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  • Print publication year: 2016
  • Online publication date: June 2017

Chapter 6 - Oral Epithelial Neoplasms

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1.Das, S, Das, AK. A review of pediatric oral biopsies from surgical pathology service in a dental school. Pediatr Dent, 1993, 15: 419428.
2.Sousa, FB, Etges, A, Correa, L, et al. Pediatric oral lesions: a 15 year review from Sao Paolo, Brazil. J Clin Pediatr Dent, 2002, 26: 413418.
3.Al Khateeb, T, Hamasha, AA, Almarsri, NM. Oral and maxillofacial tumors in North Jordanian children and adolescents: a retrospective analysis over 10 years. Internat J Oral Maxillofac Surg, 2003, 32: 7883.
4.Eversole, LR. Papillary lesions of the oral cavity: relationship to human papillomaviruses. J Calif Dent Assoc, 2000, 28: 922927.
5.Yoshpe, NS. Oral and laryngeal papilloma: a pediatric manifestation of sexually transmitted disease? Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol, 1995, 31: 7783.
6.Purabnen, M, Yliskoski, M, Saarikoski, S, et al. Vertical transmission of human papillomavirus from infected mothers to their newborn babies and persistence of the virus in childhood. Am J Obst Gynecol, 1996, 174: 694699.
7.Abbey, LM, Page, DG, Sawyer, DR. The clinical and histopathological features of a series of 464 oral squamous cell papillomas. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol, 1980, 49: 419428.
8.Syrjanen, S, Puranen, M. Human papillomavirus infections in children: the potential role for maternal transmission. Critical Rev Oral Biol Med, 2000, 11: 259274.
9.Dorankula, SP, Ramani, P, Premkumar, P, et al. Verruciform xanthoma of the oral cavity. J Clin Diagn Res, 2013, 7: 17991801.
10.Bhalerao, S, Bhat, P, Chhabra, R, et al. Verruciform xanthoma of the buccal mucosa. Contemp Clin Dent, 2012, 3: 257259.
11.Phillipsen, HP, Reichart, PA, Takata, T, et al. Verruciform xanthoma – biological profile of 282 oral lesions based on a literature survey with nine new cases. Japan Oral Oncol, 2003, 39: 325336.
12.Skully, C. Challenges in predicting which oral mucosal potentially malignant diseases will progress to neoplasia. Oral Dis, 2014, 20: 15.
13.Boy, SC. Leukoplakia and erythroplakia of the oral mucosa – a brief overview. SADJ, 2012, 67: 558560.
14.Grajewski, S, Quarcoo, D, Uibel, S. A scientometric analysis of leukoplakia and erythroplakia. Laryng Orhgn Otologic, 2012, 89: 210215.
15.Pindborg, JJ, Renstrup, G, Poulsen, HE, et al. Studies in oral leukoplakias: five clinical and histologic signs of malignancy. Acta Odontol Scand, 1963, 21: 407414.
16.Mashberg, A, Meyers, H. Anatomical site and size of 222 early asymptomatic oral squamous cell carcinomas: a continuing prospective study of oral cancer. Cancer, 1976, 37: 21492155.
17.Rhodus, NL, Ferr, AR, Patel, K. Oral cancer: leukoplakia, premalignancy, and squamous cell carcinoma. Dent Clin North Am, 2014, 58: 315340.
18.Skordumova, O, Muraev, AA, Volodine, EV, et al. Leukoplakia of the oral mucosa: classification, histopathology, diagnosis and treatment. Vopr Onkol, 2013, 59: 548554.
19.Hansen, JL, Olsen, JA, Silverman, S. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. A long term study. Oral Surg, 1985, 60: 285290.
20.Shroyer, KR, Greer, RO. Detection of human papillomavirus DNA by in situ DNA hybridization and polymerase chain reaction in premalignant oral lesions. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol, 1991, 77: 708713.
21.Shear, M, Pindborg, JJ. Verrucous hyperplasia of the oral mucosa. Cancer, 1980, 46: 18551862.
22.Gillenwater, AM, Vigneswaran, N, Fatani, H, et al. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL): a review of an elusive pathologic entity. Adv Anat Pathol, 2013, 20: 416423.
23.Bagan, JV, Jimenez-Soriano, , Diaz-Fernandez, JM, et al. Malignant transformation of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia to oral squamous cell carcinoma: a series of 55 cases. Oral Oncol, 2011, 47: 732735.
24.Christen, AG, Swanson, BZ, Glover, Ed, et al. Smokeless tobacco: the folklore and social history of snuffing, sneezing, dipping and chewing. J Am Dent Assoc, 1982, 105: 821829.
25.Christen, AG. The case against smokeless tobacco: five facts for the health professional to consider. J Am Dent Assoc, 1980, 101: 464469.
26.Wahlberg, I, Ringberger, T. Smokeless tobacco. In: Davis, DL, Nielsen, MT, editors. Tobacco: Production, Chemistry and Technology. Oxford (United Kingdom): Blackwell Science, 1999, 452460.
27.Rodu, B. Smokeless tobacco and oral cancer: a review of the risks and determinant. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med, 2004, 15: 252263.
28.Christen, AG, Armstrong, WR, McDaniel, RK. Intraoral leukoplakia, abrasion, periodontal breakdown and tooth loss in a snuff dipper. J Am Dent Assoc, 1979, 98: 584586.
29.Greer, RO, Poulson, TC, Boone, ME. Smokeless tobacco associated oral changes in juvenile, adult and geriatric patients: clinical and histomorphologic features. Gerodontics, 1986, 2: 8798.
30.Squier, CA. Smokeless tobacco and oral cancer: a cause for concern? CA Cancer J Clin, 1984, 34: 242247.
31.Grady, D, Greene, J, Daniels, TE, et al. Oral mucosal lesions found in smokeless tobacco users. J Am Dent Assoc, 1990, 121: 117123.
32.Greer, RO, Poulson, TC. Oral tissue alterations associated with the use of smokeless tobacco by teenagers. Part I. Clinical findings. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol, 1983, 56: 275284.
33.Pindborg, JJ, Renstrup, G. Studies in oral leukoplakia. I. The influence of snuff on the connective tissue of the oral mucosa. Preliminary report. Acta Pathol Micro-Biol Scand, 1962, 55: 412414.
34.Hirsch, JM, Livian, G, Edwards, S, et al. Tobacco habits among teenagers in the city of Gõteborg, Sweden and possible association with dental caries. Swed Dent J, 1991, 15: 117123.
35.Bill, TJ, Reddy, VR, Ries, KL, Gampper, TJ, Hoard, MA. Adolescent gingival squamous cell carcinoma: report of a case and review of the literature. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod, 2001, 91: 682685.
36.Thompson, L, Castle, J, Heffner, DK. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in pediatric patients: a clinicopathologic study of 20 cases (abstract), Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod, 1999, 88: 204.
37.Atula, S, Grenman, R, Laippala, P, Syrjänen, . Cancer of the tongue in patients younger than 40 years. Arch Laryngol Head Neck Surg, 1996, 122: 13131319.
38.Sarkaria, JN, Harari, PM. Oral tongue cancer in young adults less than 40 years of age: rationale for aggressive therapy. Head Neck, 1994, 16: 107111.
