Skip to main content Accessibility help
Imperial Alchemy
  • Cited by 17
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the print book

Book description

The mid-twentieth century marked one of the greatest watersheds of Asian history, when a range of imperial constructs were declared to be nation-states, either by revolution or decolonisation. Nationalism was the great alchemist, turning the base metal of empire into the gold of nations. To achieve such a transformation from the immense diversity of these Asian empires required a different set of forces from those that Europeans had needed in their transitions from multi-ethnic empires to culturally homogeneous nations. In this book Anthony Reid explores the mysterious alchemy by which new political identities have been formed. Taking Southeast Asia as his example, Reid tests contemporary theory about the relation between modernity, nationalism, and ethnic identity. Grappling with concepts emanating from a very different European experience of nationalism, Reid develops his own typology to better fit the formation of political identities such as the Indonesian, Malay, Chinese, Acehnese, Batak and Kadazan.


‘Imperial Alchemy is a masterful historical account of how homogenizing ideologies and structures of the modern state transformed an already diverse set of identities into the current myriad forms of nationalist and political identities. Using his remarkable depth as one of the most respected historians of Southeast Asia, Reid skillfully traces the evolution of diverse political identities in various locations of the region, from their colonial legacies to the modern day, without sacrificing the richness of precision and detail. This book is a major contribution to the study of nationalism and ethnic identity in Southeast Asia.’

Jacques Bertrand - University of Toronto

‘Exceptionally stimulating, Imperial Alchemy integrates precolonial and colonial history, mainland and island Southeast Asia, Southeast Asia and the wider world to produce an entirely novel perspective on Southeast Asia's diverse and idiosyncratic political identities. This is an outstanding example of the originality and breadth of vision everyone associates with Tony Reid.’

Victor Lieberman - The Marvin B. Becker Collegiate Professor of History and Professor of Southeast Asian History, The University of Michigan

‘How is it that the imperially-shaped states and borders of Southeast Asia have shown such tenacious resilience in the face of the bewildering ethnic variety of the region? Anthony Reid’s stylish, magisterial Imperial Alchemy explores how ‘the base metal of empire’ was ‘transmuted into the gold of nationhood’. Drawing on a lifetime of close research into local histories of identity of Southeast Asia, Reid combines probing theoretical reflection, brilliant synthesis, and a command of the intricacies of regional ethnicity as broad as it is unmatched to create an absorbing, provocative account of the often troubled gestation and maturation of the nation-state in Southeast Asia.’

R. E. Elson - The University of Queensland

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.


  • 2 - Understanding Southeast Asian nationalisms
    pp 25-48
Adam, Ahmat 1995. The Vernacular Press and the Emergence of Modern Indonesian Consciousness (1855–1913). Ithaca: Cornell University Southeast Asia Program.
Ali Haji ibn Ahmad, Raja 1979. The Precious Gift (Tuhfat al-Nafis), trans. Virginia, Matheson and Barbara, Andaya. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press.
Andaya, Barbara Watson and Andaya, Leonard 1992. A History of Malaysia. London: Macmillan.
Andaya, Leonard 1993. The World of Maluku: Eastern Indonesia in the Early Modern Period. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
Andaya, Leonard 2001. ‘The Search for the “Origins” of Melayu’, Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 32, iii, 315–30.
Anderson, Benedict 1983 [1991]. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso.
Anderson, Benedict 2008. ‘Exit Suharto: Obituary for a Mediocre Tyrant’, New Left Review 50, 27–59.
Anderson, John 1826 [1971]. Mission to the East Coast of Sumatra in 1823. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press.
,Anon. 1930. ‘Islam dan Nationalisme’, in Soeara Atjeh 1 April.
Antonissen, A. 1958. Kadazan Dictionary and Grammar. Canberra, Government Printer.
Arendt, Hannah 1968. Antisemitism. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Armstrong, John A. 1982. Nations Before Nationalism. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Ascher, William 1998. ‘From Oil to Timber: the Political Economy of Off-budget Development Financing in Indonesia’, Indonesia 65.
Aspinall, Edward 2006. ‘Violence and Identity Formation in Aceh under Indonesian rule’, in Reid, Anthony (ed.) Verandah of Violence: the Background to the Aceh Problem. Singapore: Singapore University Press, 149–76.
Baker, Chris 2003. ‘Ayutthaya Rising: From Land or Sea?’Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 34: 1.
Chandran, Bala 1986. The Third Mandate. Kuala Lumpur: Bala Chandran.
Barmé, Scot 1993. Luang Wichit Wathakan. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.
Barros, João 1563 [1973 [1777]]. Da Asia. Lisbon: Regia Officina.
Battuta, Ibn 1929 [1353]. Travels in Asia and Africa, 1325–1354, trans. Gibb, H. A. R.. London: George Routledge.
Beaulieu, Augustin 1666. ‘Mémoires du voyage aux Indes orientales du Général du Beaulieu, dressés par luy-mesme,’ in Thévenot, Melchisedech (ed.), Relations de divers voyages curieux, vol II. Paris: Cramoisy. A new edition is Augustin de Beaulieu 1996. Mémoires d'un voyage aux Indes Orientales, in Lombard, Denys (ed.) Paris: Maisonneuve & Laroche, and a partial English translation is in Reid, Anthony (ed.) 1995. Witnesses to Sumatra: a Travellers' Anthology. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press, 64–81.
Benda, H. J., Irikura, J. K. and Kishi, K. (eds.) 1965. Japanese Military Administration in Indonesia: Selected Documents. New Haven: Yale University Centre for Southeast Asian Studies.
Berg, C. C. 1927. ‘Kidung Sunda. Inleiding, tekst, vertaling en aantekeningen,’Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land-, en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsche Indië, published by the KITLV (see below) 83.
Bertrand, Jacques 2004. Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict in Indonesia. Cambridge University Press.
