Skip to main content Accessibility help
Kant's 'Critique of Practical Reason'
  • Cited by 7
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the print book

Book description

The Critique of Practical Reason is the second of Kant's three Critiques, and his second work in moral theory after the Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals. Its systematic account of the authority of moral principles grounded in human autonomy unfolds Kant's considered views on morality and provides the keystone to his philosophical system. The essays in this volume shed light on the principal arguments of the second Critique and explore their relation to Kant's critical philosophy as a whole. They examine the genesis of the Critique, Kant's approach to the authority of the moral law given as a 'fact of reason', the metaphysics of free agency, the account of respect for morality as the moral motive, and questions raised by the 'primacy of practical reason' and the idea of the 'postulates'. Engaging and critical, this volume will be invaluable to advanced students and scholars of Kant and to moral theorists alike.


"...This collection of essays is diverse and engaging. The essays are of wide theoretical interest and deftly address issues of interpretation along with broader normative issues arising from Kant's Groundwork. Striking a nice balance of interpretive and normative concerns, each essay draws on a wide variety of sources, including not only Kant, but also his sympathetic commentators and his detractors. Those in either camp are well-advised to give these essays their attention."
--Elizabeth Foreman, Saint Louis University, Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews

"...This volume represents a refreshing turn in the literature on Kant, is well informed by the relevant literature, whereas the arguments are coherentlyrendered and classified."
--George Lăzăroiu, PhD, Institute of Interdisciplinary Studies in Humanities and Social Sciences, New York, Contemporary Readings in Law and Social Justice

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.


  • 1 - The origin and aim of Kant's Critique of Practical Reason
    pp 11-30
  • View abstract


    Immanuel Kant seeks to establish in the Critique of Practical Reason 'that there is pure practical reason'. The aim of the Critique of Practical Reason is inverse compared with the aim of the Critique of Pure Reason: Whereas the first Critique is supposed to show that one cannot apply pure reason constitutively in a speculative sense, the second Critique is supposed to substantiate the view that objections against the practical constitutive application of pure reason put forward by the empiricists and sceptics are vacuous. In the preface to the Critique of Practical Reason, Kant comments on a few objections that have been raised against his critical philosophy in general, as well as against his foundation of moral philosophy in particular, since 1781. In the Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, Kant distinguishes between the 'critique of pure speculative reason' and the 'Critique of Pure Practical Reason'.
  • 2 - Formal principles and the form of a law
    pp 31-54
  • View abstract


    This chapter deals with the features of practical laws and fundamental practical principles that centre on the notion of 'form'. It examines what Kant means by a 'formal principle' that explains why formal principles are uniquely suited to apply with normative necessity. The formal principle of some rational activity would be the guiding internal or constitutive norm that a subject must follow in order to engage in that activity. The form of a law would be the defining features that a principle must have in order to qualify as a practical law. A formal principle involves some abstraction from content: the form is what remains when one sets aside those features that differentiate one instance of an activity from any other. The chapter gives readings of the arguments for Kant's Theorems I and III and Problem I.
  • 3 - Moral consciousness and the ‘fact of reason’
    pp 55-72
  • View abstract


    This chapter focuses on the meaning and the importance of the 'fact of reason' in the second Critique of Practical Reason. When he introduces the 'fact of reason', he refers to an alleged consciousness of the fundamental law of pure practical reason, which he also calls consciousness of the moral law. The chapter situates the occurrence of the terminology of a Factum der Vernunft in its argumentative context and provides an interpretation. By the end of the eighteenth century, then, 'factum' could mean either 'deed' or 'fact'. The proper way of reading the expression 'fact of reason' does not yet tells one how successful Kant's use of it is in his argument. Virtually all authors who discuss the fact of reason do so in terms of morality. They introduce the 'consciousness' that Kant calls a fact of reason as the 'consciousness of the moral law' or 'moral consciousness'.
  • 4 - Reversal or retreat? Kant's deductions of freedom and morality
    pp 73-89
  • View abstract