39.Tsukuda, M, Ooishi, K, Mochimatsu, I, Sato, H. Head and neck carcinomas in patients under the age of forty years. Jpn J Cancer Res, 1993, 84: 748752.
40.Lund, VJ, Howard, DJ. Head and neck cancer in the young: a prognostic conundrum? J Laryngol Otol, 1990, 104: 544548.
41.Keukens, F, van Voorst Vader, PC, Panders, AK, et al. Xeroderma pigmentosum: squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. Acta Derm Venereol, 1989, 69: 530531.
42.Earle, AS, Park, CH, Viastou, . Oral squamous cell carcinoma in children. Ann Plast Surg, 1988, 20: 148152.
43.Sacks, HG, Holly, R, Blum, B, Joy, ED. Case 58: maxillary alveolar mass in a 13-year old boy. J Oral Maxillofac Surg, 1985, 43: 958963.
44.Son, YH, Kapp, DS. Oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer in a younger population. Cancer, 55: 1985, 441444.
45.Newman, AN, Rice, DH, Ossoff, RH, Sisson, GA. Carcinoma of the tongue in persons younger than 30 years of age. Arch Otolaryngol, 1983, 109: 302304.
46.McGregor, GI, David, N, Robins, RE. Squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and lower oral cavity in patients under 40 years of age. Am J Surg, 1983, 146: 8892.
47.Yagi, K, Ali, AEL G, Abbas, KEL D, Prabhu, SR. Carcinoma of the tongue in a patient with xeroderma pigmentosum, Int J Oral Surg, 1981, 10: 7376.
48.Harper, JI, Copeman, PW. Carcinoma of the tongue in a boy with xeroderma pigmentosum. Clin Exp Dermatol, 1981, 6: 601604.
49.Krolls, SO, Hoffman, S. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral soft tissues: a statistical analysis of 14,253 cases by age, sex, and race of patients. J Am Dent Assoc, 1976, 92: 571574.
50.Byers, RM. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue in patients less than thirty years of age. Am J Surg, 1975, 130: 475478.
51.Weitkunat, R, Sanders, E, Lee, PN, et al. Meta-analysis of the relation between European and American smokeless tobacco and oral cancer. BMC Public Health, 2007, 15: 334354.
52.Greer, RO, Hoernig, G, Shroyer, KR. Telomerase expression in precancerous oral verrucous leukoplakia. Int J Oral Biol, 1999, 24: 15.
53.Palefsky, JM, Greenspan, JS, Daniels, TE. Interaction between smokeless tobacco-related carcinogens and human papillomaviruses in the pathogenesis of oral cancer and dysplasia. In: National Institutes of Health Monograph 2, Smokeless Tobacco or Health: An International Perspective. Bethesda (MD): NIH Publication, No. 93-3461; 1993, 175182, Chapter 3.
54.Greer, RO. Oral manifestations of smokeless tobacco use. Eusterman, VD Meyers, A, eds Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company, 2011, 44: 3156.
55.Hashibe, M, Brenan, P, Shu-chun, C, et al. Interaction between tobacco and alcohol use and the risk of head and neck cancer: pooled analysis in the intermitronal head and neck epidemiology consortium. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 2009, 18: 541550.
56.Gale, N, Zidar, N, Poljak, M, et al. Current views and perspectives on classification of squamous intraepithelial lesions of the head and neck. Head and Neck Pathol, 2014, 16–23.
57.Edwards, PC. The natural history of oral epithelial dysplasia: perspective on Dost et al. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol, 2014, 117: 262266.
58.Nobusawa, A, Sano, T, Negishi, A. Immunohistochemical staining patterns of cytokeratins 13, 14 and 17 in oral epithelial dysplasia including orthokeratotic dysplasia. Pathol Int, 2014, 64: 200207.
59.Dost, F, LeCao, KA, Ford, PJ. A retrospective analysis of clinical features of oral malignant and potentially malignant disorders with and without oral epithelial dysplasia. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol, 2013, 116: 725733.
60.Arnaoutakis, D, Bishop, J, Westra, W, et al. Recurrence patterns and management of oral cavity premalignant lesions. Oral Oncol, 2013, 49: 814817.
61.Christensen, A, Kristensen, E, Thekildsen, MH, et al. Ten year retrospective study of head and neck carcinoma in situ. Incidence, treatment and clinical outcome. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol, 2013, 116: 174178.
62.Arsenic, R, Kurrer, MO. Differentiated dysplasia is a frequent precursor or associated lesion in invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and pharynx. Virchous Arch, 2013, 462: 609617.
63.Morris, LB, Ganly, I. Outcomes of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma in pediatric patients. Oral Oncol, 2010, 46: 292296.
64.Bill, TJ, Reddy, VR, Ries, KL, et al. Adolescent gingival squamous cell carcinoma: report of a case and review of the literature. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod, 2001, 91: 682685.
65.Byers, RM. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue in patients less than thirty years of age. Am J Surg, 1975, 130: 475478.
66.Earle, AS, Park, CH, Vlastou, C. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in children. Ann Plast Surg, 1988, 20: 148152.
67.Shroyer, KR, Greer, RO, Frankhouser, CA, et al. Detection of human papillomavirus in oral verrucous carcinoma by polymerase chain reaction. Mod Pathol, 1993, 6: 669672.
68.Liu, O, Zhang, H, Wang, Y, et al. Stereology study of oral verrucous carcinoma. J Bunon, 2012, 17: 343349.
69.Alkan, A, Bulut, E, Gunhan, O. Oral verrucous carcinoma: a study of 12 cases. Eur J Dent, 2012, 4: 202207.
70.Ackerman, LV. Verrucous carcinoma of the oral cavity. Surgery, 1948, 23: 670678.
1.Das, S, Das, AK. A review of pediatric oral biopsies from surgical pathology service in a dental school. Pediatr Dent, 1993, 15: 419428.
2.Sousa, FB, Etges, A, Correa, L, et al. Pediatric oral lesions: a 15 year review from Sao Paolo, Brazil. J Clin Pediatr Dent, 2002, 26: 413418.
3.Al Khateeb, T, Hamasha, AA, Almarsri, NM. Oral and maxillofacial tumors in North Jordanian children and adolescents: a retrospective analysis over 10 years. Internat J Oral Maxillofac Surg, 2003, 32: 7883.
4.Eversole, LR. Papillary lesions of the oral cavity: relationship to human papillomaviruses. J Calif Dent Assoc, 2000, 28: 922927.
5.Yoshpe, NS. Oral and laryngeal papilloma: a pediatric manifestation of sexually transmitted disease? Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol, 1995, 31: 7783.
6.Purabnen, M, Yliskoski, M, Saarikoski, S, et al. Vertical transmission of human papillomavirus from infected mothers to their newborn babies and persistence of the virus in childhood. Am J Obst Gynecol, 1996, 174: 694699.
7.Abbey, LM, Page, DG, Sawyer, DR. The clinical and histopathological features of a series of 464 oral squamous cell papillomas. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol, 1980, 49: 419428.
8.Syrjanen, S, Puranen, M. Human papillomavirus infections in children: the potential role for maternal transmission. Critical Rev Oral Biol Med, 2000, 11: 259274.
