Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Cited by 1
  • Print publication year: 2010
  • Online publication date: September 2013

13 - Special considerations in pediatric surgical monitoring

Related content

Powered by UNSILO


Banoub, M., Tetzlaff, J. E., and Schubert, A. (2003). Pharmacologic and physiologic influences affecting sensory evoked potentials – Implications for perioperative monitoring. Anesthesiology, 99, 716–737.
da Costa, V. V., Saraiva, R. A., de Almeida, A. C., et al. (2001). The effect of nitrous oxide on the inhibition of somatosensory evoked potentials by sevoflurane in children. Anaesthesia, 56, 202–207.
Deletis, V. and Sala, F. (2008). Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring of the spinal cord during spinal cord and spine surgery: A review focusing on the corticospinal tracts. Clinical Neurophysiology, 119, 248–264.
Eggermont, J. J. (1985). Evoked-potentials as indicators of auditory maturation. Acta Oto-Laryngologica, 421, 41–47.
Eggermont, J. J. (1992). Development of auditory evoked-potentials. Acta Oto-Laryngologica, 112, 197–200.
Eggermont, J. J. (1995). Evoked-potentials as indicators of auditory development. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 32, S183–S186.
Fasano, V. A., Barolat-Romana, G., Zeme, S., and Squazzi, A. (1979). Electrophysiological assessment of spinal circuits in spasticity by direct dorsal root stimulation. Neurosurgery, 4, 146–151.
Foerster, O. (1913). On the indications and results of the excision of posterior spinal nerve roots in men. Surgery, Gynecology and Obstetrics, 16, 463–475.
Frei, F. J., Ryhult, S. E., Duitmann, E., et al. (2007). Intraoperative monitoring of motor evoked potentials in children undergoing spinal surgery. Spine, 32, 911–917.
Ginsburg, H. H., Shetter, A. G., and Raudzens, P. A. (1985). Postoperative paraplegia with preserved intraoperative somatosensory evoked-potentials. Journal of Neurosurgery, 63, 296–300.
Grabb, P. A., Albright, A. L., Sclabassi, R. J., and Pollack, I. F. (1997). Continuous intraoperative electromyographic monitoring of cranial nerves during resection of fourth ventricular tumors in children. Journal of Neurosurgery, 86, 1–4.
Harper, C. M. and Nelson, K. R. (1992). Intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring in children. Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, 9, 342–356.
Helmers, S. L. and Hall, J. E. (1994). Intraoperative somatosensory-evoked potential monitoring in pediatrics. Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics, 14, 592–598.
Hilibrand, A. S., Schwartz, D. M., Sethuraman, V., Vaccaro, A. R., and Albert, T. J. (2004). Comparison of transcranial electric motor and somatosensory evoked potential monitoring during cervical spine surgery. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery – American Volume, 86A, 1248–1253.
HsuW, Pradilla., G., Constantini, S., and Jallo, G. I. (2009). Surgical considerations of spinal ependymomas in the pediatric population. Child’s Nervous System, 25, 1253–1259.
Jones, S. J., Buonamassa, S., and Crockard, H. A. (2003). Two cases of quadriparesis following anterior cervical discectomy, with normal perioperative somatosensory evoked potentials. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 74, 273–276.
Khealani, B. and Husain, A. M. (2009). Neurophysiologic intraoperative monitoring during surgery for tethered cord syndrome. Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, 26, 76–81.
Koh, T. H. and Eyre, J. A. (1988). Maturation of corticospinal tracts assessed by electromagnetic stimulation of the motor cortex. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 63, 1347–1352.
Kothbauer, K., Deletis, V., and Epstein, F. J. (1997). Intraoperative spinal cord monitoring for intramedullary surgery: an essential adjunct. Pediatric Neurosurgery, 26, 247–254.
Lesser, R. P., Raudzens, P., Luders, H., et al. (1986). Postoperative neurological deficits may occur despite unchanged intraoperative somatosensory evoked-potentials. Annals of Neurology, 19, 22–25.
Levy, S. (1997). Brain stem auditory evoked potentials in pediatrics. In Evoked Potentials in Clinical Medicine, ed. K. Chiappa. Philadelphia: Lippincot-Raven. pp. 269–282.
Lieberman, J. A., Lyon, R., Feiner, J., Diab, M., and Gregory, G. A. (2006). The effect of age on motor-evoked potentials in children under propofol/isoflurane anesthesia. Anesthesia and Analgesia, 103, 316–321.
Lopez, J. R. (2004). The use of evoked potentials in intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America, 15, 63–84.
Minahan, R. E., Sepkuty, J. P., Lesser, R. P., Sponseller, P. D., and Kostuik, J. P. (2001). Anterior spinal cord injury with preserved neurogenic ‘motor’ evoked potentials. Clinical Neurophysiology, 112, 1442–1450.