    This chapter examines the sentence in the Critique of Practical Reason in which Immanuel Kant explicitly discusses the Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals and its relation to the new book. In a surprising reversal towards the end of the deduction section of the Critique of Practical Reason, Kant tells one that the 'vainly sought deduction of the moral principle' is replaced by another deduction, namely the deduction of freedom. Kant never quite identifies freedom and the fact of reason, which is the awareness of the authority of the moral law. He returns to the role of morality as the ratio cognoscendi of freedom and accords the support freedom receives from these quarters the status of a deduction. In a striking note from the Duisburg papers, Kant explicitly turns to the task of a 'critique of practical reason'.
  • 5 - The Triebfeder of pure practical reason
    pp 90-118
  • View abstract


    After determining the concept of the object of pure practical reason in Chapter II of the Analytic of Pure Practical Reason, Immanuel Kant takes up the motivational issue in Chapter III, which deals with what he terms the Triebfeder of pure practical reason. In his chapter on the springs of pure practical reason, Kant undertakes to explicate, in the light of the Factum of reason, how pure reason is practical in the case of the human being, and more generally in that of a finite subject having a share in this Factum. Kant's account has merely described how the moral law can infringe the inclinations. This chapter considers the effect the moral law has on feeling through its bearing on the propensities of self-love and self-conceit. Kant says that when the moral law strikes down self-conceit, the direct effect on feeling is the negative, or displeasing, sentiment of humiliation.
  • 6 - Two conceptions of compatibilism in the Critical Elucidation
    pp 119-144
  • View abstract


    The 'Critical Elucidation of the Analytic of Pure Practical Reason' develops two distinctive conceptions of how freedom of choice and causal determinism may be reconciled. These two conceptions of freedom of choice correspond to a distinction between what Kant calls 'psychological' and what he calls 'transcendental freedom'. The Critical Elucidation presents the argument of the Analytic of Pure Practical Reason as a kind of practical syllogism that highlights the distinctive contribution of pure practical reason and the complementary relation of the standpoints belonging to theoretical and pure practical reason. The pure practical concepts of morality involve principles of action that are independent of causal antecedents because they are based on the general principle of autonomy. Kant's fusion of incompatibilism and compatibilism needs to explain how one and the same action can be both caused by antecedent events and nevertheless be an action for which one can be held responsible.
  • 7 - The Antinomy of Practical Reason: reason, the unconditioned and the highest good
    pp 145-167
  • View abstract


    This chapter briefly presents the basic structure of the Antinomy of Pure Reason, paying special attention to the role that reason plays in generating this antinomy. In the Antinomy of Pure Reason of the Critique of Pure Reason, Kant claims that if one accepts what he calls Transcendental Realism, the view that appearances and things in themselves are identical, then reason can come into conflict with itself, because it can prove contradictory propositions with respect to certain features of the world. The chapter reconstructs the Antinomy of Practical Reason with the help of several basic structural similarities that it bears to the theoretical antinomy. It addresses several basic questions that arise with respect to the Antinomy of Practical Reason's central concept of the highest good, and uses insights gained from the comparison of the theoretical and practical antinomies to develop detailed answers.
  • 8 - The primacy of practical reason and the idea of a practical postulate
    pp 168-196
  • View abstract


    This chapter deals with the content of Immanuel Kant's three postulates, namely, existence of God, own transcendental freedom and immortality, and explains his arguments in their favour. It begins by commenting on Kant's argument, 'On the Primacy of Practical Reason', with a special emphasis on the logical structure of that argument. Kant argument is difficult to follow, and even more difficult to assess, among other things because it is framed in terms of the respective 'interests' of two cognitive faculties. That a practically necessary belief can be rational without evidence is taken to be equivalent to the claim that pure practical reason has primacy over pure speculative reason. The chapter looks at the idea of a postulate of pure practical reason and at the epistemological status Kant assigns to it. It concludes that the main idea behind Kant's argument does not depend on Kant's own, demanding conception of morality.
  • 9 - The meaning of the Critique of Practical Reason for moral beings: the Doctrine of Method of Pure Practical Reason
    pp 197-215
  • View abstract


    The Doctrine of Method of Pure Practical Reason shows how carefully Immanuel Kant avoids being constrained by the pattern of the first Critique of Practical Reason. It has the important function of connecting the philosophical inquiry to its outcome in the life of moral subjects. Kant had given no special emphasis to this transition before the Critique. Kant announces that, in order to give proof of 'receptivity' to morality, he make use of 'observations anyone can make'. This experimental approach starts from an even lower level than one might expect, because it refers to 'conversation in mixed companies'. The function of the Doctrine of the Method, then, proves to belong to the very core of the project of the Critique, and provides an important key to the correct understanding of the work.
Abel, Jacob Friedrich. Versuch über die Natur der speculativen Vernunft zur Prüfung des Kantischen Systems (Frankfurt and Leipzig, 1787; reprinted Brussels: Culture et civilisation, 1968).
Albrecht, Michael. Kants Antinomie der praktischen Vernunft (Hildesheim: G. Olms Verlag, 1978).
Allison, Henry E.Idealism and Freedom: Essays on Kant's Theoretical and Practical Philosophy (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996).
Allison, Henry E. ‘Kant on Freedom: A Reply to My Critics’, in Idealism and Freedom, 109–28.
Allison, Henry E.Kant's Theory of Freedom (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990).
Allison, Henry E.Kant's Transcendental Idealism (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1983).
Ameriks, Karl. Interpreting Kant's Critiques (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2003).
Ameriks, Karl. ‘Pure Reason of Itself Alone Suffices to Determine the Will’, in Höffe, (ed.), Immanuel Kant: Kritik der praktischen Vernunft, 99–114.
Ameriks, Karl. ‘The Critique of Metaphysics: The Structure and Fate of Kant's Dialectic’, in Guyer, Paul (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Kant and Modern Philosophy (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006), 269–302.
Bacin, Stefano. Il senso dell'etica. Kant e la costruzione di una teoria morale (Bologna: Il Mulino, 2006).
Bacin, Stefano. ‘Sulla genesi della “Metafisica dei costumi” di Kant’, Studi settecenteschi 25 (2005/6), 253–79.
Baron, Marcia. Kantian Ethics Almost without Apology (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1995).
Beck, Lewis White. A Commentary on Kant's Critique of Practical Reason (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1960, 1966). German translation: Kants ‘Kritik der praktischen Vernunft’. Ein Kommentar (Munich: W. Fink, 1974).
Beck, Lewis White. ‘A Prussian Hume and a Scottish Kant’, in Essays on Kant and Hume (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1978), 111–29.
Brandt, Reinhard. ‘Der Zirkel im dritten Abschnitt von Kants Grundlegung zur Metaphysik der Sitten’, in Oberer, H. and Seel, G. (eds.), Kant. Analysen – Probleme – Kritik (Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann, 1988), 169–91.
Brandt, Reinhard. Die Bestimmung des Menschen bei Kant (Hamburg: Felix Meiner Verlag, 2007).
Buck, Günther. ‘Beispiel, Exempel, exemplarisch’, in Ritter, J. and Gründer, K. (eds.), Historisches Wörterbuch der Philosophie, vol. I (Basel: Schwabe, 1971), 818–23.
Chignell, Andrew. ‘Belief in Kant’, Philosophical Review 116 (2007), 323–60.
Cohen-Halimi, Michèle. ‘“Sic volo sic jubeo”, méthodiquement. Une lecture de la méthodologie de la raison pure pratique’, in Cohen-Halimi, M. (ed.), Kant. La rationalité pratique (Paris: PUF, 2003), 93–118.
Düsing, Klaus. ‘Das Problem des höchsten Gutes in Kants praktischer Philosophie’, Kant-Studien 62 (1971), 5–42.
Engstrom, Stephen. ‘Introduction’, in Kant, , Critique of Practical Reason, trans. Pluhar, Werner (Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, 2002), xv–liv.
Engstrom, Stephen. ‘The Concept of the Highest Good in Kant's Moral Theory’, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 52 (1992), 747–80.
Engstrom, Stephen. The Form of Practical Knowledge (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009).
Ferrarin, Alfredo. Saggezza, immaginazione, giudizio pratico. Studio su Aristotele e Kant (Pisa: ETS, 2004).
Förster, Eckart. ‘Die Dialektik der reinen praktischen Vernunft (107–121)’, in Höffe, (ed.), Immanuel Kant: Kritik der praktischen Vernunft, 173–86.
Förster, Eckart. ‘Kant und Strawson über ästhetische Urteile’, in Stolzenberg, J. (ed.), Kant in der Gegenwart (Berlin and New York: de Gruyter, 2007), 269–89.
Förster, Eckart. Kant's Final Synthesis. An Essay on the Opus postumum (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000).
Förster, Eckart (ed.). Kant's Transcendental Deductions (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1989).
Franks, Paul W.All or Nothing. Systematicity, Transcendental Arguments, and Skepticism in German Idealism (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2005).
Gardner, Sebastian. ‘The Primacy of Practical Reason’, in Bird, Graham (ed.), A Companion to Kant (Oxford: Blackwell, 2006), 259–73.
Gesang, Bernward (ed.). Kants vergessener Rezensent. Die Kritik der theoretischen und praktischen Philosophie Kants in fünf Rezensionen von Hermann Andreas Pistorius (Hamburg: Felix Meiner Verlag, 2007).
Giordanetti, Piero. ‘Kants Entdeckung der Apriorität des Geschmacksurteils. Zur Genese der Kritik der Urteilskraft’, in Klemme, H. al. (eds.), Aufklärung und Interpretation (Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann, 1999), 171–96.
Greenberg, Sean. ‘From Canon to Dialectic to Antinomy: Giving Inclinations Their Due’, Inquiry 48 (2005), 232–48.
Grimm, Jacob and Wilhelm, Grimm. Deutsches Wörterbuch, 16 vols. (Leipzig: Hirzel, 1854–1960).
Guyer, Paul. ‘From a Practical Point of View: Kant's Conception of a Postulate of Pure Practical Reason’, in Kant on Freedom, Law, and Happiness (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), 333–71.
Guyer, Paul. ‘Naturalistic and Transcendental Moments in Kant's Moral Philosophy’, Inquiry 50 (2007), 444–64.
Hamann, Johann Georg. Briefwechsel, vol. VI, ed. Henkel, A. (Frankfurt am Main: Insel-Verlag, 1975).
Hatfield, Gary. ‘Empirical, Rational, and Transcendental Psychology: Psychology as Science and as Philosophy’, in Guyer, P. (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Kant (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992), 200–27.
Heidemann, Ingeborg. ‘Die Funktion des Beispieles in der kritischen Philosophie’, in Kaulbach, Friedrich and Ritter, Joachim (eds.), Kritik und Metaphysik. Studien. Heinz Heimsoeth zum 80. Geburtstag (Berlin: de Gruyter, 1966), 21–39.
Henrich, Dieter. ‘Der Begriff der sittlichen Einsicht und Kants Lehre vom Faktum der Vernunft’, in Henrich, Dieter (ed.), Die Gegenwart der Griechen im neueren Denken: Festschrift für Hans-Georg Gadamer zum 60. Geburtstag (Tübingen: JCB Mohr, 1960), 77–115. Translated as ‘The Concept of Moral Insight and Kant's Doctrine of the Fact of Reason’, trans. Kuehn, Manfred, in Henrich, The Unity of Reason, 55–88.
Henrich, Dieter. ‘Ethik der Autonomie’, in D. Henrich, Selbstverhältnisse. Gedanken und Auslegungen zu den Grundlagen der klassischen deutschen Philosophie (Stuttgart: Reclam, 1982), 6–56. Translated as ‘Ethics of Autonomy’, trans. Hunt, Louis, in Henrich, The Unity of Reason, 88–122.
Henrich, Dieter. ‘Kant's Notion of a Deduction and the Methodological Background of the First Critique’, in Förster, (ed.), Kant's Transcendental Deductions, 29–46.
Henrich, Dieter. The Unity of Reason: Essays on Kant's Philosophy, ed. Velkley, Richard (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1994).
Herman, Barbara. ‘Justification and Objectivity: Comments on Rawls and Allison’, in Förster, (ed.), Kant's Transcendental Deductions, 131–41.
Herman, Barbara. Moral Literacy (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007).
Herman, Barbara. The Practice of Moral Judgment (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993).
Hill, Thomas E.. Dignity and Practical Reason (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1991).
Hill, Thomas E.. ‘Personal Values and Setting Oneself Ends’, in Human Welfare and Moral Worth (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2002), 244–74.
Hobbes, Thomas. Leviathan, ed. Tuck, Richard (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997).
Höffe, Otfried (ed.). Immanuel Kant: Kritik der praktischen Vernunft (Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 2002).
Horn, Christoph and Schönecker, Dieter (eds.). Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals (Berlin and New York: de Gruyter, 2006).
Hudson, Hud. Kant's Compatibilism (Ithaca: Cornell University, 1994).
Hume, David. A Treatise of Human Nature, 2nd edn (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1978).
Hume, David. An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1975).
Hutcheson, Francis. ‘Illustrations on the Moral Sense’, in An Essay on the Nature and Conduct of the Passions and Affections, with Illustrations on the Moral Sense, ed. Garrett, Aaron (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2002), 97–144.
James, William. ‘The Will to Believe’, in The Will to Believe and Other Essays in Popular Philosophy (New York: Longman, Green, & Co., 1897), 1–31.
Keller, Pierre. Kant and the Demands of Self-Consciousness (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997).
Kersting, Wolfgang. ‘Kann die “Kritik der praktischen Vernunft” populär sein? Über Kants Moralphilosophie und pragmatische Anthropologie’, Studia Leibnitiana 25 (1983), 82–93.
Kleingeld, Pauline. ‘Kant on the Unity of Theoretical and Practical Reason’, Review of Metaphysics 52 (1998), 311–39.
Kleingeld, Pauline. ‘What Do the Virtuous Hope For?: Re-reading Kant's Doctrine of the Highest Good’, in Robinson, Hoke (ed.), Proceedings of the Eighth International Kant Congress, vol. I.i (Milwaukee: Marquette University Press, 1995), 91–112.
Klemme, Heiner F. ‘Beobachtungen zur Kantischen Vermittlung von Theorie und Praxis in der praktischen Philosophie’, in Robinson, Hoke (ed.), Proceedings of the Eighth International Kant Congress, vol. II (Milwaukee: Marquette University Press, 1995), 521–31.
Klemme, Heiner F.‘Einleitung’ and ‘Sachanmerkungen’, in Immanuel, Kant, Kritik der praktischen Vernunft, ed. Brandt, H. D. and Klemme, H. F. (Hamburg: Felix Meiner Verlag, 2003), ix–lxiii and 219–42.
Klemme, Heiner F. ‘Einleitung’, in Immanuel Kant, Kritik der Urteilskraft. Beilage: Erste Einleitung in die Kritik der Urteilskraft, ed. Klemme, H. F. (Hamburg: Felix Meiner Verlag, 2001; 2nd edn 2006), xxvii–ci.
Klemme, Heiner F. ‘Praktische Gründe und moralische Motivation. Eine deontologische Perspektive’, in Klemme, H. F, Kühn, M. and Schönecker, D. (eds.), Moralische Motivation. Kant und die Alternativen (Hamburg: Felix Meiner Verlag, 2006), 113–53.
Koch, Lutz. Kants ethische Didaktik (Würzburg: Ergon, 2003).
Kopper, Joachim. ‘Die Bedeutung der Methodenlehren’, in Fischer, N. (ed.), Kants Metaphysik und Religionsphilosophie (Hamburg: Felix Meiner Verlag, 2004), 391–407.
Korsgaard, Christine. Creating the Kingdom of Ends (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996).
Korsgaard, Christine. The Sources of Normativity (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996).
Mettrie, Julien Offray. Machine Man and Other Writings (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996).
Rocca, Claudio. ‘Methodenlehre, transzendentale’, in Mohr, G., Stolzenberg, J. and Willaschek, M. (eds.), Kant-Lexikon (Berlin and New York: de Gruyter, forthcoming).
Landau, Albert (ed.). Rezensionen zur Kantischen Philosophie, vol I. (Bebra: Landau, 1990).
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm. Theodicy: Essays on the Goodness of God, the Freedom of Man and the Origin of Evil (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1951).
Louden, Robert B.Go-Carts of Judgment: Exemplars in Kantian Moral Education’, Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 74 (1992), 303–22.
Louden, Robert B.Kant's Impure Ethics. From Rational Beings to Human Beings (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000).
Łuków, Paweł. ‘The Fact of Reason: Kant's Passage to Ordinary Moral Knowledge’, Kant-Studien 84 (1993), 203–21.
Meerbote, Ralf. ‘Kant on the Nondeterminate Character of Human Actions’, in Harper, W. L. and Meerbote, R. (eds.), Kant on Causality, Freedom, and Objectivity (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1984), 138–63.
Meerbote, Ralf. ‘Which Freedom?’, in Cicovacki, P. (ed.), Kant's Legacy (Rochester: University of Rochester Press, 2001), 197–225.
Milz, BernhardDer gesuchte Widerstreit. Die Antinomie in Kants ‘Kritik der praktischen Vernunft’ (Berlin and New York: de Gruyter, 2002).
Munzel, G. Felicitas ‘“Doctrine of Method” and “Closing”’, in Höffe, (ed.), Immanuel Kant: Kritik der praktischen Vernunft, 203–17.
Munzel, G. FelicitasKant's Conception of Moral Character. The ‘Critical’ Link of Morality, Anthropology, and Reflective Judgment (Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1999).
O'Neill, Onora. ‘Autonomy and the Fact of Reason in the Kritik der praktischen Vernunft (§§ 7–8, 30–41)’, in Höffe, (ed.), Immanuel Kant: Kritik der praktischen Vernunft, 81–97.
O'Neill, Onora. Constructions of Reason. Explorations of Kant's Practical Philosophy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989).
O'Neill, Onora. ‘Instituting Principles: Between Duty and Action’, in Timmons, M. (ed.), Kant's ‘Metaphysics of Morals’. Interpretative Essays (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2002), 331–47.
Piché, Claude. ‘La métholodogie éthique de Kant’, in Goyard-Fabre, S. and Ferrari, J. (eds.), L'année 1797. La métaphysique des moeurs (Paris: Vrin, 2000), 109–22.
Priestley, Joseph and Richard, Price. Free Discussion of the Doctrines of Materialism and Philosophical Necessity (London: Johnson and Cadell, 1778).
Proops, Ian. ‘Kant's Legal Metaphor and the Nature of a Deduction’, Journal of the History of Philosophy 41 (2003): 209–29.
Quarfood, Marcel. ‘The Circle and the Two Standpoints (GMS III, 3)’, in Horn, and Schönecker, (eds.), Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals, 285–300.
Rawls, John. Lectures on the History of Moral Philosophy, ed. Herman, Barbara (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000).
Rawls, John. ‘Themes in Kant's Moral Philosophy’, in Förster, (ed.), Kant's Transcendental Deductions, 81–113.
Reath, Andrews. Agency and Autonomy in Kant's Moral Theory (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2006).
Reath, Andrews. ‘Autonomy, Practical Law, and Taking One's Choices to Be Good: Replies to Critics’, Philosophical Books 49:2 (April 2008), 125–37.
Reath, Andrews. ‘Introduction’, in Kant, Critique of Practical Reason, trans. and ed. Gregor, Mary J. (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997), vii–xxxi.
Reath, Andrews. ‘Kant's Critical Account of Freedom’, in Bird, Graham (ed.), A Companion to Kant (Oxford: Blackwell, 2006), 275–90.
Reath, Andrews. ‘Two Conceptions of the Highest Good in Kant’, Journal of the History of Philosophy 26 (1988), 593–619.
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. ‘Discourse on the Origin and Foundations of Inequality among Men’, in The Discourses and Other Early Political Writings, ed. and trans. Gourevitch, Victor (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997).
Sala, Giovanni B.Kants ‘Kritik der praktischen Vernunft’. Ein Kommentar (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 2004).
Schönecker, Dieter. Kant: Grundlegung III. Die Deduktion des kategorischen Imperativs (Freiburg and Munich: Alber, 1999).
Schulz, Eberhard. Rehbergs Opposition gegen Kants Ethik (Berlin: de Gruyter, 1975).
Schulz, Johann Heinrich. Versuch einer Anleitung zur Sittenlehre für alle Menschen, ohne Unterschiede der Religionen (Berlin, 1783).
Silber, John. ‘Kant's Conception of the Highest Good as Immanent and Transcendent’, Philosophical Review 68 (1959), 469–92.
Stark, Werner, Nachforschungen zu Briefen und Handschriften Immanuel Kants (Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 1993).
Sussman, David. ‘From Deduction to Deed: Kant's Grounding of the Moral Law’, Kantian Review 13 (2008), 52–81.
Timmermann, Jens. ‘Das Creditiv des moralischen Gesetzes’, Studi Kantiani 20 (2007), 111–15.
Timmermann, Jens. Kant's ‘Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals’. A Commentary (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007).
Tittel, Gottlob August. Ueber Herrn Kant's Moralreform (Frankfurt and Leipzig: Pfähler, 1786; reprinted Brussels: Culture et civilisation, 1969).
Watkins, Eric. Kant and the Metaphysics of Causality (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005).
Watkins, Eric. ‘Kant's Antinomies: Sections 3–8’, in Mohr, G. and Willaschek, M. (eds.), Immanuel Kant: Kritik der reinen Vernunft (Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 1998), 445–62.
Wike, Victoria. Kant's Antinomies of Reason: Their Origin and Resolution (Washington, D.C.: University Press of America, 1982).
Willaschek, Marcus. ‘Die Tat der Vernunft: Zur Bedeutung der Kantischen These vom “Factum der Vernunft”’, in Funke, Gerhard (ed.), Akten des Siebenten Internationalen Kant-Kongresses (Bonn: Bouvier, 1991), 455–66.
Willaschek, Marcus. Praktische Vernunft. Handlungstheorie und Moralbegründung bei Kant (Stuttgart: Verlag J. B. Metzler, 1992).
Williams, Bernard. ‘Internal and External Reasons’, in Moral Luck (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1981), 101–13.
Wizenmann, Thomas. ‘An den Herrn Professor Kant von dem Verfasser der Resultate der Jacobischen und Mendelssohnschen Philosophie’, Deutsches Museum [Leipzig] 1 (1787), 116–56.
Wood, Allen W.Kantian Ethics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008).
Wood, Allen W. ‘Kant's Compatibilism’, in Wood, A. (ed.), Self and Nature in Kant's Philosophy (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1984), 73–101.
Wood, Allen W.Kant's Ethical Thought (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999).
Wood, Allen W.Kant's Moral Religion (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1970).
Wood, Allen W. ‘Preface and Introduction (3–16)’, in Höffe, (ed.), Immanuel Kant: Kritik der praktischen Vernunft, 25–41.
Zedler, Johann Heinrich. Grosses vollständiges Universallexikon (Leipzig: Johann H. Zedler, 1732–54).


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between #date#. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.