9.Dorankula, SP, Ramani, P, Premkumar, P, et al. Verruciform xanthoma of the oral cavity. J Clin Diagn Res, 2013, 7: 17991801.
10.Bhalerao, S, Bhat, P, Chhabra, R, et al. Verruciform xanthoma of the buccal mucosa. Contemp Clin Dent, 2012, 3: 257259.
11.Phillipsen, HP, Reichart, PA, Takata, T, et al. Verruciform xanthoma – biological profile of 282 oral lesions based on a literature survey with nine new cases. Japan Oral Oncol, 2003, 39: 325336.
12.Skully, C. Challenges in predicting which oral mucosal potentially malignant diseases will progress to neoplasia. Oral Dis, 2014, 20: 15.
13.Boy, SC. Leukoplakia and erythroplakia of the oral mucosa – a brief overview. SADJ, 2012, 67: 558560.
14.Grajewski, S, Quarcoo, D, Uibel, S. A scientometric analysis of leukoplakia and erythroplakia. Laryng Orhgn Otologic, 2012, 89: 210215.
15.Pindborg, JJ, Renstrup, G, Poulsen, HE, et al. Studies in oral leukoplakias: five clinical and histologic signs of malignancy. Acta Odontol Scand, 1963, 21: 407414.
16.Mashberg, A, Meyers, H. Anatomical site and size of 222 early asymptomatic oral squamous cell carcinomas: a continuing prospective study of oral cancer. Cancer, 1976, 37: 21492155.
17.Rhodus, NL, Ferr, AR, Patel, K. Oral cancer: leukoplakia, premalignancy, and squamous cell carcinoma. Dent Clin North Am, 2014, 58: 315340.
18.Skordumova, O, Muraev, AA, Volodine, EV, et al. Leukoplakia of the oral mucosa: classification, histopathology, diagnosis and treatment. Vopr Onkol, 2013, 59: 548554.
19.Hansen, JL, Olsen, JA, Silverman, S. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. A long term study. Oral Surg, 1985, 60: 285290.
20.Shroyer, KR, Greer, RO. Detection of human papillomavirus DNA by in situ DNA hybridization and polymerase chain reaction in premalignant oral lesions. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol, 1991, 77: 708713.
21.Shear, M, Pindborg, JJ. Verrucous hyperplasia of the oral mucosa. Cancer, 1980, 46: 18551862.
22.Gillenwater, AM, Vigneswaran, N, Fatani, H, et al. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL): a review of an elusive pathologic entity. Adv Anat Pathol, 2013, 20: 416423.
23.Bagan, JV, Jimenez-Soriano, , Diaz-Fernandez, JM, et al. Malignant transformation of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia to oral squamous cell carcinoma: a series of 55 cases. Oral Oncol, 2011, 47: 732735.
24.Christen, AG, Swanson, BZ, Glover, Ed, et al. Smokeless tobacco: the folklore and social history of snuffing, sneezing, dipping and chewing. J Am Dent Assoc, 1982, 105: 821829.
25.Christen, AG. The case against smokeless tobacco: five facts for the health professional to consider. J Am Dent Assoc, 1980, 101: 464469.
26.Wahlberg, I, Ringberger, T. Smokeless tobacco. In: Davis, DL, Nielsen, MT, editors. Tobacco: Production, Chemistry and Technology. Oxford (United Kingdom): Blackwell Science, 1999, 452460.
27.Rodu, B. Smokeless tobacco and oral cancer: a review of the risks and determinant. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med, 2004, 15: 252263.
28.Christen, AG, Armstrong, WR, McDaniel, RK. Intraoral leukoplakia, abrasion, periodontal breakdown and tooth loss in a snuff dipper. J Am Dent Assoc, 1979, 98: 584586.
29.Greer, RO, Poulson, TC, Boone, ME. Smokeless tobacco associated oral changes in juvenile, adult and geriatric patients: clinical and histomorphologic features. Gerodontics, 1986, 2: 8798.
30.Squier, CA. Smokeless tobacco and oral cancer: a cause for concern? CA Cancer J Clin, 1984, 34: 242247.
31.Grady, D, Greene, J, Daniels, TE, et al. Oral mucosal lesions found in smokeless tobacco users. J Am Dent Assoc, 1990, 121: 117123.
32.Greer, RO, Poulson, TC. Oral tissue alterations associated with the use of smokeless tobacco by teenagers. Part I. Clinical findings. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol, 1983, 56: 275284.
33.Pindborg, JJ, Renstrup, G. Studies in oral leukoplakia. I. The influence of snuff on the connective tissue of the oral mucosa. Preliminary report. Acta Pathol Micro-Biol Scand, 1962, 55: 412414.
34.Hirsch, JM, Livian, G, Edwards, S, et al. Tobacco habits among teenagers in the city of Gõteborg, Sweden and possible association with dental caries. Swed Dent J, 1991, 15: 117123.
35.Bill, TJ, Reddy, VR, Ries, KL, Gampper, TJ, Hoard, MA. Adolescent gingival squamous cell carcinoma: report of a case and review of the literature. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod, 2001, 91: 682685.
36.Thompson, L, Castle, J, Heffner, DK. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in pediatric patients: a clinicopathologic study of 20 cases (abstract), Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod, 1999, 88: 204.
37.Atula, S, Grenman, R, Laippala, P, Syrjänen, . Cancer of the tongue in patients younger than 40 years. Arch Laryngol Head Neck Surg, 1996, 122: 13131319.
38.Sarkaria, JN, Harari, PM. Oral tongue cancer in young adults less than 40 years of age: rationale for aggressive therapy. Head Neck, 1994, 16: 107111.
39.Tsukuda, M, Ooishi, K, Mochimatsu, I, Sato, H. Head and neck carcinomas in patients under the age of forty years. Jpn J Cancer Res, 1993, 84: 748752.
40.Lund, VJ, Howard, DJ. Head and neck cancer in the young: a prognostic conundrum? J Laryngol Otol, 1990, 104: 544548.
41.Keukens, F, van Voorst Vader, PC, Panders, AK, et al. Xeroderma pigmentosum: squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. Acta Derm Venereol, 1989, 69: 530531.
42.Earle, AS, Park, CH, Viastou, . Oral squamous cell carcinoma in children. Ann Plast Surg, 1988, 20: 148152.
43.Sacks, HG, Holly, R, Blum, B, Joy, ED. Case 58: maxillary alveolar mass in a 13-year old boy. J Oral Maxillofac Surg, 1985, 43: 958963.
44.Son, YH, Kapp, DS. Oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer in a younger population. Cancer, 55: 1985, 441444.
45.Newman, AN, Rice, DH, Ossoff, RH, Sisson, GA. Carcinoma of the tongue in persons younger than 30 years of age. Arch Otolaryngol, 1983, 109: 302304.
46.McGregor, GI, David, N, Robins, RE. Squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and lower oral cavity in patients under 40 years of age. Am J Surg, 1983, 146: 8892.
47.Yagi, K, Ali, AEL G, Abbas, KEL D, Prabhu, SR. Carcinoma of the tongue in a patient with xeroderma pigmentosum, Int J Oral Surg, 1981, 10: 7376.
48.Harper, JI, Copeman, PW. Carcinoma of the tongue in a boy with xeroderma pigmentosum. Clin Exp Dermatol, 1981, 6: 601604.
49.Krolls, SO, Hoffman, S. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral soft tissues: a statistical analysis of 14,253 cases by age, sex, and race of patients. J Am Dent Assoc, 1976, 92: 571574.
50.Byers, RM. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue in patients less than thirty years of age. Am J Surg, 1975, 130: 475478.
51.Weitkunat, R, Sanders, E, Lee, PN, et al. Meta-analysis of the relation between European and American smokeless tobacco and oral cancer. BMC Public Health, 2007, 15: 334354.
52.Greer, RO, Hoernig, G, Shroyer, KR. Telomerase expression in precancerous oral verrucous leukoplakia. Int J Oral Biol, 1999, 24: 15.
53.Palefsky, JM, Greenspan, JS, Daniels, TE. Interaction between smokeless tobacco-related carcinogens and human papillomaviruses in the pathogenesis of oral cancer and dysplasia. In: National Institutes of Health Monograph 2, Smokeless Tobacco or Health: An International Perspective. Bethesda (MD): NIH Publication, No. 93-3461; 1993, 175182, Chapter 3.
54.Greer, RO. Oral manifestations of smokeless tobacco use. Eusterman, VD Meyers, A, eds Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company, 2011, 44: 3156.
55.Hashibe, M, Brenan, P, Shu-chun, C, et al. Interaction between tobacco and alcohol use and the risk of head and neck cancer: pooled analysis in the intermitronal head and neck epidemiology consortium. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 2009, 18: 541550.
56.Gale, N, Zidar, N, Poljak, M, et al. Current views and perspectives on classification of squamous intraepithelial lesions of the head and neck. Head and Neck Pathol, 2014, 16–23.
57.Edwards, PC. The natural history of oral epithelial dysplasia: perspective on Dost et al. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol, 2014, 117: 262266.
58.Nobusawa, A, Sano, T, Negishi, A. Immunohistochemical staining patterns of cytokeratins 13, 14 and 17 in oral epithelial dysplasia including orthokeratotic dysplasia. Pathol Int, 2014, 64: 200207.
59.Dost, F, LeCao, KA, Ford, PJ. A retrospective analysis of clinical features of oral malignant and potentially malignant disorders with and without oral epithelial dysplasia. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol, 2013, 116: 725733.
60.Arnaoutakis, D, Bishop, J, Westra, W, et al. Recurrence patterns and management of oral cavity premalignant lesions. Oral Oncol, 2013, 49: 814817.
61.Christensen, A, Kristensen, E, Thekildsen, MH, et al. Ten year retrospective study of head and neck carcinoma in situ. Incidence, treatment and clinical outcome. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol, 2013, 116: 174178.
62.Arsenic, R, Kurrer, MO. Differentiated dysplasia is a frequent precursor or associated lesion in invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and pharynx. Virchous Arch, 2013, 462: 609617.
63.Morris, LB, Ganly, I. Outcomes of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma in pediatric patients. Oral Oncol, 2010, 46: 292296.
64.Bill, TJ, Reddy, VR, Ries, KL, et al. Adolescent gingival squamous cell carcinoma: report of a case and review of the literature. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod, 2001, 91: 682685.
65.Byers, RM. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue in patients less than thirty years of age. Am J Surg, 1975, 130: 475478.
66.Earle, AS, Park, CH, Vlastou, C. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in children. Ann Plast Surg, 1988, 20: 148152.
67.Shroyer, KR, Greer, RO, Frankhouser, CA, et al. Detection of human papillomavirus in oral verrucous carcinoma by polymerase chain reaction. Mod Pathol, 1993, 6: 669672.
68.Liu, O, Zhang, H, Wang, Y, et al. Stereology study of oral verrucous carcinoma. J Bunon, 2012, 17: 343349.
69.Alkan, A, Bulut, E, Gunhan, O. Oral verrucous carcinoma: a study of 12 cases. Eur J Dent, 2012, 4: 202207.
70.Ackerman, LV. Verrucous carcinoma of the oral cavity. Surgery, 1948, 23: 670678.
1.Das, S, Das, AK. A review of pediatric oral biopsies from surgical pathology service in a dental school. Pediatr Dent, 1993, 15: 419428.
2.Sousa, FB, Etges, A, Correa, L, et al. Pediatric oral lesions: a 15 year review from Sao Paolo, Brazil. J Clin Pediatr Dent, 2002, 26: 413418.
3.Al Khateeb, T, Hamasha, AA, Almarsri, NM. Oral and maxillofacial tumors in North Jordanian children and adolescents: a retrospective analysis over 10 years. Internat J Oral Maxillofac Surg, 2003, 32: 7883.
4.Eversole, LR. Papillary lesions of the oral cavity: relationship to human papillomaviruses. J Calif Dent Assoc, 2000, 28: 922927.
5.Yoshpe, NS. Oral and laryngeal papilloma: a pediatric manifestation of sexually transmitted disease? Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol, 1995, 31: 7783.
6.Purabnen, M, Yliskoski, M, Saarikoski, S, et al. Vertical transmission of human papillomavirus from infected mothers to their newborn babies and persistence of the virus in childhood. Am J Obst Gynecol, 1996, 174: 694699.
7.Abbey, LM, Page, DG, Sawyer, DR. The clinical and histopathological features of a series of 464 oral squamous cell papillomas. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol, 1980, 49: 419428.
8.Syrjanen, S, Puranen, M. Human papillomavirus infections in children: the potential role for maternal transmission. Critical Rev Oral Biol Med, 2000, 11: 259274.
9.Dorankula, SP, Ramani, P, Premkumar, P, et al. Verruciform xanthoma of the oral cavity. J Clin Diagn Res, 2013, 7: 17991801.
10.Bhalerao, S, Bhat, P, Chhabra, R, et al. Verruciform xanthoma of the buccal mucosa. Contemp Clin Dent, 2012, 3: 257259.
11.Phillipsen, HP, Reichart, PA, Takata, T, et al. Verruciform xanthoma – biological profile of 282 oral lesions based on a literature survey with nine new cases. Japan Oral Oncol, 2003, 39: 325336.
12.Skully, C. Challenges in predicting which oral mucosal potentially malignant diseases will progress to neoplasia. Oral Dis, 2014, 20: 15.
13.Boy, SC. Leukoplakia and erythroplakia of the oral mucosa – a brief overview. SADJ, 2012, 67: 558560.
14.Grajewski, S, Quarcoo, D, Uibel, S. A scientometric analysis of leukoplakia and erythroplakia. Laryng Orhgn Otologic, 2012, 89: 210215.
15.Pindborg, JJ, Renstrup, G, Poulsen, HE, et al. Studies in oral leukoplakias: five clinical and histologic signs of malignancy. Acta Odontol Scand, 1963, 21: 407414.
16.Mashberg, A, Meyers, H. Anatomical site and size of 222 early asymptomatic oral squamous cell carcinomas: a continuing prospective study of oral cancer. Cancer, 1976, 37: 21492155.
17.Rhodus, NL, Ferr, AR, Patel, K. Oral cancer: leukoplakia, premalignancy, and squamous cell carcinoma. Dent Clin North Am, 2014, 58: 315340.
18.Skordumova, O, Muraev, AA, Volodine, EV, et al. Leukoplakia of the oral mucosa: classification, histopathology, diagnosis and treatment. Vopr Onkol, 2013, 59: 548554.
19.Hansen, JL, Olsen, JA, Silverman, S. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. A long term study. Oral Surg, 1985, 60: 285290.
20.Shroyer, KR, Greer, RO. Detection of human papillomavirus DNA by in situ DNA hybridization and polymerase chain reaction in premalignant oral lesions. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol, 1991, 77: 708713.
21.Shear, M, Pindborg, JJ. Verrucous hyperplasia of the oral mucosa. Cancer, 1980, 46: 18551862.
22.Gillenwater, AM, Vigneswaran, N, Fatani, H, et al. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL): a review of an elusive pathologic entity. Adv Anat Pathol, 2013, 20: 416423.
23.Bagan, JV, Jimenez-Soriano, , Diaz-Fernandez, JM, et al. Malignant transformation of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia to oral squamous cell carcinoma: a series of 55 cases. Oral Oncol, 2011, 47: 732735.
24.Christen, AG, Swanson, BZ, Glover, Ed, et al. Smokeless tobacco: the folklore and social history of snuffing, sneezing, dipping and chewing. J Am Dent Assoc, 1982, 105: 821829.
25.Christen, AG. The case against smokeless tobacco: five facts for the health professional to consider. J Am Dent Assoc, 1980, 101: 464469.
26.Wahlberg, I, Ringberger, T. Smokeless tobacco. In: Davis, DL, Nielsen, MT, editors. Tobacco: Production, Chemistry and Technology. Oxford (United Kingdom): Blackwell Science, 1999, 452460.
27.Rodu, B. Smokeless tobacco and oral cancer: a review of the risks and determinant. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med, 2004, 15: 252263.
28.Christen, AG, Armstrong, WR, McDaniel, RK. Intraoral leukoplakia, abrasion, periodontal breakdown and tooth loss in a snuff dipper. J Am Dent Assoc, 1979, 98: 584586.
29.Greer, RO, Poulson, TC, Boone, ME. Smokeless tobacco associated oral changes in juvenile, adult and geriatric patients: clinical and histomorphologic features. Gerodontics, 1986, 2: 8798.
30.Squier, CA. Smokeless tobacco and oral cancer: a cause for concern? CA Cancer J Clin, 1984, 34: 242247.
31.Grady, D, Greene, J, Daniels, TE, et al. Oral mucosal lesions found in smokeless tobacco users. J Am Dent Assoc, 1990, 121: 117123.
32.Greer, RO, Poulson, TC. Oral tissue alterations associated with the use of smokeless tobacco by teenagers. Part I. Clinical findings. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol, 1983, 56: 275284.
33.Pindborg, JJ, Renstrup, G. Studies in oral leukoplakia. I. The influence of snuff on the connective tissue of the oral mucosa. Preliminary report. Acta Pathol Micro-Biol Scand, 1962, 55: 412414.
34.Hirsch, JM, Livian, G, Edwards, S, et al. Tobacco habits among teenagers in the city of Gõteborg, Sweden and possible association with dental caries. Swed Dent J, 1991, 15: 117123.
35.Bill, TJ, Reddy, VR, Ries, KL, Gampper, TJ, Hoard, MA. Adolescent gingival squamous cell carcinoma: report of a case and review of the literature. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod, 2001, 91: 682685.
36.Thompson, L, Castle, J, Heffner, DK. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in pediatric patients: a clinicopathologic study of 20 cases (abstract), Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod, 1999, 88: 204.
37.Atula, S, Grenman, R, Laippala, P, Syrjänen, . Cancer of the tongue in patients younger than 40 years. Arch Laryngol Head Neck Surg, 1996, 122: 13131319.
38.Sarkaria, JN, Harari, PM. Oral tongue cancer in young adults less than 40 years of age: rationale for aggressive therapy. Head Neck, 1994, 16: 107111.
39.Tsukuda, M, Ooishi, K, Mochimatsu, I, Sato, H. Head and neck carcinomas in patients under the age of forty years. Jpn J Cancer Res, 1993, 84: 748752.
40.Lund, VJ, Howard, DJ. Head and neck cancer in the young: a prognostic conundrum? J Laryngol Otol, 1990, 104: 544548.
41.Keukens, F, van Voorst Vader, PC, Panders, AK, et al. Xeroderma pigmentosum: squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. Acta Derm Venereol, 1989, 69: 530531.
42.Earle, AS, Park, CH, Viastou, . Oral squamous cell carcinoma in children. Ann Plast Surg, 1988, 20: 148152.
43.Sacks, HG, Holly, R, Blum, B, Joy, ED. Case 58: maxillary alveolar mass in a 13-year old boy. J Oral Maxillofac Surg, 1985, 43: 958963.
44.Son, YH, Kapp, DS. Oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer in a younger population. Cancer, 55: 1985, 441444.
45.Newman, AN, Rice, DH, Ossoff, RH, Sisson, GA. Carcinoma of the tongue in persons younger than 30 years of age. Arch Otolaryngol, 1983, 109: 302304.
46.McGregor, GI, David, N, Robins, RE. Squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and lower oral cavity in patients under 40 years of age. Am J Surg, 1983, 146: 8892.
47.Yagi, K, Ali, AEL G, Abbas, KEL D, Prabhu, SR. Carcinoma of the tongue in a patient with xeroderma pigmentosum, Int J Oral Surg, 1981, 10: 7376.
48.Harper, JI, Copeman, PW. Carcinoma of the tongue in a boy with xeroderma pigmentosum. Clin Exp Dermatol, 1981, 6: 601604.
49.Krolls, SO, Hoffman, S. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral soft tissues: a statistical analysis of 14,253 cases by age, sex, and race of patients. J Am Dent Assoc, 1976, 92: 571574.
50.Byers, RM. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue in patients less than thirty years of age. Am J Surg, 1975, 130: 475478.
51.Weitkunat, R, Sanders, E, Lee, PN, et al. Meta-analysis of the relation between European and American smokeless tobacco and oral cancer. BMC Public Health, 2007, 15: 334354.
52.Greer, RO, Hoernig, G, Shroyer, KR. Telomerase expression in precancerous oral verrucous leukoplakia. Int J Oral Biol, 1999, 24: 15.
53.Palefsky, JM, Greenspan, JS, Daniels, TE. Interaction between smokeless tobacco-related carcinogens and human papillomaviruses in the pathogenesis of oral cancer and dysplasia. In: National Institutes of Health Monograph 2, Smokeless Tobacco or Health: An International Perspective. Bethesda (MD): NIH Publication, No. 93-3461; 1993, 175182, Chapter 3.
54.Greer, RO. Oral manifestations of smokeless tobacco use. Eusterman, VD Meyers, A, eds Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company, 2011, 44: 3156.
55.Hashibe, M, Brenan, P, Shu-chun, C, et al. Interaction between tobacco and alcohol use and the risk of head and neck cancer: pooled analysis in the intermitronal head and neck epidemiology consortium. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 2009, 18: 541550.
56.Gale, N, Zidar, N, Poljak, M, et al. Current views and perspectives on classification of squamous intraepithelial lesions of the head and neck. Head and Neck Pathol, 2014, 16–23.
57.Edwards, PC. The natural history of oral epithelial dysplasia: perspective on Dost et al. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol, 2014, 117: 262266.
58.Nobusawa, A, Sano, T, Negishi, A. Immunohistochemical staining patterns of cytokeratins 13, 14 and 17 in oral epithelial dysplasia including orthokeratotic dysplasia. Pathol Int, 2014, 64: 200207.
59.Dost, F, LeCao, KA, Ford, PJ. A retrospective analysis of clinical features of oral malignant and potentially malignant disorders with and without oral epithelial dysplasia. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol, 2013, 116: 725733.
60.Arnaoutakis, D, Bishop, J, Westra, W, et al. Recurrence patterns and management of oral cavity premalignant lesions. Oral Oncol, 2013, 49: 814817.
61.Christensen, A, Kristensen, E, Thekildsen, MH, et al. Ten year retrospective study of head and neck carcinoma in situ. Incidence, treatment and clinical outcome. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol, 2013, 116: 174178.
62.Arsenic, R, Kurrer, MO. Differentiated dysplasia is a frequent precursor or associated lesion in invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and pharynx. Virchous Arch, 2013, 462: 609617.
63.Morris, LB, Ganly, I. Outcomes of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma in pediatric patients. Oral Oncol, 2010, 46: 292296.
64.Bill, TJ, Reddy, VR, Ries, KL, et al. Adolescent gingival squamous cell carcinoma: report of a case and review of the literature. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod, 2001, 91: 682685.
65.Byers, RM. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue in patients less than thirty years of age. Am J Surg, 1975, 130: 475478.
66.Earle, AS, Park, CH, Vlastou, C. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in children. Ann Plast Surg, 1988, 20: 148152.
67.Shroyer, KR, Greer, RO, Frankhouser, CA, et al. Detection of human papillomavirus in oral verrucous carcinoma by polymerase chain reaction. Mod Pathol, 1993, 6: 669672.
68.Liu, O, Zhang, H, Wang, Y, et al. Stereology study of oral verrucous carcinoma. J Bunon, 2012, 17: 343349.
69.Alkan, A, Bulut, E, Gunhan, O. Oral verrucous carcinoma: a study of 12 cases. Eur J Dent, 2012, 4: 202207.
70.Ackerman, LV. Verrucous carcinoma of the oral cavity. Surgery, 1948, 23: 670678.
1.Das, S, Das, AK. A review of pediatric oral biopsies from surgical pathology service in a dental school. Pediatr Dent, 1993, 15: 419428.
2.Sousa, FB, Etges, A, Correa, L, et al. Pediatric oral lesions: a 15 year review from Sao Paolo, Brazil. J Clin Pediatr Dent, 2002, 26: 413418.
3.Al Khateeb, T, Hamasha, AA, Almarsri, NM. Oral and maxillofacial tumors in North Jordanian children and adolescents: a retrospective analysis over 10 years. Internat J Oral Maxillofac Surg, 2003, 32: 7883.
4.Eversole, LR. Papillary lesions of the oral cavity: relationship to human papillomaviruses. J Calif Dent Assoc, 2000, 28: 922927.
5.Yoshpe, NS. Oral and laryngeal papilloma: a pediatric manifestation of sexually transmitted disease? Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol, 1995, 31: 7783.
6.Purabnen, M, Yliskoski, M, Saarikoski, S, et al. Vertical transmission of human papillomavirus from infected mothers to their newborn babies and persistence of the virus in childhood. Am J Obst Gynecol, 1996, 174: 694699.
7.Abbey, LM, Page, DG, Sawyer, DR. The clinical and histopathological features of a series of 464 oral squamous cell papillomas. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol, 1980, 49: 419428.
8.Syrjanen, S, Puranen, M. Human papillomavirus infections in children: the potential role for maternal transmission. Critical Rev Oral Biol Med, 2000, 11: 259274.
9.Dorankula, SP, Ramani, P, Premkumar, P, et al. Verruciform xanthoma of the oral cavity. J Clin Diagn Res, 2013, 7: 17991801.
10.Bhalerao, S, Bhat, P, Chhabra, R, et al. Verruciform xanthoma of the buccal mucosa. Contemp Clin Dent, 2012, 3: 257259.
11.Phillipsen, HP, Reichart, PA, Takata, T, et al. Verruciform xanthoma – biological profile of 282 oral lesions based on a literature survey with nine new cases. Japan Oral Oncol, 2003, 39: 325336.
12.Skully, C. Challenges in predicting which oral mucosal potentially malignant diseases will progress to neoplasia. Oral Dis, 2014, 20: 15.
13.Boy, SC. Leukoplakia and erythroplakia of the oral mucosa – a brief overview. SADJ, 2012, 67: 558560.
14.Grajewski, S, Quarcoo, D, Uibel, S. A scientometric analysis of leukoplakia and erythroplakia. Laryng Orhgn Otologic, 2012, 89: 210215.
15.Pindborg, JJ, Renstrup, G, Poulsen, HE, et al. Studies in oral leukoplakias: five clinical and histologic signs of malignancy. Acta Odontol Scand, 1963, 21: 407414.
16.Mashberg, A, Meyers, H. Anatomical site and size of 222 early asymptomatic oral squamous cell carcinomas: a continuing prospective study of oral cancer. Cancer, 1976, 37: 21492155.
17.Rhodus, NL, Ferr, AR, Patel, K. Oral cancer: leukoplakia, premalignancy, and squamous cell carcinoma. Dent Clin North Am, 2014, 58: 315340.
18.Skordumova, O, Muraev, AA, Volodine, EV, et al. Leukoplakia of the oral mucosa: classification, histopathology, diagnosis and treatment. Vopr Onkol, 2013, 59: 548554.
19.Hansen, JL, Olsen, JA, Silverman, S. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. A long term study. Oral Surg, 1985, 60: 285290.
20.Shroyer, KR, Greer, RO. Detection of human papillomavirus DNA by in situ DNA hybridization and polymerase chain reaction in premalignant oral lesions. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol, 1991, 77: 708713.
21.Shear, M, Pindborg, JJ. Verrucous hyperplasia of the oral mucosa. Cancer, 1980, 46: 18551862.
22.Gillenwater, AM, Vigneswaran, N, Fatani, H, et al. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL): a review of an elusive pathologic entity. Adv Anat Pathol, 2013, 20: 416423.
23.Bagan, JV, Jimenez-Soriano, , Diaz-Fernandez, JM, et al. Malignant transformation of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia to oral squamous cell carcinoma: a series of 55 cases. Oral Oncol, 2011, 47: 732735.
24.Christen, AG, Swanson, BZ, Glover, Ed, et al. Smokeless tobacco: the folklore and social history of snuffing, sneezing, dipping and chewing. J Am Dent Assoc, 1982, 105: 821829.
25.Christen, AG. The case against smokeless tobacco: five facts for the health professional to consider. J Am Dent Assoc, 1980, 101: 464469.
26.Wahlberg, I, Ringberger, T. Smokeless tobacco. In: Davis, DL, Nielsen, MT, editors. Tobacco: Production, Chemistry and Technology. Oxford (United Kingdom): Blackwell Science, 1999, 452460.
27.Rodu, B. Smokeless tobacco and oral cancer: a review of the risks and determinant. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med, 2004, 15: 252263.
28.Christen, AG, Armstrong, WR, McDaniel, RK. Intraoral leukoplakia, abrasion, periodontal breakdown and tooth loss in a snuff dipper. J Am Dent Assoc, 1979, 98: 584586.
29.Greer, RO, Poulson, TC, Boone, ME. Smokeless tobacco associated oral changes in juvenile, adult and geriatric patients: clinical and histomorphologic features. Gerodontics, 1986, 2: 8798.
30.Squier, CA. Smokeless tobacco and oral cancer: a cause for concern? CA Cancer J Clin, 1984, 34: 242247.
31.Grady, D, Greene, J, Daniels, TE, et al. Oral mucosal lesions found in smokeless tobacco users. J Am Dent Assoc, 1990, 121: 117123.
32.Greer, RO, Poulson, TC. Oral tissue alterations associated with the use of smokeless tobacco by teenagers. Part I. Clinical findings. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol, 1983, 56: 275284.
33.Pindborg, JJ, Renstrup, G. Studies in oral leukoplakia. I. The influence of snuff on the connective tissue of the oral mucosa. Preliminary report. Acta Pathol Micro-Biol Scand, 1962, 55: 412414.
34.Hirsch, JM, Livian, G, Edwards, S, et al. Tobacco habits among teenagers in the city of Gõteborg, Sweden and possible association with dental caries. Swed Dent J, 1991, 15: 117123.
35.Bill, TJ, Reddy, VR, Ries, KL, Gampper, TJ, Hoard, MA. Adolescent gingival squamous cell carcinoma: report of a case and review of the literature. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod, 2001, 91: 682685.
36.Thompson, L, Castle, J, Heffner, DK. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in pediatric patients: a clinicopathologic study of 20 cases (abstract), Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod, 1999, 88: 204.
37.Atula, S, Grenman, R, Laippala, P, Syrjänen, . Cancer of the tongue in patients younger than 40 years. Arch Laryngol Head Neck Surg, 1996, 122: 13131319.
38.Sarkaria, JN, Harari, PM. Oral tongue cancer in young adults less than 40 years of age: rationale for aggressive therapy. Head Neck, 1994, 16: 107111.
39.Tsukuda, M, Ooishi, K, Mochimatsu, I, Sato, H. Head and neck carcinomas in patients under the age of forty years. Jpn J Cancer Res, 1993, 84: 748752.
40.Lund, VJ, Howard, DJ. Head and neck cancer in the young: a prognostic conundrum? J Laryngol Otol, 1990, 104: 544548.
41.Keukens, F, van Voorst Vader, PC, Panders, AK, et al. Xeroderma pigmentosum: squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. Acta Derm Venereol, 1989, 69: 530531.
42.Earle, AS, Park, CH, Viastou, . Oral squamous cell carcinoma in children. Ann Plast Surg, 1988, 20: 148152.
43.Sacks, HG, Holly, R, Blum, B, Joy, ED. Case 58: maxillary alveolar mass in a 13-year old boy. J Oral Maxillofac Surg, 1985, 43: 958963.
44.Son, YH, Kapp, DS. Oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer in a younger population. Cancer, 55: 1985, 441444.
45.Newman, AN, Rice, DH, Ossoff, RH, Sisson, GA. Carcinoma of the tongue in persons younger than 30 years of age. Arch Otolaryngol, 1983, 109: 302304.
46.McGregor, GI, David, N, Robins, RE. Squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and lower oral cavity in patients under 40 years of age. Am J Surg, 1983, 146: 8892.
47.Yagi, K, Ali, AEL G, Abbas, KEL D, Prabhu, SR. Carcinoma of the tongue in a patient with xeroderma pigmentosum, Int J Oral Surg, 1981, 10: 7376.
48.Harper, JI, Copeman, PW. Carcinoma of the tongue in a boy with xeroderma pigmentosum. Clin Exp Dermatol, 1981, 6: 601604.
49.Krolls, SO, Hoffman, S. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral soft tissues: a statistical analysis of 14,253 cases by age, sex, and race of patients. J Am Dent Assoc, 1976, 92: 571574.
50.Byers, RM. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue in patients less than thirty years of age. Am J Surg, 1975, 130: 475478.
51.Weitkunat, R, Sanders, E, Lee, PN, et al. Meta-analysis of the relation between European and American smokeless tobacco and oral cancer. BMC Public Health, 2007, 15: 334354.
52.Greer, RO, Hoernig, G, Shroyer, KR. Telomerase expression in precancerous oral verrucous leukoplakia. Int J Oral Biol, 1999, 24: 15.
53.Palefsky, JM, Greenspan, JS, Daniels, TE. Interaction between smokeless tobacco-related carcinogens and human papillomaviruses in the pathogenesis of oral cancer and dysplasia. In: National Institutes of Health Monograph 2, Smokeless Tobacco or Health: An International Perspective. Bethesda (MD): NIH Publication, No. 93-3461; 1993, 175182, Chapter 3.
54.Greer, RO. Oral manifestations of smokeless tobacco use. Eusterman, VD Meyers, A, eds Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company, 2011, 44: 3156.
55.Hashibe, M, Brenan, P, Shu-chun, C, et al. Interaction between tobacco and alcohol use and the risk of head and neck cancer: pooled analysis in the intermitronal head and neck epidemiology consortium. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 2009, 18: 541550.
56.Gale, N, Zidar, N, Poljak, M, et al. Current views and perspectives on classification of squamous intraepithelial lesions of the head and neck. Head and Neck Pathol, 2014, 16–23.
57.Edwards, PC. The natural history of oral epithelial dysplasia: perspective on Dost et al. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol, 2014, 117: 262266.
58.Nobusawa, A, Sano, T, Negishi, A. Immunohistochemical staining patterns of cytokeratins 13, 14 and 17 in oral epithelial dysplasia including orthokeratotic dysplasia. Pathol Int, 2014, 64: 200207.
59.Dost, F, LeCao, KA, Ford, PJ. A retrospective analysis of clinical features of oral malignant and potentially malignant disorders with and without oral epithelial dysplasia. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol, 2013, 116: 725733.
60.Arnaoutakis, D, Bishop, J, Westra, W, et al. Recurrence patterns and management of oral cavity premalignant lesions. Oral Oncol, 2013, 49: 814817.
61.Christensen, A, Kristensen, E, Thekildsen, MH, et al. Ten year retrospective study of head and neck carcinoma in situ. Incidence, treatment and clinical outcome. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol, 2013, 116: 174178.
62.Arsenic, R, Kurrer, MO. Differentiated dysplasia is a frequent precursor or associated lesion in invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and pharynx. Virchous Arch, 2013, 462: 609617.
63.Morris, LB, Ganly, I. Outcomes of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma in pediatric patients. Oral Oncol, 2010, 46: 292296.
64.Bill, TJ, Reddy, VR, Ries, KL, et al. Adolescent gingival squamous cell carcinoma: report of a case and review of the literature. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod, 2001, 91: 682685.
65.Byers, RM. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue in patients less than thirty years of age. Am J Surg, 1975, 130: 475478.
66.Earle, AS, Park, CH, Vlastou, C. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in children. Ann Plast Surg, 1988, 20: 148152.
67.Shroyer, KR, Greer, RO, Frankhouser, CA, et al. Detection of human papillomavirus in oral verrucous carcinoma by polymerase chain reaction. Mod Pathol, 1993, 6: 669672.
68.Liu, O, Zhang, H, Wang, Y, et al. Stereology study of oral verrucous carcinoma. J Bunon, 2012, 17: 343349.
69.Alkan, A, Bulut, E, Gunhan, O. Oral verrucous carcinoma: a study of 12 cases. Eur J Dent, 2012, 4: 202207.
70.Ackerman, LV. Verrucous carcinoma of the oral cavity. Surgery, 1948, 23: 670678.
1.Das, S, Das, AK. A review of pediatric oral biopsies from surgical pathology service in a dental school. Pediatr Dent, 1993, 15: 419428.
2.Sousa, FB, Etges, A, Correa, L, et al. Pediatric oral lesions: a 15 year review from Sao Paolo, Brazil. J Clin Pediatr Dent, 2002, 26: 413418.
3.Al Khateeb, T, Hamasha, AA, Almarsri, NM. Oral and maxillofacial tumors in North Jordanian children and adolescents: a retrospective analysis over 10 years. Internat J Oral Maxillofac Surg, 2003, 32: 7883.
4.Eversole, LR. Papillary lesions of the oral cavity: relationship to human papillomaviruses. J Calif Dent Assoc, 2000, 28: 922927.
5.Yoshpe, NS. Oral and laryngeal papilloma: a pediatric manifestation of sexually transmitted disease? Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol, 1995, 31: 7783.
6.Purabnen, M, Yliskoski, M, Saarikoski, S, et al. Vertical transmission of human papillomavirus from infected mothers to their newborn babies and persistence of the virus in childhood. Am J Obst Gynecol, 1996, 174: 694699.
7.Abbey, LM, Page, DG, Sawyer, DR. The clinical and histopathological features of a series of 464 oral squamous cell papillomas. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol, 1980, 49: 419428.
8.Syrjanen, S, Puranen, M. Human papillomavirus infections in children: the potential role for maternal transmission. Critical Rev Oral Biol Med, 2000, 11: 259274.
9.Dorankula, SP, Ramani, P, Premkumar, P, et al. Verruciform xanthoma of the oral cavity. J Clin Diagn Res, 2013, 7: 17991801.
10.Bhalerao, S, Bhat, P, Chhabra, R, et al. Verruciform xanthoma of the buccal mucosa. Contemp Clin Dent, 2012, 3: 257259.
11.Phillipsen, HP, Reichart, PA, Takata, T, et al. Verruciform xanthoma – biological profile of 282 oral lesions based on a literature survey with nine new cases. Japan Oral Oncol, 2003, 39: 325336.
12.Skully, C. Challenges in predicting which oral mucosal potentially malignant diseases will progress to neoplasia. Oral Dis, 2014, 20: 15.
13.Boy, SC. Leukoplakia and erythroplakia of the oral mucosa – a brief overview. SADJ, 2012, 67: 558560.
14.Grajewski, S, Quarcoo, D, Uibel, S. A scientometric analysis of leukoplakia and erythroplakia. Laryng Orhgn Otologic, 2012, 89: 210215.
15.Pindborg, JJ, Renstrup, G, Poulsen, HE, et al. Studies in oral leukoplakias: five clinical and histologic signs of malignancy. Acta Odontol Scand, 1963, 21: 407414.
16.Mashberg, A, Meyers, H. Anatomical site and size of 222 early asymptomatic oral squamous cell carcinomas: a continuing prospective study of oral cancer. Cancer, 1976, 37: 21492155.
17.Rhodus, NL, Ferr, AR, Patel, K. Oral cancer: leukoplakia, premalignancy, and squamous cell carcinoma. Dent Clin North Am, 2014, 58: 315340.
18.Skordumova, O, Muraev, AA, Volodine, EV, et al. Leukoplakia of the oral mucosa: classification, histopathology, diagnosis and treatment. Vopr Onkol, 2013, 59: 548554.
19.Hansen, JL, Olsen, JA, Silverman, S. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. A long term study. Oral Surg, 1985, 60: 285290.
20.Shroyer, KR, Greer, RO. Detection of human papillomavirus DNA by in situ DNA hybridization and polymerase chain reaction in premalignant oral lesions. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol, 1991, 77: 708713.
21.Shear, M, Pindborg, JJ. Verrucous hyperplasia of the oral mucosa. Cancer, 1980, 46: 18551862.
22.Gillenwater, AM, Vigneswaran, N, Fatani, H, et al. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL): a review of an elusive pathologic entity. Adv Anat Pathol, 2013, 20: 416423.
23.Bagan, JV, Jimenez-Soriano, , Diaz-Fernandez, JM, et al. Malignant transformation of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia to oral squamous cell carcinoma: a series of 55 cases. Oral Oncol, 2011, 47: 732735.
24.Christen, AG, Swanson, BZ, Glover, Ed, et al. Smokeless tobacco: the folklore and social history of snuffing, sneezing, dipping and chewing. J Am Dent Assoc, 1982, 105: 821829.
25.Christen, AG. The case against smokeless tobacco: five facts for the health professional to consider. J Am Dent Assoc, 1980, 101: 464469.
26.Wahlberg, I, Ringberger, T. Smokeless tobacco. In: Davis, DL, Nielsen, MT, editors. Tobacco: Production, Chemistry and Technology. Oxford (United Kingdom): Blackwell Science, 1999, 452460.
27.Rodu, B. Smokeless tobacco and oral cancer: a review of the risks and determinant. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med, 2004, 15: 252263.
28.Christen, AG, Armstrong, WR, McDaniel, RK. Intraoral leukoplakia, abrasion, periodontal breakdown and tooth loss in a snuff dipper. J Am Dent Assoc, 1979, 98: 584586.
29.Greer, RO, Poulson, TC, Boone, ME. Smokeless tobacco associated oral changes in juvenile, adult and geriatric patients: clinical and histomorphologic features. Gerodontics, 1986, 2: 8798.
30.Squier, CA. Smokeless tobacco and oral cancer: a cause for concern? CA Cancer J Clin, 1984, 34: 242247.
31.Grady, D, Greene, J, Daniels, TE, et al. Oral mucosal lesions found in smokeless tobacco users. J Am Dent Assoc, 1990, 121: 117123.
32.Greer, RO, Poulson, TC. Oral tissue alterations associated with the use of smokeless tobacco by teenagers. Part I. Clinical findings. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol, 1983, 56: 275284.
33.Pindborg, JJ, Renstrup, G. Studies in oral leukoplakia. I. The influence of snuff on the connective tissue of the oral mucosa. Preliminary report. Acta Pathol Micro-Biol Scand, 1962, 55: 412414.
34.Hirsch, JM, Livian, G, Edwards, S, et al. Tobacco habits among teenagers in the city of Gõteborg, Sweden and possible association with dental caries. Swed Dent J, 1991, 15: 117123.
35.Bill, TJ, Reddy, VR, Ries, KL, Gampper, TJ, Hoard, MA. Adolescent gingival squamous cell carcinoma: report of a case and review of the literature. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod, 2001, 91: 682685.
36.Thompson, L, Castle, J, Heffner, DK. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in pediatric patients: a clinicopathologic study of 20 cases (abstract), Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod, 1999, 88: 204.
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