Blumenbach, Johann Friedrich 1775 [1865]. De generis humani varietate nativa. English translation in The Anthropological Treatises of Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, London: Longman.
Blumentritt, Ferdinand 1882. Versuch einer Ethnographie der Philippinen. No. 27 in Petermann's Mittheilungen. Gotha: Justus Perthes.
BP. Borneo Post, Kota Kinabalu, daily.
,Biro Pusat Statistik, Central Statistical Bureau 1990. Penduduk Indonesia: Hasil Sensus Penduduk 1990. Jakarta: Badan Pusat Statistik.
,Biro Pusat Statistik, Central Statistical Bureau 1992. Penduduk Sumatra Utara. Hasil Sensus Penduduk 1990 (S2.02), Jakarta: Badan Pusat Statistik.
,Biro Pusat Statistik, Central Statistical Bureau 1994. Indikator Kesejahteraan Rakyat 1993. Sumatera Utara. Medan: Badan Pusat Statistik.
,Biro Pusat Statistik, Central Statistical Bureau 2001. Penduduk Sumatera Utara: Hasil Sensus Penduduk Tahun 2000 (L2.2.2). Medan: Badan Pusat Statistik.
,Biro Pusat Statistik, Central Statistical Bureau 2006. Pendudok Indonesia: Hasil Survei Penduduk Antar Sensus 2005 (S1. 3302). Medan: Badan Pusat Statistik.
Brown, C. C. 1952. ‘The Malay Annals, translated from Raffles MS 18’, Journal of the Malaysian Branch, Royal Asiatic Society 25, 2 and 3.
Brown, David 2007. ‘Regionalist Federalism: a Critique of Ethno-nationalist Federalism’, in Baogang, Heet al. Federalism in Asia. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, 57–81.
Census, Brunei 1971: 1972. Negeri Brunei, Laporan Banchi Pendudok Brunei 1971. Bandar Seri Begawan: Star Press.
Bruner, Edward 1961. ‘Urbanization and Ethnic Identity’, American Anthropologist 63, 508–21.
Bruner, Edward 1972. ‘Batak Ethnic Associations in Three Indonesian Cities’, inSouthwestern Journal of Anthropology 28, iii: 207–29.
Bruner, Edward 1983. ‘Emergent vs Invariate Models’, in Kipp, Rita and Kipp, Richard (eds.) Beyond Samosir: Recent Studies of the Batak Peoples of Sumatra. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Center for International Studies, 13–20.
Bunnag, Tej 1977. The Provincial Administration of Siam, 1892–1915. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press.
,Burma Census 1986. 1983 Population Census. Rangoon: Immigration and Manpower Department.
Burney, Henry 1971. The Burney Papers, 2 vols. Farnborough: Gregg International.
Butcher, John and Howard, Dick (eds.) 1993. The Rise and Fall of Revenue Farming: Business Elites and the Emergence of the Modern State in Southeast Asia. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
Callahan, William 2006. ‘History, Identity, and Security: Producing and Consuming Nationalism in China?’Critical Asian Studies 38: 2, 179–208.
Castles, Lance 1972. ‘The Political Life of a Sumatran Residency: Tapanuli 1915–1940’, Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Yale University.
Cense, A. A. 1979. Makassaars-Nederlands Woordenboek. The Hague: Nijhoff for Koninklijk Institut voor Taal-, Land-, en Volkenkunde.
,Census of India 1933. Census of India 1931, Vol. XI, Burma. Rangoon: Government Printing and Stationery.
,CGI (Crisis Group International) 2007. Indonesia: how GAM Won in Aceh. Crisis Group Asia Briefing No. 61, 22 March 2007.
Chakrabarty, Dipesh 2000. Provincializing Europe: Postcolonial Thought and Historical Difference. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Chandler, David 1983. A History of Cambodia. Boulder: Westview.
Kheng, Cheah Boon 1980. ‘The Social Impact of the Japanese Occupation of Malaya (1942–1945)’, in McCoy, Alfred W. (ed.) Southeast Asia under Japanese Occupation. New Haven: Yale University Southeast Asia Studies, 75–103.
Chin, James 2004. ‘Sabah and Sarawak: the More Things Change the More they Remain the Same’, in Southeast Asian Affairs. Singapore: Institute for Southeast Asian Studies.
Chirot, Daniel and Reid, Anthony (eds.) 1997. Essential Outsiders: Chinese and Jews in the Modern Transformation of Southeast Asia and Central Europe. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
Chua, Haji Abdul Malek 1995. YB for Sale. Kota Kinabalu: Zamantara.
Ju-kua, Chau 1970 [orig. c. 1250]. His Work on the Chinese and Arab Trade in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries, entitled Chu-fan-chi, trans. Hirth, Friedrich and Rockhill, W. W.. St Petersburg, 1911. Reprinted Taipei.
Clark Roff, Margaret 1974. The Politics of Belonging. Political Change in Sabah and Sarawak. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press.
Clifford, Hugh 1926. A Prince of Malaya. New York: Harper & Brothers. Reprinted 1989 as Saleh: a Prince of Malaya. Singapore: Oxford University Press.
Coedes, G. 1968. The Indianized States of Southeast Asia, trans. Cowing, Susan. Honolulu: East-West Center Press.
Cohen, Paul A. 2003. China Unbound: Evolving Perspectives on the Chinese Past. London: Routledge Curzon.
Collins, William 1979. ‘Besemah Concepts. A Study of the Culture of a People of South Sumatra’, Ph.D. dissertation, University of California.
Connor, Walker 1994. Ethnonationalism: the Quest for Understanding. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Cooke, Nola and Tana, Li (eds.) 2004. Water Frontier: Commerce and the Chinese in the Lower Mekong Region, 1750–1880. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, and Singapore: Singapore University Press.
Coppel, Charles 1983. Indonesian Chinese in Crisis. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press for Asian Studies Association of Australia.
Crane, Robert I. 1967. Regions and Regionalism in South Asian Studies: an Exploratory Study. Durham, NC: Duke University Program in Comparative Studies on Southern Asia.
Crawfurd, John 1820. History of the Indian Archipelago, 3 vols. Edinburgh: A. Constable.
Croo, M. H. du 1943. General Swart: Pacificator van Atjeh. Maastricht: Leiter-Nypels.
Michael, Cullinane 1998. ‘Accounting for Souls’, in Doeppers, Daniel and Xenos, Peter (eds.) Population and History: the Demographic Origins of the Modern Philippines. Madison: University of Wisconsin: Centre for Southeast Asian Studies.
Cunningham, Clark 1958. The Postwar Migration of the Toba-Bataks to East Sumatra. New Haven: Yale University Southeast Asia Studies.
Davidson, Jamie 2008. From Rebellion to Riots: Collective Violence on Indonesian Borneo. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
Day, Tony 2002. Fluid Iron: State Formation in Southeast Asia. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press.
DE. Daily Express. Kota Kinabalu, daily.
Dikötter, Frank 1992. The Discourse of Race in Modern China. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Dion, Stéphane 1996. ‘Why is Secession Difficult in Well-established Democracies?’British Journal of Political Science 26, 2, 269–83.
Drakard, Jane 1990. A Malay Frontier: Unity and Duality in a Sumatran Kingdom. Ithaca: Cornell University Southeast Asia Program.
Drakard, Jane 1999. A Kingdom of Words. Language and Power in Sumatra. Shah Alam: Oxford University Press.
Duara, Prasenjit 1995. Rescuing History from the Nation: Questioning Narratives of Modern China. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Elson, R. E. 2008. The Idea of Indonesia: A History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rupert, Emerson 1937. Malaysia: a Study in Direct and Indirect Rule. New York: Macmillan.
Encyclopedie van Nederlandsch-Indië, 2nd edn., 8 vols. The Hague: Nijhoff, 1917–1939.
,The Economic Planning Unit, Prime Minister's Department, Malaysia 2006a. Mid-Term Review of the Ninth Malaysia Plan, 2006–2010. Putrajaya: The Economic Planning Unit, Prime Minister's Department.
,The Economic Planning Unit, Prime Minister's Department, Malaysia 2006b. Ninth Malaysia Plan, 2006–2010. Putrajaya: The Economic Planning Unit, Prime Minister's Department.
Evans, I. H. N. 1953. The Religion of the Tempasuk Dusuns of North Borneo. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Iwaichi, Fujiwara 1966. F-kikan. Tokyo: Hara Shobo.
Geertz, Clifford, 1980. Negara: the Theatre State in Nineteenth-century Bali. Princeton University Press.
Gellner, Ernest 1983. Nations and Nationalism. Oxford: Blackwell.
Giddens, Anthony 1985. The Nation-state and Violence. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Glyn-Jones, Monica 1953. The Dusun of the Penampang Plains. 2 vols. London: Colonial Social Science Research Council.
Godley, Michael and Lloyd, Grayson (eds.) 2001. Perspectives on the Chinese Indonesians. Adelaide: Crawfurd House Publishing.
Goscha, Christopher E. 1999. Thailand and the Southeast Asian Networks of the Vietnamese Revolution, 1885–1954. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon.
Graaf, H. J. and Pigeaud, Th. G. Th. 1974. De eerste moslims vorstendommen op Java. The Hague: Nijhoff.
Graaf, H. J. and Pigeaud, Th. G. Th. 1984. Chinese Muslims in Java in the 15th and 16th Centuries, ed. Ricklefs, M. C.. Clayton, Vic.: Monash Papers on Southeast Asia.
Greenfeld, Liah 1992. Nationalism. Five Roads to Modernity. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Guillot, Claude (ed.) 1998–2003. Histoire de Barus, 2 vols. Paris: Association Archipel.
Hamid, Haji Hashim Abd. 1992. ‘Konsep Melayu Islam Beraja: Antar Ideologi dan Pembinaan Bangsa’, in Seri, DatoJasa, LailaHaji, Awangbin, Abu BakarApong, Haji (ed.). Sumbangsih. Gadong: Akademi Pengajian Brunei.
Hamilton, Alexander 1930. A New Account of the East Indies, 2 vols, ed. Foster, William. London: Argonaut Press.
Harper, Tim 1999. The End of Empire and the Making of Malaya. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Harris, Peter 1997. ‘Chinese Nationalism: the State of the Nation’, The China Journal, 121–37.
Harrison, R. 1971. ‘An Analysis of the Variation among the Ranau Dusun Communities of Sabah, Malaysia’. Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University.
Hasan, Abdul Hadi bin Haji 1925–30. Sejarah Alam Melayu, 3 vols. Singapore: Education Department.
Baogang, He, Galligan, Brian and Inoguchi, Takashi (eds.) 2007. Federalism in Asia. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.
Hefner, Robert 2000. Civil Islam: Muslims and Democratization in Indonesia. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Heidhues, Mary Somers 1974. Southeast Asia's Chinese Minorities. Hawthorn, Vic: Longman Australia.
Henley, David 1996. Nationalism and Regionalism in a Colonial Context: Minahasa in the Dutch East Indies. Leiden: KITLV Press.
Hikajat Bandjar: A Study in Malay Historiography 1968. Ed. J. J. Ras. The Hague: Nijhoff.
Hikayat Hang Tuah 1971. Ed. Kassim Ahmad. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.
Hikayat Patani 1970. Ed. A. Teeuw and D. K. Wyatt, 2 vols. The Hague: Nijhoff.
Hill, A. H. 1961. ‘Hikayat Raja-Raja Pasai’, romanised and translated by A. H. Hill, Journal of the Malaysian Branch, Royal Asiatic Society 33, 2.
Hirosue, Masashi 1996. Sumatran port-cities and ‘cannibalism’ in the hinterlands. Paper presented at the 14th Conference of the International Association of Historians of Asia, Bangkok, 22 May 1996.
Hirschman, Charles 1987. ‘The Meaning and Measurement of Ethnicity in Malaysia’, Journal of Asian Studies 46, 3, 555–82.
,Huria Kristen Batak Protestan, Batak Protestant Christian Church (Huria Kristen Batak Protestan) 1984. Almanak HKBP 1984. Tarutung.
,Huria Kristen Batak Protestan, Batak Protestant Christian Church 1995. Almanak HKBP 1995. Tarutung.
Ho, Engseng 2006. The Graves of Tarim: Genealogy and Mobility across the Indian Ocean. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Hoadley, Mason 1988. ‘Javanese, Peranakans and Chinese Elites in Cirebon: Changing Ethnic Boundaries’, Journal of Asian Studies 47, iii, 503–17.
Hobsbawm, E. J. 1990. Nations and Nationalism since 1780. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hobson, J. A. 1902. Imperialism: a Study. New York: Pott.
Hugo, G. J., Hull, T. H., Hull, V. J. and Jones, G. W. 1987. The Demographic Dimension in Indonesian Development. Singapore: Oxford University Press.
Humboldt, Alexander, 1847–8. Cosmos: Sketch of a Physical Description of the Universe, translated under the superintendence of Sabine, E., 2 vols. London: Longman, Brown, Green & Longmans.
Humboldt, Freiherr Wilhelm 1836–9. Über die Kawi-sprache auf den insel Java: nebst einer einleitung über die verschiedenheit des menschlichen sprachbaues und ihren einfluss auf die geistige entwickelung des menschengeschlechts, 3 vols. Berlin: Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften.
Huntington, Samuel P. 1993. ‘Clash of Civilizations?’, Foreign Affairs, 72.
Hutagalung, W. M. 1991. Pustaha Batak: Tarombo dohot Turiturian ni Bangso Batak, ed. R. T. Sirait. No place: Tulus Jaya. [Orig. publ. as Waldemar Hoeta Galoeng, Poestaha taringot toe tarombo ni halak Batak, Laguboti: Zendingsdrukkerij, 1926.]
Ileto, Reynaldo 1979. Pasyon and Revolution. Popular Movements in the Philippines, 1840–1910. Manila: Ateneo de Manila University Press.
Hussein, Ismail 1998. ‘Kata Alu-aluan’, in Salazar, Zeus, The Malayan Connection, Quezon City, xi–xv.
Jenner, W. A. 1992. The Tyranny of History: the Roots of China's Crisis. London: Penguin Books.
Jomo, K. S. 1997. ‘A specific idiom of Chinese Capitalism in Southeast Asia: Sino-Malaysian capital accumulation in the face of State Hostility’, in Chirot, Daniel and Reid, Anthony (eds.) Essential Outsiders: Chinese and Jews in the Modern Transformation of Southeast Asia and Central Europe. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 237–57.
Jones, L. W. 1966. The Population of Borneo: a Study of the Peoples of Sarawak, Sabah and Brunei. London: Athlone Press.
Jones, Russell 1997. Chinese Names: the Traditions Surrounding the Use of Chinese Surnames and Personal Names. Kuala Lumpur: Pelandok.
Joustra, M. 1910. Batak-Spiegel. Leiden: van Doesburgh.
Kangle, R. P. 1969. The Kautilya Arthasastra. Bombay: Bombay University.
Ke, Fan 2001. ‘Maritime Muslims and Hui Identity: a South Fujian Case’, Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 21: 2.
Keating, Michael 2001. Plurinational Democracy: Stateless Nations in a Post-Sovereignty Era. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kell, Timothy 1995. The Roots of Acehnese Rebellion 1989–1992. Ithaca: Cornell University Southeast Asia Program.
Kim, Khoo Kay 1979. ‘Local Historians and the Writing of Malaysian History in the Twentieth Century’, in Reid, Anthony and Marr, David (eds.) Perceptions of the Past in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Heinemann, 299–311.
Kingsbury, Damien and McCulloch, Lesley 2006. ‘Military Business in Aceh,’ in Reid, Anthony (ed.) Verandah of Violence: the Background to the Aceh Problem. Singapore: Singapore University Press, 199–224.
Kipp, Rita Smith 1990. The Early Years of a Dutch Colonial Mission: the Karo Field. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Kipp, Rita Smith 1993. Dissociated Identities. Ethnicity, Religion and Class in an Indonesian Society. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Kitingan, Jeffrey 1994. Komoiboros Dusunkadazan/Dusunkadazan Dictionary. Kota Kinabalu: Mongulud Boros Dusun Kadazan.
Klein, Martin (ed.) 1993. Breaking the Chains: Slavery, Bondage and Emancipation in Modern Africa and Asia. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
,KLF (Kadazandusun Language Foundation) 2007. Fakta-fakta Penting Mengenai Bahasa Kadazandusun di Sekolah. Kota Kinabalu: Kadazandusun Language Foundation.
Klinken, Gerry 2001. ‘The Maluku Wars: Bringing society back in’, Indonesia 71, 1–26.
Klinken, Gerry 2007. Communal Violence and Democratization in Indonesia: Small Town Wars. London: Routledge.
Knaap, Gerrit 1996. Shallow Waters, Rising Tide. Shipping and Trade in Java around 1775. Leiden: KITLV Press.
Knaap, Gerrit and Nagtegal, Luc, 1991. ‘A Forgotten Trade: Salt in Southeast Asia, 1670–1813’ in Ptak, Roderich and Rothermund, Dietmar (eds.). Emporia, Commodities and Entrepreneurs in Asian Maritime Trade, c.1400–1750. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner.
Atsushi, Kobata and Matsuda, M. (eds.) 1969. Ryukyuan Relations with Korea and South Sea Countries. Kyoto: Kobata & Matsuda.
Kohn, Hans 1944. The Idea of Nationalism: a Study in Its Origin and Background. New York: Macmillan.
Krasner, Stephen 2001. ‘Organised Hypocrisy in Nineteenth-century East Asia’, International Relations of the Asia-Pacific 1, 173–97.
Kroeber, A. L. and Kluckhohn, C. 1963. Culture: a Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions. New York: Vintage.
Woon, Kwok Kian 1998. ‘Singapore’, in Pan, Lynn (ed.) The Encyclopedia of the Chinese Overseas. Singapore: Archipelago Press, 200–17.
Laffan, Michael 2005. Finding Java: Muslim Nomenclature of Insular Southeast Asia from Śrîvijaya to Snouck Hurgronje, Singapore: Asia Research Institute Working Paper Series no. 52,
Landon, Kenneth P. 1941. The Chinese in Thailand. London: Oxford University Press.
Langenberg, Michael 1976. ‘National Revolution in North Sumatra: Sumatra Timur and Tapanuli, 1942–1950’. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Sydney.
Langenberg, Michael 1985. ‘East Sumatra: Accommodating an Indonesian Nation within a Sumatran Residency’, in Kahin, Audrey (ed.) Regional Dynamics of the Indonesian Revolution: Unity from Diversity. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 113–44.
Lasimbang, Rita 2004. ‘To Promote the Kadazandusun Languages of Sabah’, Asian/Pacific Book Development 34, 2, 10–12.
Lavy, Paul 2004. ‘Visnu and Harihara in the Art and Politics of Early Historic Southeast Asia’. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles.
Hing, Lee Kam 1995. The Sultanate of Aceh: Relations with the British, 1760–1824. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press.
Hing, Lee Kam 2006. ‘Aceh at the Time of the 1824 Treaty’, in Reid, Anthony (ed.) Verandah of Violence: the Background to the Aceh Problem. Singapore: Singapore University Press, 72–95.
Lenin, V. I. 1948 [1916]. Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism. A Popular Outline. London: Lawrence and Wishart.
Liddle, William 1970. Ethnicity, Party, and National Integration: an Indonesian Case Study. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Lieberman, Victor 2003. Strange Parallels: Southeast Asia in Global Context, c.800–1830. Vol. I: Integration on the Mainland. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lim, G. 2004. ‘The BN has Reshaped Sabah Politics to its Desires; now it must Deliver on its side of the Bargain’, Aliran Monthly 3.
Lindsay, Jennifer and Ying, Tan Ying 2003. Babel or Behemoth: Language Trends in Asia. Singapore: Asia Research Institute, National University of Singapore.
Lodewycksz, Willem 1915 [1598]. ‘Historie van Indien’, in Rouffaer, G. and Ijzerman, J. W. (ed.) De Eerste Schipvaart, Vol. I. The Hague: Linschoten-Vereniging.
Loh Kok Wah, Francis 1992. ‘Modernisation, Cultural Revival and Counter-Hegemony: the Kadazans of Sabah in the 1980s’, in Kahn, Joel and Loh, Francis (eds.) Fragmented Vision: Culture and Politics in Contemporary Malaysia. Sydney: Allen & Unwin for Asian Studies Association of Australia, 225–53.
Luping, Herman 1989. ‘The Making of a Huguan Siou: Facts and Fiction’, in Pesta Ka'amatan '89 Peringkat Negeri. Penampang.
Luping, Herman 1994. Sabah's Dilemma: The Political History of Sabah (1960–1994). Kuala Lumpur: Magnus Books.
Angus, Maddison 2001. The World Economy: a Millennial Perspective. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
McCoy, Alfred W. (ed.) 1980. Southeast Asia under Japanese Occupation. New Haven: Yale University Southeast Asia Studies
Macdonald, Charles and Yangwen, Zheng 2009. Personal Names in Asia: History, Culture and Identity. Singapore: National University of Singapore Press.
McGibbon, Rodd 2006. ‘Local Leadership and the Aceh Conflict’, in Reid, Anthony (ed.) Verandah of Violence: the Background to the Aceh Problem. Singapore: Singapore University Press, pp. 315–359.
McGregor, Katherine 2007. History in Uniform: Military Ideology and the Construction of Indonesia's Past. Singapore: National University of Singapore Press.
McNeill, William H. 1985. Poly-ethnicity and National Unity in World History: the Donald G. Creighton Lectures. University of Toronto Press.
Mackie, J. A. C. 1996. ‘Introduction’, in Reid, Anthony (ed.) Sojourners and Settlers: Histories of Southeast Asia and the Chinese. Sydney: Allen & Unwin, xii–xxx.
McVey, Ruth (ed.) 1992. Southeast Asian Capitalists. Ithaca: Cornell Southeast Asia Project.
Mahadhir, Mahanita and , LydieTumin, 2008. ‘Language Attitudes of the Kadazandusun towards their Mother Tongue’, Proceedings of the 9th Borneo Research Council Conference, Kota Kinabalu, July 2008.
Mohamad, Mahathir bin 1970. The Malay Dilemma. Singapore: Donald Moore.
Huan, Ma 1433. Ying-Yai Sheng-lan: ‘The Overall Survey of the Ocean's Shores’, trans. Mills, J. V. G. 1970. Cambridge: Hakluyt Society.
Maier, H. M. J. 1988. In the Center of Authority. Ithaca: Cornell University Southeast Asia Program.
,Malaysia 1995. Laporan Am Banci Penduduk/General Report of the Population Census, 1991. Kuala Lumpur, Department of Statistics.
Marr, David 1981. Vietnamese Tradition on Trial, 1920–1945. Berkeley, University of California Press.
Marsden, William 1811 [1966]. The History of Sumatra. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press.
Marsden, William 1812 [1984]. A Dictionary and Grammar of the Malayan Language. 3 vols. Singapore: Oxford University Press.
Martin, François 1604. Description du Premier Voyage faict aux Indes Orientalers par les François en l'an 1603. Paris: Laurens Sonnius.
Matheson, Virginia 1979. ‘Concepts of Malay Ethos in Indigenous Writing’, Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 10, ii: 351–71.
Miksic, John 1979. ‘Archeology, Trade and Society in Northeast Sumatra’. Ph.D. dissertation, Cornell University.
Miksic, John 1996. Indonesia Heritage: Ancient History. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet.
Miksic, John and Gek Low, Cheryl-Ann Mei (eds.) 2004. Early Singapore, 1300s–1819: Evidence in Maps, Texts and Artefacts. Singapore History Museum.
Miller, Michelle Ann 2006. ‘What's Special about Special Autonomy in Aceh?’ in Reid, Anthony (ed.) Verandah of Violence: the Background to the Aceh Problem. Singapore: Singapore University Press, 292–314.
Milner, Anthony 1982. Kerajaan: Malay Political Culture on the Eve of Colonial Rule. Tucson: University of Arizona Press for the Asian Studies Association of Australia.
Milner, Anthony 1995. The Invention of Politics in Colonial Malaya: Contesting Nationalism and the Expansion of the Public Sphere. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Milner, A. C., McKinnon, E. Edwards and Sinar, Tengku Luckman 1978. ‘A Note on Aru and Kota Cina’, Indonesia 26, 1–42.
Mojares, Resil 2006. Brains of the Nation. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila Press.
Morris, Eric 1983. ‘Islam and Politics in Aceh: a Study of Center–Periphery Relations in Indonesia’. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Cornell University, Ithaca.
Morris-Suzuki, 1995. ‘The Invention and Reinvention of “Japanese Culture”’, Journal of Asian Studies 54, iii, 759–81.
Muller, Hendrik (ed.) 1917. De Oost-Indische Compagnie in Cambodja en Laos: Verzameling van Bescheiden van 1636 tot 1670. The Hague: Linschoten-Vereeniging.
Myrdal, Gunnar 1968. Asian Drama: an Enquiry into the Poverty of Nations. New York: Twentieth Century Fund.
Nagata, Judith 1981. ‘In Defence of Ethnic Boundaries: the Changing Myths and Charters of Malay Identity’, in Keyes, Charles (ed.) Ethnic Change. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 87–116.
Nagtegal, Luc 1996. Riding the Dutch Tiger: the Dutch East Indies Company and the Northeast Coast of Java, 1680–1743. Leiden: Koninklijk Institute voor Taal-, Land-, en Volkenkunde (Leiden).
Naim, Mochtar 1984. Merantau: Pola Migrasi Suku Minangkabau. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press.
Nandy, Ashis 1995. ‘History's Forgotten Doubles’, History & Theory 34, 2: 44–66.
,National Operations Council 1969. The May 13 Tragedy: a Report. Kuala Lumpur: National Operations Council.
,Naval Intelligence Division 1943. Indo-China. Geographical Handbook Series. London: Naval Intelligence Division.
NBAR (North Borneo Annual Report), Jesselton, various years.
Nessen, William 2006. ‘Sentiments Made Visible: the Rise and Reason of Aceh's National Liberation Movement’, in Reid, Anthony (ed.) Verandah of Violence: the Background to the Aceh Problem. Singapore: Singapore University Press, 177–98.
Newbold, T. J. 1839 [1971]. Political and Statistical Account of the British Settlements in the Straits of Malacca, 2 vols. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press.
Keong, Ng Chin 1991. ‘The Case of Ch'en I-lao: Maritime Trade and Overseas Chinese in Ch'ing Policies, 1717—54’, in Ptak, Roderich and Rothermunde, Dietmar (eds.) Emporia, Commodities and Entrepreneurs in Asian Maritime Trade, c. 1400–1750. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner, 373–400.
Noer, Deliar 1979. ‘Yamin and Hamka: Two Routes to an Indonesian Identity’, in Reid, Anthony and Marr, David (eds.) Perceptions of the Past in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Heinemann.
Olthof, W. L. (ed.) 1987. Babad Tanah Djawi. Javaanse Rijkskroniek. Dordrecht: Foris for KITLV.
Omar, Ariffin 1993. Bangsa Melayu: Aspects of Democracy and Community among the Malays. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press.
Ong, Aihwa 1999. Flexible Citizenship: the Cultural Logics of Transnationality. Durham: Duke University Press.
Ongkili, James P. 1972. Modernization in East Malaysia, 1960–1970. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press.
Our Cultural Heritage n.d. [1985?]. Kota Kinabalu: Koisaan Koubasanan Kadazan Sabah.
Palma, Rafael 1949. Pride of the Malay Race, trans. Ozaeta, Roman. New York: Prentice-Hall.
Pan, Lynn (ed.) 1998. The Encyclopedia of the Chinese Overseas. Singapore: Archipelago Press.
Parfahn, Ahmed Ibn 1957/1967. Malayan Grandeur (a Narrative of a History by a Hundred Seers) and our Intellectual Revolution. Cotabato City: High School Press, 1957; Davao City: San Pedro Press, 1967.
Parlindungan, Mangaradja n.d. [1965?]. Tuanku Rao: Terror Agama Islam Mazhab Hambali di Tanah Batak, 1816–1833. Jakarta: Tandjung Pengharapan.
Paterno y de Vera Ignacio, Pedro 1887. La Antigua Civilización Tagálog. Madrid: Manuel Hernandez.
Pederson, Paul 1970. Batak Blood and Protestant Soul. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans.
Pelly, Usman 1994. Urbanisasi dan Adaptasi: Peranan Misi Budaya Minangkabau dan Mandailing. Jakarta: LP3ES.
Pelzer, Karl 1982. Planters Against Peasants: the Agrarian Struggle in East Sumatra, 1947–1958. ‘s-Gravenhage: Nijhoff.
Pemberton, John 1994. On the Subject of ‘Java’. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Perret, Daniel 1995. La Formation d'un Paysage Ethnique: Batak et Malais de Sumatra Nord-Est. Paris: Presses de l'EFEO.
Perret, Daniel, Surachman, Heddy, Koestoro, Lucas and Susetyo, Sukawati 2007. ‘Le Programme Archéologique Franco–Indonésien sur Padang Lawas (Sumatra Nord). Réflexions préliminairesArchipel 74: 45–82.
Pigafetta, Antonio 1969. First Voyage Round the World, trans. Robertson, J. A.. Manila: Filipiniana Book Guild.
Pigeaud, Th. G. Th. 1960. Java in the Fourteenth Century: a Study in Cultural History, 5 volumes. The Hague: Nijhoff.
Pinto, Mendes 1989. The Travels of Mendes Pinto, transl. Catz, Rebecca. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Pires, Tomé 1515. The Suma Oriental of Tomé Pires, (trans. Armando Cortesão, 1944.) London: Hakluyt Society.
Polo, Marco 1958 [1292]. The Travels of Marco Polo, trans. Latham, R. E.. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Prinst, Darwan 1996. Adat Karo. Medan: Kongres Kebudayaan Karo.
Proudfoot, Ian 1993. Early Malay Printed Books. Kuala Lumpur: The Academy of Malay Studies and the Library, University of Malaya.
Purba, O. H. S. and Purba, Elvis 1998. Migran Batak Toba di luar Tapanuli Utara: Suatu Deskripsi. Medan: Monora.
Purdey, Jemma 2006. Anti-Chinese Violence in Indonesia, 1996–1999. Singapore: Singapore University Press for Asian Studies Association of Australia.
Quirino, Carlos 1940. The Great Malayan. Makati City: Tahanan Books.
Raben, Remco 1996. ‘Batavia and Colombo: the Ethnic and Spatial Order of Two Colonial Cities, 1600–1800’. Ph.D. Dissertation, Leiden University.
Rae, Simon 1994. Breath Becomes the Wind: Old and New in Karo Religion. Dunedin: University of Otago Press.
Raffles, Sophia 1835. Memoir of the Life and Public Services of Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles Particularly in the Government of Java, 1811–1816, Bencoolen and its Dependencies, 1817–1824, 2 vols. London: Duncan.
Raffles, Thomas Stamford 1818. ‘On the Maláyu Nation, with a Translation of its Maritime Institutions’, Asiatic Researches 12.
Raffles, Thomas Stamford 1821. Malay Annals: Translated from the Malay Language by the Late Dr John Leyden, with an introduction by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, FRS. London: Longman.
Raniri, Nuru'd-dinar-1644 [1966]. Bustanu's-Salatin, Bab II, Fasal 13, ed. Iskandar, T.. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.
Regis, Patricia 1989. ‘Demography’, in Kitingan, Jeffrey and Ongkili, Maximus (eds.) Sabah: 25 Years Later, 1963–1988. Kota Kinabalu, Sabah: Institute of Development Studies.
Reid, Anthony 1969a. The Contest for North Sumatra: Atjeh, the Netherlands and Britain, 1858–1898. Kuala Lumpur, Oxford University Press/University of Malaya Press.
Reid, Anthony 1969b. ‘Indonesian Diplomacy. A Documentary Study of Atjehnese Foreign Policy in the Reign of Sultan Mahmud, 1870–1874’, Journal of the Malayan Branch, Royal Asiatic Society 42, 2, 74–114.
Reid, Anthony 1969c. ‘The Kuala Lumpur Riots and the Malaysian Political System’, Australian Outlook 23, iii (December 1969), 258–78.
Reid, Anthony 1974. The Indonesian National Revolution. Melbourne: Longman.
Reid, Anthony 1979a. The Blood of the People: Revolution and the End of Traditional Rule in Northern Sumatra. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press.
Reid, Anthony 1979b. ‘The Nationalist Quest for an Indonesian Past,’ in Reid, Anthony and Marr, David (eds.) Perceptions of the Past in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Heinemann.
Reid, Anthony 1988–93. Southeast Asia in the Age of Commerce, c.1450–1680, 2 vols. New Haven, Yale University Press.
Reid, Anthony 1993. ‘The Unthreatening Alternative: Chinese Shipping in Southeast Asia 1567–1842’, Review of Indonesian and Malaysian Affairs 27: 13–32.
Reid, Anthony 1996. ‘Flows and Seepages in the Long-term Chinese Interaction with Southeast Asia’, in Reid, (ed.), Sojourners and Settlers: Histories of Southeast Asia and the Chinese. Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 15–49.
Reid, Anthony 1997. ‘Entrepreneurial Minorities, Nationalism and the State’, in Chirot, Daniel and Reid, Anthony (eds.) Essential Outsiders: Chinese and Jews in the Modern Transformation of Southeast Asia and Central Europe. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 33–71.
Reid, Anthony 2001. ‘Understanding Melayu (Malay) as a Source of Diverse Modern Identities,’Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 32, iii, 295–313.
Reid, Anthony 2002. ‘Island of the Dead: Why do Bataks erect Tugu?’ in Chambert-Loir, H. and Reid, A. (eds.) The Potent Dead: the Cult of Saints, Ancestors and Heroes in Modern Indonesia. Sydney: Allen & Unwin for the Asian Studies Association of Australia, 88–102.
Reid, Anthony 2004. ‘War, Peace and the Burden of History in Aceh’, Asian Ethnicity 15, 3 (Oct), 301–14.
Reid, Anthony 2005. An Indonesian Frontier: Acehnese and other Histories of Sumatra. Singapore: Singapore University Press.
Reid, Anthony (ed.) 2006a. Verandah of Violence: the Background to the Aceh Problem. Singapore: Singapore University Press.
Reid, Anthony 2006b. Hybrid Identities in the Fifteenth Century Straits, Working Paper Series no. 67, Asia Research Institute, Singapore,
Reid, Anthony 2006c. Is There a Batak History? Singapore: Working Paper Series no. 78, Asia Research Institute,
Reid, Anthony 2007. ‘Indonesia's post-revolutionary aversion to federalism,’ in Baogang, Heet al. (eds.) Federalism in Asia. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, 144–64.
Reid, Anthony and Yangwen, Zheng (eds.) 2009. Negotiating Asymmetry: China's Place in Asia. Singapore: National University of Singapore Press.
Ricklefs, M. C. 1992. ‘Unity and Disunity in Javanese Political and Religious Thought of the Eighteenth Century’, in Houben, V. J. al. (eds.) Looking in Odd Mirrors: The Java Sea, Leiden: Leiden University Department of Southeast Asian Studies, 60–75.
Ricklefs, M. C. 1998. The Seen and Unseen Worlds in Java, 1726–1749: History, Literature, and Islam in the Court of Pakubuwana II. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, for the Asian Studies Association of Australia.
Rinder, Irwin, 1958–9. ‘Strangers in the Land: Social Relations in the Status Gap’, Social Problems 6, 253–60.
Rizal, José (ed.) 1961. Sucesos de las isles Filipinas por el Dr Antonio de Morga. Manila: Comision Naciónal del Centenario de Rizal.
Rizal–Blumentritt, 1961. The Rizal–Blumentritt Correspondence, Vol. II. Manila: José Rizal Centennial Commission.
Robinson, Geoffrey 1998. ‘Rawan is as Rawan Does: the Origins of Disorder in New Order Aceh’, Indonesia 66, 127–56.
Robison, Richard 1986. Indonesia: the Rise of Capital. Sydney: Allen & Unwin.
Stuart, Robson (ed.) 1995. Deśawarṇana (Nāgarakrtāgama) by Mpu Prapañca. Leiden: KITLV Press.
Rodenburg, Janet 1997. In the Shadow of Migration: Rural Women and their Households in North Tapanuli, Indonesia. Leiden: KITLV Press.
Rodgers Siregar, Susan 1981. Adat, Islam and Christianity in a Batak Homeland. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Center for International Studies.
Rodgers, Susan 1991a. ‘The Ethnic Culture Page in Medan Journalism’Indonesia 51 (April), 83–104.
Rodgers, Susan 1991b. ‘Imagining Tradition, Imagining Modernity: a Southern Batak Novel from the 1920s’, Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land-, en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsche Indië, published by the KITLV (see below) 147, 2–3, 273–97.
Rodgers, Susan 1997. Sitti Djaoerah: a Novel of Colonial Indonesia. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Center for Southeast Asian Studies.
Rodgers, Susan 2005. Print, Poetics, and Politics: a Batak Literary Epic in the Indies and New Order Indonesia. Leiden: KITLV Press.
Roff, Margaret 1969. ‘The Rise and Demise of Kadazan Nationalism’, Journal of Southeast Asian History 10, ii: 326–43.
Roff, William 1967. The Origins of Malay Nationalism. Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya Press.
Roolvink, R. 1975. Bahasa Jawi: de Taal van Sumatra. Leiden: Universitaire Pers.
Rooney, John 1981. Khabar Gembira. A History of the Catholic Church in East Malaysia and Brunei (1880–1976). London: Burns & Oates.
Rutter, Owen, 1929. The Pagans of North Borneo. London: Hutchinson.
Ryter, Loren 2002. ‘Youths, Gangs and the State in Indonesia’. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Washington.
Salazar, Zeus A. 1998. The Malayan Connection. Ang Pilipinas sa Dunia Melayu. Quezon City, Palimbagan ng Lahi.
Claudine, Salmon 1996. ‘Ancestral Halls, Funeral Associoations, and Attempts at Resinicization in Nineteenth Century Netherlands India’, in Reid, Anthony (ed.) Sojourners and Settlers: Histories of Southeast Asia and the Chinese. Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 183–214.
Salmon, Claudine and Siddharta, Myra 2000. ‘The Hainanese of Bali: A Little Known Community’. Paris: Archipel 60.
Sangermano, Vincentius 1966 [1818]. A Description of the Burmese Empire, trans. Tandy, William. Rome and Rangoon. Reprinted London: Susil Gupta.
Sangti, Batara 1977. Sejarah Batak. Balige: Karl Sianipar.
Sani, Rustam A. 2008. Failed Nation? Concerns of a Malaysian Nationalist. Kuala Lumpur: Strategic Information and Research Development.
Schreiner, Klaus 1995. Politischer Heldenkult in Indonesien. Hamburg: Dietrich Reimer.
Schulte Nordholt, Henk 1993. ‘Leadership and the Limits of Political Control: A Balinese “Response” to Clifford Geertz’, Social Anthropology 1, 3.
Schulze, Kirsten E. 2006. ‘Insurgency and Counter-Insurgency: Strategy and the Aceh Conflict, October 1976–May 2004’, in Reid, Anthony (ed.) Verandah of Violence: the Background to the Aceh Problem. Singapore: Singapore University Press225–271.
Scott, Edmund 1606 [1943]. ‘An Exact Discourse’, in Foster, Sir William (ed.) The Voyage of Henry Middleton to the Moluccas. London: Hakluyt Society, 81–176.
Scott, James C. 1998a. Seeing Like a State. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Scott, James C. 1998b. ‘State Simplifications’, in Kelly, David and Reid, Anthony (eds.) Asian Freedoms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Scott, W. H. 1982. Cracks in the Parchment Curtain.
Sherman, George 1990. Rice, