Survey, 19, 6 (June, 1979), pp. 535–546.
Aziz, K. K., History of Partition of India – Origin and Development of the Idea of Pakistan, (3 vols., New Delhi, 1988).
Begum, A. F., Iqbal (Bombay, 1969).
Bocock, R. and Thompson, K. (eds.), Religion and Ideology (Manchester, 1985).
Brohi, A. K., ‘Iqbal’s Concept of an Islamic State’ in Khwaja Abdur Rahim (ed.) Iqbal, the Poet of Tomorrow (Lahore, 1968).
Brym, R. J., Intellectuals and Politics (London, 1980).
Buehler, A. F., Sufi Heirs of the Prophet: The Indian Naqshbandiyya and the Rise of the Mediating Sufi Shaykh (Columbia, 1998).
Burney, S. M. H., Iqbal and National Integration (Chandigarh, undated).
Carroll, T., ‘Islam and Political Community in the Arab World’ in Middle East Studies, 18 (1986), p. 185.
Chatterjee, P., Nationalist Thought and the Colonial World: A Derivative Discourse? (London, 1986).
Chatterjee, P., The Nation and its Fragments (Princeton, 1993).
Chaudhari, A. M., The Muslim Ummah and Iqbal (Islamabad, 1994).
Chaudhary, S. A., Sufism is Not Islam: A Comparative Study (New Delhi, 1998).
Choudary, R. A., India: The Continent of Dinia or the Country of Doom (Cambridge, 1946).
Chirol, V., Indian Unrest: A Reprint, Revised and Enlarged from ‘The Times’, with an Introduction by Sir Alfred Lyall (London, 1910).
Chirol, V., India, with an Introduction by H. A. L. Fischer (London, 1926).
Collins R., ‘Toward a Theory of Intellectual Change: The Social Causes of Philosophies’ in Science, Technology, and Human Values, 4, 2 (Spring, 1989), pp.107–140.
Connor, W., ‘The Dawning of Nations’ in Atsuko Ichigo and Gordana Uzelac (eds.) When is the Nation? Towards an Understanding of Theories of Nationalism (New York, 2005), pp. 40–46.
Dani, A. H., Founding Fathers of Pakistan (Lahore 1998).
Das, V., ‘For a Folk-theology and Theological Anthropology of Islam’, in Contributions to Indian Sociology, n.s., 18, 2, (1984), pp. 293–300.
Dharwadker, V., ‘Orientalism and the Study of Indian Literatures’ in Carol Brekenridge and Peter van der Veer (eds.), Orientalism and the Post-Colonial Predicament (Philadelphia, 1993), pp. 158–185.
Duara, P., ‘Deconstructing the Chinese Nation’ in The Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs, 30 (July, 1993), pp. 1–26.
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Ernst, C. W. and Lawrence, B., Sufi Martyrs of Love: The Chishti Order in South Asia and Beyond (New York, 2002).
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Esposito, J. L. and Voll, J. O., Makers of Contemporary Islam (New York, 2001).
Fanon, F., Black Skin, White Masks, translated by Charles Lam Markmann (New York, 1967).
Fanon, F., The Wretched of the Earth, Preface by Jean-Paul Sartre, Translated by Constance Farrington, (London, 1990).
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