Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2020
  • Online publication date: January 2021

7 - Combined Oceanic Influences on Continental Climates


This chapter reviews evidence for impacts of ocean anomalies on continental climates, with an emphasis on combined effects from different ocean basins. Particular attention is given to the continental monsoons, which are the most important climatic mode in the tropics. The climatology and interannual-to-interdecadal variations of monsoons have various influences from adjacent and remote ocean conditions. The following sections, 7.2–7.6, deal with the oceanic influences on the West African, South Asian, East Asian, South American, and North American monsoons, respectively. Section 7.7 highlights key points in the chapter.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
Adler, R. F., Huffman, G. J., Chang, A., et al. (2003). The version-2 global precipitation climatology project (GPCP) monthly precipitation analysis (1979–present). Journal of Hydrometeorology, 4, 11471167.
AmadorJ. (2008). The Intra-Americas sea low level jet: Overview and future research. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1146, 153188.
Ambrizzi, T., Ferraz, S. E. T. (2015). An objective criterion for determining the South Atlantic Convergence Zone. Frontiers in Environmental Science, 3, doi:10.3389/fenvs.2015.00023.
Ambrizzi, T., Souza, E. B., Pulwarty, R. S. (2004). The Hadley and Walker regional circulation and associated ENSO impacts on South American seasonal rainfall. In Diaz, H. F., Bradley, R. S. (eds.), The Hadley Circulation: Present, Past and Future. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 203235.
Andreoli, R. V., Kayano, M. T. (2005). ENSO-related rainfall anomalies in South America and associated circulation features during warm and cold Pacific decadal oscillation regimes. International Journal of Climatology, 25, 20172030.
Bader, J., Latif, M. (2003). The impact of decadal‐scale Indian Ocean sea surface temperature anomalies on Sahelian rainfall and the North Atlantic Oscillation. Geophysical Research Letters, 30, 2169, doi:10.1029/2003GL018426.
Bader, J., Latif, M. (2011). The 1983 drought in the West Sahel: A case study. Climate Dynamics, 36, 463472.
Barros, V., Gonzales, M., Liebmann, B., Cavalcanti, I. F. A. (2000). Influence of the South Atlantic convergence zone and South Atlantic sea surface temperature in interannual summer rainfall variability in Southeastern South America. Theoretical and Appllied Climatology, 67, 123133.
Biasutti, M. (2013). Forced Sahel rainfall trends in the CMIP5 archive. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 118, 16131623.
Biasuti, M., Giannini, A. (2006). Robust Sahel drying in response to late 20th century forcings. Geophysical Research Letters, 33, L11706, doi:10.1029/2006GL026067.
Blanford, H. F. (1884). On the connection of Himalayan snowfall with dry winds and seasons of droughts in India. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, 37, 322.
Caminade, C., Terray, L. (2010). Twentieth century Sahel rainfall variability as simulated by the ARPEGE AGCM, and future changes. Climate Dynamics, 35, 7594.
Carvalho, L. M. V., Cavalcanti, I. F. A. (2016). The South American Monsoon System (SAMS) — Chapter 6. Vol. 1, The Monsoons and Climate Change: Observations and Modeling, Dordrecht: Springer, 121148.
Carvalho, L. M. V., Jones, C. (eds.) (2016). The Monsoons and Climate Change: Observations and Modeling, Dordrecht: Springer.
Carvalho, L. M. V., Jones, C., Liebmann, B. (2004). The South Atlantic Convergence Zone: Intensity, form, persistence, and relationships with intraseasonal to interannual activity and extreme rainfall. Journal of Climate, 17, 88108.
Cavalcanti, I. A. F. (2015). The influence of extratropical Atlantic Ocean region on wet and dry years in North-Northeastern Brazil. Frontiers in Environmental Science, 3, 110.
Cazes-Boezio, G, Talento, S. (2016). La Niña events before and after 1979 and their impact in southeastern South America during austral summer: Role of the Indian Ocean. Climate Research, 68, 257276.
Chan, S., Behera, S. K. Yamagata, T. (2008). Indian Ocean Dipole influence on South American rainfall. Geophysical Research Letters, 35, L14S12, doi:10.1029/2008GL034204.
Charney, J. G. (1969). The intertropical convergence zone and the Hadley circulation of the Atmosphere. Proc. WMO/IUGG Intern. Symp. on Numer. Weather Predict. Japan. Meteorological Agency, III, 7379.
Chen, A. A., Taylor, M. (2002). Investigating the link between early season Caribbean rainfall and the El Niño + 1 year, International Journal of Climatology, 22, 87106.
Chen, H., Ding, Y. H., He, J. H. (2007). The structure and variation of tropical easterly jet and its relationship with the monsoon rainfall in Asia and Africa. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 31, 926936 (in Chinese).
Cunningham, C., Cavalcanti, I. (2006). Intraseasonal modes of variability affecting the South Atlantic convergence zone. International Journal of Climatology, 26, 11651180.
Dai, A. (2013). The influence of the inter-decadal Pacific oscillation on US precipitation during 1923–2010, Climate Dynamics, 41, 633646.
Delavelle, F. (2013). Climate induced migration and displacement in Mesoamerica – Discussion paper. Nansen Initiative, Geneva. Available from
Dettinger, M. D., Battisti, D. S., Garreaud, R. D., McCabe, G. J., Bitz, C. M. (2001). Inter-hemispheric effects of interannual and decadal ENSO-like climate variations on the Americas. In Markgraf, V. (ed.), Interhemispheric Climate Linkages: Present and Past Climates in the Americas and their Societal Effects. Cambridge, MA: Academic Press, 116.
Diakhaté, M., Rodríguez-Fonseca, B., Gómara, I., et al. (2019). Oceanic forcing on interannual variability of Sahel heavy and moderate daily rainfall. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 20, 397410.
Diaz, A. F., Studzinski, C. D., Mechoso, C. R. (1997). Relationships between precipitation anomalies in Uruguay and southern Brazil and sea surface temperature in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. Journal of Climate, 11, 251271.
Ding, Y. H. (1992). Summer monsoon rainfalls in China. Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan, 20, 373396.
Ding, Y. H. (1994). Monsoons over China. Atmospheric Science Library, Holland: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 419.
Ding, Y. H. (2007). The variability of the Asian summer variability. Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan, 85B, 2154.
Ding, Y. H., Wang, Z. Y. Sun, Y. (2008). Inter-decadal variation of the summer precipitation in East China and its association with decreasing Asian summer monsoon. Part I: Observed evidences. International Journal of Climatology, 28, 11391161.
Ding, Y. H., Sun, Y., Wang, Z. Y., Zhu, Y. X. Song, Y. F. (2009). Inter-decadal variation of the summer precipitation in East China and its association with decreasing Asian summer monsoon. Part II: Possible causes. International Journal of Climatology, 29, 19261944.
Ding, Y. H., Si, D., Liu, Y., Wang, Z., Li, Y., Zhao, L., Song, Y. (2018a). On the characteristic, driving forces and inter-decadal variability of the East Asian summer monsoon. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences (In Chinese with English Abstract). 42, 533558.
Ding, Y. H., Liu, Y. J., Li, Y. (2018b). The driving forces of the interdecadal variability of the Asian summer monsoon. International Workshop on Tropical Convection, Tropical Cyclone and Associated Multi-scale Interaction, 27–29 June, 2018, Nanjing, China.
Dominguez, C., Magaña, V. (2018). The role of tropical cyclones in precipitation cover the tropical and subtropical North America. Frontiers in Earth Science, 6, doi:10.3389/feart.2018.00019.
Dong, B., Sutton, R. (2015). Dominant role of greenhouse-gas forcing in the recovery of Sahel rainfall. Nature Climate Change, 5, 757760.
Drumond, A. R. M., Ambrizzi, T. (2008). The role of SST on the South America atmospheric circulation during January, February and March 2001, Climate Dynamics, 24, 781791.
Ebisuzaki, W. (1997). A method to estimate the statistical significance of a correlation when the data are serially correlated. Journal of Climate, 10, 21472153.
Folland, C. K., Palmer, T. N., Parker, D. E. (1986). Sahel rainfall and worldwide sea temperatures, 1901–85. Nature, 320, 602607.
Fontaine, B., Garcia-Serrano, J., Roucou, P., et al. (2010). Impacts of warm and cold situations in the Mediterranean basins on the West African monsoon: Observed connection patterns (1979–2006) and climate simulations. Climate Dynamics, 35, 95114.
Fontaine, B., Gaetani, M., Ullmann, A., Roucou, P. (2011). Time evolution of observed July–September Sea Surface Temperature‐Sahel climate teleconnection with removed quasi‐global effect (1900–2008). Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 116, D04105, doi:10.1029/2010JD014843.
Gadgil, S. (2003). The Indian monsoon and its variability. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 31, 429467.
Gadgil, S., Vinaychandran, P. N., Francis, P. A., Gadgil, S. (2004). Extremes of Indian summer monsoon rainfall, ENSO, equatorial Indian Ocean oscillation. Geophysical Research Letters, 31, L12213, doi:10.1029/2004GL019733.
Gadgil, S., Rajeevan, M., Francis, P. A. (2007). Monsoon variability: Links to major oscillations over the equatorial Pacific and Indian oceans. Current Science, 93, 182194.
Gaetani, M., Fontaine, B., Roucou, P., Baldi, M. (2010). Influence of the Mediterranean Sea on the West African monsoon: Intraseasonal variability in numerical simulations. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 115, D24115, doi:10.1029/2010JD014436.
Gaetani, M., Flamant, C., Bastin, S., et al. (2017). West African monsoon dynamics and precipitation: The competition between global SST warming and CO2 increase in CMIP5 idealized simulations. Climate Dynamics, 48, 13531373.
Giannini, A., Saravanan, R., Chang, P. (2003). Oceanic forcing of Sahel rainfall on interannual to interdecadal time scales. Science, 302, 10271030.
Giannini, A., Salack, S., Lodoun, T., et al. (2013). A unifying view of climate change in the Sahel linking intra-seasonal, interannual and longer time scales. Environmental Research Letters, 8, 024010, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/2/024010.
Goldenberg, S. B., Landsea, C. W., Mestas-Nuñez, A. M., Gray, W. M. (2001). The recent increase in Atlantic hurricane activity: Causes and implications. Science, 293, 474479.
Grimm, A. M., Ambrizzi, T. (2009). Teleconnections into South America from the tropics and extratropics on interannual and intraseasonal timescales. In Vimeux, F., Sylvestre, F., Khodri, M. (eds.), Past Climate Variability in South America and Surrounding Regions: From the Last Glacial Maximum to the Holocene, Developments in Paleoenvironmental Research, Netherlands: Springer, pp. 159191.
Grimm, A. M., Barros, V. R., Doyle, M. E. (2000). Climate variability in southern South America associated with El Niño and La Niña events. Journal of Climate, 13, 3558.
Haarsma, R. J., Selten, F. M., Weber, S. L., Kliphuis, M. (2005). Sahel rainfall variability and response to greenhouse warming. Geophysical Research Letters, 32, L17702, doi:10.1029/2005GL023232.
Hagos, S. M., Cook, K. H. (2008). Ocean warming and late-twentieth-century Sahel drought and recovery. Journal of Climate, 21, 37973814.
Halley, E. (1686). An historical account of the trade winds, and monsoons, observable in the seas between the tropics, with an attempt to assign the physical cause of the said winds. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 16, 153168.
Han, W., Vialard, J., McPhaden, M. J., et al. (2014). Indian Ocean decadal variability: A review. Bulletin of the Ameican Meteorological Society, 95, 16791703.
Harris, I. P. D. J., Jones, P. D., Osborn, T. J., Lister, D. H. (2014). Updated high‐resolution grids of monthly climatic observations: The CRU TS3. 10 Dataset. International Journal of Climatology, 34, 623642.
Hastenrath, S., Greischar, L. (1993). Circulation mechanisms related to northeast Brazil rainfall anomalies. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 98, 50935102.
Herrera, E., Magaña, V., Caetano, E. (2015). Air–sea interactions and dynamical processes associated with the midsummer drought. International Journal of Climatology, 35, 15691578.
Hoell, A., Barlow, M., Wheeler, M. C., Funk, C. (2014). Disruptions of El Niño-Southern Oscillation teleconnections by the Madden-Julian Oscillation. Geophysical Research Letters, 41, 9981004.
Huffman, G. J., Bolvin, D. T. (2009). GPCP one-degree daily precipitation data set documentation.
Huang, B., Banzon, V. F., Freeman, E., Lawrimore, J., Liu, W., Peterson, T. C., Smith, T. M., Thorne, P. W., Woodruff, S. D., Zhang, H.-M. (2015). Extended reconstructed sea surface temperature version 4 (ERSST. v4). Part I: Upgrades and intercomparisons. Journal of Climate, 28, 911930.
Ihara, C., Kushnir, Y., Cane, M. A., De La Peña, V. H. (2007). Indian summer monsoon rainfall and its link with ENSO and Indian Ocean climate indices. International Journal of Climatology, 27, 179187.
Inoue, M., Handoh, I. C., Bigg, G. R. (2002). Bimodal distribution of tropical cyclogenesis in the Caribbean: Characteristics and environmental factors. Journal of Climate, 15, 28972905.
Ishii, M., Shouji, A., Sugimoto, S., Matsumoto, T. (2005). Objective analyses of sea-surface temperatura and marine meteorological variables for the 20th century using ICODAS and the Kobe Collection. International Journal of Climatology, 25, 865879.
Janicot, S., Trzaska, S., Poccard, I. (2001). Summer Sahel-ENSO teleconnection and decadal time scale SST variations. Climate Dynamics, 18, 303320.
Janicot, S., Gaetani, M., Hourdin, F., et al. (2015). The recent partial recovery in Sahel rainfall: A fingerprint of greenhouse gases forcing? GEWEX News, 27(4), 1115.
Joly, M., Voldoire, A. (2009). Influence of ENSO on the West African monsoon: Temporal aspects and atmospheric processes. Journal of Climate, 22, 31933210.
Jones, C., Carvalho, L. M. V. (2018). The influence of the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation on the eastern Andes low-level jet and precipitation in South America. Climate and Atmospheric Science, 1 :40, doi:10.1038/s41612-018-0050-8.
Jones, C., Carvalho, L. M. V. (2002). Active and break phases in the South American monsoon system. Journal of Climate, 15, 905914.
Kang, S. M., Held, I. M., Frierson, D. M., Zhao, M. (2008). The response of the ITCZ to extratropical thermal forcing: Idealized slab-ocean experiments with a GCM. Journal of Climate, 21, 35213532.
Kayano, M. T., Capistrano, V. B. (2014). How the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO) modifies the ENSO influence on the South American rainfall. International Journal of Climatology, 34, 162178, doi:10.1002/joc.3674.
Kayano, M. T., Capistrano, V. B., Andreoli, R. V., de Souza, R. A. F. (2016). A further analysis of the tropical Atlantic SST modes and their relations to north-eastern Brazil rainfall during different phases of Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. International Journal of Climatology, 36, 40064018.
Kayano, M. T., Andreoli, R. V., de Souza, R. A. F. (2019). El Niño-Southern Oscillation related teleconnections over South America under distinct Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and Pacific Interdecadal Oscillation backgrounds: La Niña. International Journal of Climatology, 39, 13591372.
Kerr, R. A. (2000). A north Atlantic climate pacemaker for the centuries. Science, 288, 19841985.
Kiladis, G.N., Weickmann, K. M. (1992). Circulation anomalies associated with tropical convection during northern winter. Monthly Weather Review, 120, 19001923.
Kitoh, A. (2017). The Asian monsoon and its future change in climate models: A review. Journal of the Meteorologcal Society of Japan, 95, 733.
Knaff, J. A., DeMaria, M., Sampson, C. R., Peak, J. E., Cummings, J., Schubert, W. H. (2013). Upper oceanic energy response to tropical cyclone passage. Journal of Climate, 26, 36312650.
Knight, J. R. (2005). A signature of persistent natural thermohaline circulation cycles in observed climate. Geophysical Research Letters, 32, L20708, doi:10.1029/2005GL024233.
Knight, J. R., Folland, C. K., Scaife, A. A. (2006). Climate impacts of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Geophysical Research Letters, 33, L17706, doi:10.1029/2006GL026242.
Kosaka, Y. (2018). Slow warming and the ocean see-saw. Nature Geoscience, 11, 1213.
Kothawale, D. R., Rupa Kumar, K. (2002). Tropospheric temperature variation over India and links with the Indian summer monsoon: 1971–2000. Mausam, 53, 289308.
Krishnamurti, T. N. (1985). Summer monsoon experiment: A review. Monthly Weather Review, 113, 15901626.
Kucharski, F., Molten, F., Yoo, J. H. (2006). SST forcing of decadal Indian monsoon rainfall variability. Geophysical Research Letters, 33, L03709, doi:10.1029/2005GL025371.
Lau, K. M., Li, M. T. (1984). The monsoon of East Asia and its global associations—A Survey. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 65, 114125.
Lebel, T., Ali, A. (2009). Recent trends in the Central and Western Sahel rainfall regime (1990–2007). Journal of Hydrology, 375, 5264.
Li, Y., Ding, Y. H., Li, W. J. (2017). Interdecadal variability of the Afro-Asian summer monsoon system. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 34, 833846.
Liebmann, B., Kiladis, G. N., Vera, C. S., Saulo, A. C., Carvalho, L. M. V. (2004a). Subseasonal variations of rainfall in South America in the vicinity of the low-level jet east of the Andes and comparison to those in the South Atlantic convergence zone. Journal of Climate, 17, 38293842.
Liebmann, B., et al. (2004b). An observed trend in central South American precipitation. Journal of Climate, 17, 43574367.
Liu, Y., Chiang, J. C. H. (2012). Coordinated abrupt weakening of the Eurasian and North-African monsoon in the 1960s and links to extratropical North Atlantic cooling. Journal of Climate, 25, 35323548.
Liu, Y. W., Chiang, J. C. H., Chou, C., Patricola, C. M. (2014a). Atmospheric teleconnection mechanisms of extratropical North Atlantic SST influence on Sahel rainfall. Climate Dynamics, 43, 27972811.
Liu, Z. Y., Wen, X., Brady, E. C., et al. (2014b). Chinese cave records and the East Asian summer monsoon. Quarternary Science Reviews, 83, 115128.
Losada, T., Rodríguez-Fonseca, B., Janicot, S., et al. (2010). A multi-model approach to the Atlantic Equatorial mode: Impact on the West African monsoon. Climate Dynamics, 35, 2943.
Losada, T., Rodriguez‐Fonseca, B., Mohino, E., et al. (2012). Tropical SST and Sahel rainfall: A non‐stationary relationship. Geophysical Research Letters, 39, L12705, doi:10.1029/2012GL052423.
Lu, J. (2009). The dynamics of the Indian Ocean sea surface temperature forcing of Sahel drought. Climate Dynamics, 33, 445460.
Lu, J., Delworth, T. L. (2005). Oceanic forcing of the late 20th century Sahel drought. Geophysical Research Letters, 32, L22706, doi:10.1029/2005GL023316.
Lu, R. Y., Dong, B. W., Ding, H. (2006). Impact of the Atlantic multi-decadal oscillation on the Asian summer monsoon. Geophysical Research Letters, 33, L24701, doi:10.1029/2006GL027655.
Lu, R. Y., Dong, B. W. (2008). Response of the Asian summer monsoon to weakening of Atlantic thermohaline circulation. Advances in Atmospehric Sciences, 25, 723736.
Magaña, V. (ed.) (1999). Los impactos del Niño en México. Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Secretaría de Gobernación, México, 229.
Magaña, V., Caetano, E. (2005). Temporal evolution of summer convective activity over the America warm pools. Geophysical Research Letters, 32, L02803, doi:10.1029/2004GL021033.
Magaña, V., Amador, J., Medina, S. (1999). The midsummer drought over Mexico and Central America. Journal of Climate, 12, 15771588.
Maldonado, T., Rutgersson, A., Caballero, R., et al. (2017). The role of the meridional sea surface temperature gradient in controlling the Caribbean low-level jet. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmosphere, 122, doi:10.1002/2016JD026025.
Marengo, J. A. (2004). Interdecadal variability and trends of rainfall across the Amazon basin. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 78, 7996.
Marengo, J. A., et al. (2012). Recent developments on the South American monsoon system. International Journal of Climatology, 32, 121.
Marengo, J. A., Soares, W. R., Saulo., C., Nicolini, M. (2004). Climatology of the low-level jet east of the Andes as derived from the NCEP-NCAR reanalyzes: Characteristics and temporal variability. Journal of Climate, 17, 22612280.
Martin, E. R., Thorncroft, C. D. (2014). The impact of the AMO on the West African monsoon annual cycle. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 140, 3146.
Maul, G. A., (1993). Climate Change in the Intra-Americas Sea. London: Edward Arnold.
Mechoso, C. R., Lyons, S., Spahr, J. (1990). The impact of sea surface temperature anomalies on the rainfall in northeast Brazil. Journal of Climate, 3, 812826.
Mechoso, C. R., Robertson, A. W., Ropelewski, C. F., Grimm, A. M. (2005). The American monsoon systems: An introduction. The Global Monsoon System: Research and Forecast, Chap. 13. WMO /TD No. 1266 (TMRP Report No. 70), (Eds.) C.-P. Chang et al., 197–206.
Meehl, G. A., Goddard, L., Murphy, J., et al. (2009). Decadal Prediction. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 90, 14671485.
Méndez, M., Magaña, V. (2010). Regional aspects of prolonged meteorological droughts over Mexico and Central America. Journal of Climate, 23, 11751188.
Meyers, G., McIntosh, P., Pigt, L., Pook, M. (2007). The years of El Niño, La Niña, and interaction with the tropical Indian Ocean. Journal of Climate, 20, 28722880.
Mohino, E., Rodríguez-Fonseca, B., Mechoso, C. R., Gervois, S., Ruti, P., Chauvin, F. (2011a). Impacts of the tropical Pacific/Indian Oceans on the seasonal cycle of the West African monsoon. Journal of Climate, 24, 38783891.
Mohino, E., Janicot, S., Bader, J. (2011b). Sahel rainfall and decadal to multi-decadal sea surface temperature variability. Climate Dynamics, 37, 419440.
Mohino, E., Keenlyside, N., Pohlmann, H. (2016). Decadal prediction of Sahel rainfall: Where does the skill (or lack thereof) come from? Climate Dynamics, 47, 35933612.
Molinari, J., Knight, D., Dickinson, M., Vollaro, D., Skubis, S. (1997). Potential vorticity, easterly waves, and eastern Pacific tropical cyclo-genesis. Monthly Weather Review, 125, 26992708.
Moon, J.-Y., Wang, B., Ha, K.-J. (2011). ENSO regulation of MJO teleconnection. Climate Dynamics, 37, 11331149.
Moura, A., Shukla, J. (1981). On the dynamics of droughts in Northeast Brazil: Observatons, theory, and numerical experiments with a general circulation model. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 38, 26532675,
Muza, M. N., Carvalho, L. M. V., Jones, C., Liebmann, B. (2009). Intraseasonal and interannual variability of extreme dry and wet events over Southeastern South America and Subtropical Atlantic during the Austral Summer. Journal of Climate, 22, 16821699.
Neri, C., Magaña, V. (2016). Estimation of vulnerability and risk to meteorological drought in Mexico. Weather, Climate, and Society, 8, 95110.
Nitta, T. (1987). Convective activities in the tropical western Pacific and their impact on the northern hemisphere summer circulation. Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan, 65, 373390.
Nogués-Paegle, J. N., Byerle, L. A., Mo, K. C. (2000). Intraseasonal modulation of South American summer precipitation. Monthly Weather Review, 128, 837850.
Nogués-Paegle, J. N., Mo, K. C. (2002). Linkages between summer rainfall variability over South America and sea surface temperature anomalies. Journal of Climate, 15, 13891407.
Nogués-Paegle, J. N., Mechoso, C. R., Fu, R., Berbery, E. H., Chao, W. C. Chen, T. -C., Cook, K., Diaz, A. F., Enfield, D., Ferreira, R., Grimm, A. M., Kousky, V., Liebmann, B., Marengo, J., Mo, K., Neelin, J. D., Paegle, J., Robertson, A. W., Seth, A., Vera, C. S., Zhou, J. (2002). Progress in Pan American CLIVAR Research: Understanding the South American Monsoon. Meteorológica, 27, 333.
Pai, D. S., Sridhar, L., Rajeevan, M., et al. (2014). Development of a new high spatial resolution (0.25°×0.25°) long period (1901–2010) daily gridded rainfall data set over India and its comparison with existing data sets over the region. Mausam, 65(1), 118.
Palmer, T. N. (1986). Influence of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans on Sahel rainfall. Nature, 322, 251253.
Parhi, P., Giannini, A., Gentine, P., Lall, U. (2016). Resolving contrasting regional rainfall responses to El Niño over tropical Africa. Journal of Climate, 29, 14611476.
Park, J. Y., Bader, J., Matei, D. (2015). Northern-hemispheric differential warming is the key to understanding the discrepancies in the projected Sahel rainfall. Nature Communications, 6, 5985.
Park, J. Y., Bader, J., Matei, D. (2016). Anthropogenic Mediterranean warming essential driver for present and future Sahel rainfall. Nature Climate Change, 6, 941945.
Parthasarathy, B., Munot, A. A., Kothawale, D. R. (1995). Monthly and seasonal rainfall series for all-India, homogenous regions and meteorological subdivisions: 1871–1994. Research Report No. RR-065, ISSN 0252-1075, 113 pp.
Pisciottano, G., Díaz, A., Cazes, G., Mechoso, C. R. (1994). El Niño-Southern oscillation impact on rainfall in Uruguay. Journal of Climate, 7, 12861302.
Polo, I., Rodríguez-Fonseca, B., Losada, T., García-Serrano, J. (2008). Tropical Atlantic variability modes (1979–2002). Part I: Time-evolving SST modes related to West African rainfall. Journal of Climate, 21, 64576475.
Power, S., Casey, T., Folland, C., Colman, A., Mehta, V. (1999). Inter-decadal modulation of the impact of ENSO on Australia. Climate Dynamics, 15, 319324.
Rajeevan, M. (2012). Teleconnections of monsoon. India Meteorological Department Monsoon Monograph, 2, 78128.
Rayner, N., Parker, D. E., Horton, E. B., et al. (2003). Global analyses of sea surface temperature, sea ice, and night marine air temperature since the late nineteenth century. Journal of Geophysical Research, 108, 4407, doi:10.1029/2002JD002670.
Rickenbach, T. M., Nieto-Ferreira, R., Barnhill, R. P., Nesbitt, S. W. (2011). Regional contrast of mesoscale convective system structure prior to and during monsoon onset across South America. Journal of Climate, 24, 37533763.
Riehl, H. (1979). Climate and Weather in the Tropics. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 611.
Robertson, A. W., Mechoso, C. R. (1998). Interannual and Decadal Cycles in River Flows of Southeastern South America. Journal of Climate, 11, 25702581.
Robertson, A. W., Mechoso, C. R. (2000). Interannual and inter-decadal variability of the South Atlantic Convergence Zone, Monthly Weather Review, 11, 29472957.
Robertson, A. W., Farrara, J. D., Mechoso, C. R. (2003). Simulations of the atmospheric response to South Atlantic sea surface temperature anomalies. Journal of Climate., 16, 25402551.
Robertson, A., Moron, V., Qian, J.-H., et al. (2011). The Maritime Continent Monsoon. In Chang, C.-P., Ding, Y., Lau, N.-C., et al. (eds.). The Global Monsoon System: Research and Forecast, 2nd Edition, World Scientific Series on Asia-Pacific Weather and Climate, Vol. 5, World Scientific Publication Co., 8598.
Rodríguez-Fonseca, B., Mohino, E., Mechoso, C. R., et al. (2015). Variability and predictability of West African droughts: A review on the role of sea surface temperature anomalies. Journal of Climate, 2, 40344060.
Ropelewski, C. F., Halpert, M. S. (1987). Global and regional scale precipitation patterns associated with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation. Monthly Weather Review, 115, 16061626.
Roundy, P. E., MacRitchie, K., Asuma, J., Melino, T. (2010). Modulation of the global atmospheric circulation by combined activity in the Madden-Julian Oscillation and the El Niño–Southern Oscillation during Boreal winter. Journal of Climate, 23, 40454059.
Rowell, D. P. (2001). Teleconnections between the tropical Pacific and the Sahel. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 127, 16831706.
Rowell, D. P. (2003). The impact of Mediterranean SSTs on the Sahelian rainfall season. Journal of Climate, 16, 849862.
Saji, N. H., Goswami, B. N., Vinayachandran, P. N., Yamagata, T. (1999). A dipole mode in the tropical Indian Ocean. Nature, 401, 360363.
Schneider, T., Bischoff, T., Haug, G. H. (2014). Migrations and dynamics of the intertropical convergence zone. Nature, 513, 4553.
Shanahan, T. M., Overpeck, J. T., Anchukaitis, K. J., et al. (2009). Atlantic forcing of persistent drought in West Africa. Science, 324, 377380.
Shimizu, M. H., Cavalcanti, I. F. A. (2011). Variability patterns of Rossby wave source. Climate Dynamics, 37, 441454.
Shimizu, M. H., Ambrizzi, T. (2016). MJO influence on ENSO effects in precipitation and temperature over South America. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 124, 291301.
Shimizu, M. H., Ambrizzi, T., Liebmann, B. (2016). Extreme precipitation events and their relationship with ENSO and MJO phases over northern South America. International Journal of Climatology, 36, 543557.
Si, D., Ding, Y. H. (2013). Decadal change in the correlation pattern between the Tibetan winter snow and the East Asian summer precipitation during 1979–2011. Journal of Climate, 26, 76227634.
Si, D., Ding, Y. H. (2016). Oceanic forcing of the interdecadal variability in East Asian summer rainfall. Journal of Climate, 29, 76337649.
Sikka, D. R., Gadgil, S. (1978). Large-scale rainfall over India during the summer monsoon and its relation to the lower and upper tropospheric vorticity. Indian Journal of Meteorology Hydrology and Geophysics, 29, 219231.
Sikka, D. R., Gadgil, S. (1980). On the maximum cloud zone and the ITCZ over India longitude during the southwest monsoon. Monthly Weather Review, 108, 11221135.
Silva, G. A. M., Ambrizzi, T., Marengo, J. A. (2009). Observational evidences on the modulation of the South American Low Level Jet east of the Andes according the ENSO variability. Annales Geophysicae, 27, 645657.
Simpson, G. (1921). The south-west monsoon. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 199, 150173.
Small, R. J. O., de Szoeke, S. P., Xie, S.-P. (2007). The Central American midsummer drought: Regional aspects and large-scale forcing. Journal of Climate, 20, 48534873.
Souza, E. B., Ambrizzi, T. (2006). Modulation of the intraseasonal rainfall over tropical Brazil by the Madden-Julian Oscillation. International Journal of Climatology, 26, 17591776.
Sperber, K. R., Cusiner, E., Kitoh, A., et al. (2017). Modelling Monsoons. In Chang, C.-P., Kuo, H.-C., Lau, N.-C., et al. (eds.). The Global Monsoon System, Research and Forecast, 3rd Edition. World Scientific Series on Asia-Pacific Weather and Climate, Vol. 9, World Scientific Publication Co., 79101.
Spiegel, M. R. (1988). Schaum’s Outline of Theory and Problems of Statistics. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2nd edn., 324339.
Steenburgh, W. J., Schultz, D. M., Colle, B. A. (1998). The structure and evolution of gap outflow over the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico. Monthly Weather Review, 126, 26732691.
Suárez-Moreno, R., Rodríguez-Fonseca, B., Barroso, J. A., Fink, A. H. (2018). Interdecadal changes in the leading ocean forcing of Sahelian rainfall interannual variability: Atmospheric dynamics and role of multidecadal SST background. Journal of Climate, 31, 66876710.
Sultan, B., Janicot, S. (2003). The West African monsoon dynamics. Part II: The “preonset” and “onset” of the summer monsoon. Journal of Climate, 16, 34073427.
Surendran, S., Gadgil, S., Francis, P A., Rajeevan, M. (2015). Prediction of Indian rainfall during the summer monsoon season on the basis of links with equatorial Pacific and Indian Ocean climate indices. Environmental Research Letters, 10, 094004, doi:10.1088/1748- 9326/10/9/094004.
Surendran, S., Gadgi, S., Rajendran, K., Varghese, S. J., Kitoh, A. (2019). Monsoon rainfall over India in June and link with northwest tropical Pacific. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 135, 11951213.
Taschetto, A. S., Ambrizzi, T. (2012). Can Indian Ocean SST anomalies influence South American rainfall? Climate Dynamics, 38, 16151628.
Taylor, K. E., Stouffer, R. J., Meehl, G. A. (2012). An overview of CMIP5 and the experiment design. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 93, 485498.
Trenberth, K. E., Hurrell, J. W. (1994). Decadal atmosphere-ocean variations in the Pacific. Climate Dynamics, 9, 303319.
Vera, C. S., Higgins, W., Amador, J., Ambrizzi, J. T., Garreaud, R., Gochisf, D. Gutzlerg, D. Lettenmaier, D., Marengo, J., Mechoso, C. R., Nogues-Paegle, J., Silva Dias, P. L., Zhang, C. (2006). Toward a unified view of the American monsoon systems. Journal of Climate, 19, 49775000.
Villamayor, J., Mohino, E. (2015). Robust Sahel drought due to the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation in CMIP5 simulations. Geophysical Research Letters, 42, 12141222.
Villamayor, J., Ambrizzi, T., Mohino, E. (2018a). Influence of decadal sea surface temperature variability on northern Brazil rainfall in CMIP5 simulations. Climate Dynamics, 51, 563579.
Villamayor, J., Mohino, E., Khodri, M., Mignot, J., Janicot, S. (2018b). Atlantic Control of the late nineteenth-century Sahel humid period. Journal of Climate, 31, 82258240.
Vizy, E. K., Cook, K. H. (2002). Development and application of a mesoscale climate model for the tropics: Influence of sea surface temperature anomalies on the West African monsoon. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 107, 4023, doi:10.1029/2001JD000686.
Wainer, I., Soares, J. (1997). North northeast Brazil rainfall and its decadal scale relationship to wind stress and sea surface temperature. Geophysical Research Letters, 24, 277280.
Walker, G. T., Bliss, E. W. (1932). World weather V. Memoirs of the Royal Meteorological Society, 4, 5384.
Wang, P. X. (2009). Global monsoon in a geological perspective. Chinese Science Bulletin, 54, 11131136.
Wang, H. J. (2001). The weakening of the Asian Monsoon circulation after the end of 1970s. Advances in Atmospheric Science, 18, 376386.
Wang, H. J., Fan, K. (2013). Recent responses in the East Asian monsoon. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Science, 37, 313318 (in Chinese).
Webster, P. J., Palmer, T., Yanai, M., et al. (1998). Monsoons: Processes and predictability and prospect for prediction. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 103, 1445114510.
Webster, P. J., Moore, A. M., Loschnigg, J. P., Leben, R. R. (1999). Coupled ocean–atmosphere dynamics in the Indian Ocean during 1997–98, Nature, 401, 356360.
Xie, S.-P., Kosaka, Y., Du, Y., et al. (2016). Indo-western Pacific Ocean capacitor and coherent climate anomalies in post-ENSO summer: A review. Advances in Atmospheric Science, 34, 411432.
Zhang, H., Moise, A. (2016). The Australian summer monsoon in current and future climate. In Carvalho, L. M. V., Jones, C. (eds.), The Monsoons and Climate Change: Observations and Modeling, Dordrecht: Springer Climate, 67120.
Zhang, R., Delworth, T. L. (2006). Impact of Atlantic multidecadal oscillations on India/Sahel rainfall and Atlantic hurricanes. Geophysical Research Letters, 33, L17712, doi:10.1029/2006GL026267.
Zhang, Z. Q., Sun, X. G., Yang, X. Q. (2018). Understanding the inter-decadal variability of East Asian summer monsoon precipitation: joint influence of three oceanic signal. Journal of Climate, 31, 54855506.
Zhou, J., Lau, K. M. (2001). Principal modes of interannual and decadal variability of summer rainfall over South America. International Journal of Climatology, 21(13), 16231644.
Zhou, J. Y., Lau, K. M. (1998). Does a monsoon climate exist over South America? Journal of Climate, 11, 10201040.
Zhou, T., Hsu, H.-H., Matsumoto, J. (2011). Summer Monsoons in East Asia, Indochina and the Western North Pacific. In Chang, C.-P., Ding, Y., Lau, N.-C., et al. (eds.) The Global Monsoon System: Research and Forecast, 2nd Edition, World Scientific Series on Asia-Pacific Weather and Climate, Vol. 5, World Scientific Publication Co., 4372.
Zhou, T., Turner, A. G., Kinter, J. L., et al. (2016). GMMIP (v1.0) contribution to CMIP6: Global monsoons model inter-comparison project. Geoscientific Model Development, 9, 35893604, doi:10.5194/gmd-9-3589-2016.
Zhu, Y. L., Wang, T., Ma, J. (2016). Influence of internal decadal variability on the summer rainfall in eastern China as simulated by CCSM 4. Advances in Atmospheric Science, 33, 706714.