Morota, N., Deletis, V., Constantini, S., et al. (1997). The role of motor-evoked potentials during surgery for intramedullary spinal cord tumors. Neurosurgery, 41, 1327–1336.
Nagle, K. J., Emerson, R. G., Adams, D. C., et al. (1996). Intraoperative monitoring of motor-evoked potentials: a review of 116 cases. Neurology, 47, 999–1004.
Nuwer, M. R., Dawson, E. G., Carlson, L. G., Kanim, L. E. A., and Sherman, J. E. (1995). Somatosensory-evoked potential spinal-cord monitoring reduces neurologic deficits after scoliosis surgery – results of a large multicenter survey. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 96, 6–11.
Padberg, A. M., Wilson-Holden, T. J., Lenke, L. G., and Bridwell, K. H. (1998). Somatosensory and motor evoked potential monitoring without a wake-up test during idiopathic scoliosis surgery – an accepted standard of care. Spine, 23, 1392–1400.
Pelosi, L., Lamb, J., Grevitt, M., et al. (2002). Combined monitoring of motor and somatosensory evoked potentials in orthopaedic spinal surgery. Clinical Neurophysiology, 113, 1082–1091.
Picton, T., Taylor, M. J., and Pelosi, L. (1992). Brainstem auditory evoked potentials in pediatrics. In Electrodiagnosis in Clinical Neurology, ed. M. Aminoff. London: Churchill Livingstone, pp. 537–569.
Raynor, B. L., Lenke, L. G., Bridwell, K. H., Taylor, B. A., and Padberg, A. M. (2007). Correlation between low triggered electromyographic thresholds and lumbar pedicle screw malposition. Spine, 32, 2673–2678.
Rotteveel, J. J., Colon, E. J., Stegeman, D. F., and Visco, Y. M. (1987a). The maturation of the central auditory conduction in preterm infants until 3 months post term. 1. Composite group averages of brainstem (ABR) and middle latency (MLR) auditory evoked-responses. Hearing Research, 26, 11–20.
Rotteveel, J. J., DeGraaf, R., Colon, E. J., Stegeman, D. F., and Visco, Y. M. (1987b). The maturation of the central auditory conduction in preterm infants until 3 months post term. 2. The auditory brainstem responses (ABRS). Hearing Research, 26, 21–35.
Sala, F., Krzan, M. J., and Deletis, V. (2002). Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring in pediatric neurosurgery: why, when, how?Child’s Nervous System, 18, 264–287.
Schwartz, D. M., Auerbach, J. D., Dormans, J. P., et al. (2007). Neurophysiological detection of impending spinal cord injury during scoliosis surgery. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery – American Volume, 89A, 2440–2449.
Signorelli, F., Guyotat, J., Mottolese, C., et al. (2004). Intraoperative electrical stimulation mapping as an aid for surgery of intracranial lesions involving motor areas in children. Child’s Nervous System, 20, 420–426.
Soriano, S. G. and Bozza, P. (2006). Anesthesia for epilepsy surgery in children. Child’s Nervous System, 22, 834–843.
Soundararajan, N. and Cunliffe, M. (2007). Anaesthesia for spinal surgery in children. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 99, 86–94.
Staley, K., Iragui, V., and Spitz, M. (1990). The human-fetal auditory evoked-potential. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 77, 1–5.
Sutter, M., Deletis, V., Dvorak, J., et al. (2007a). Current opinions and recommendations on multimodal intraoperative monitoring during spine surgeries. European Spine Journal, 16, S232–S237.
Sutter, M., Eggspuehler, A., Grob, D., et al. (2007b). The diagnostic value of multimodal intraoperative monitoring (MIOM) during spine surgery: a prospective study of 1017 patients. European Spine Journal, 16, S162–S170.
Sutter, M., Eggspuehler, A., Grob, D., et al. (2007c). The validity of multimodal intraoperative monitoring (MIOM) in surgery of 109 spine and spinal cord tumors. European Spine Journal, 16, S197–S208.
Vauzelle, C., Stagnara, P., and Jouvinro, P. (1973). Functional monitoring of spinal-cord activity during spinal surgery. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 173–178.
Weinzierl, M. R., Reinacher, P., Gilsbach, J. M., and RohdeV. (2007). Combined motor and somatosensory evoked potentials for intraoperative monitoring: intra- and postoperative data in a series of 69 operations. Neurosurgical Reviews, 30, 109–116.
Westeren-Punnonen, S., Ypparila-Wolters, H., Partanen, J., et al. (2008). Somatosensory evoked potentials by median nerve stimulation in children during thiopental/sevoflurane anesthesia and the additive effects of ketoprofen and fentanyl. Anesthesia and Analgesia, 107, 799–805.
Zimmerman, M. C., Morgan, D. E., and Dubno, J. R. (1987). Auditory brainstem evoked-response characteristics in developing infants. Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology, 96, 291–299.
Zornow, M. H., Grafe, M. R., Tybor, C., and Swenson, M. R. (1990). Preservation of evoked-potentials in a case of anterior spinal artery syndrome. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 77, 137–139.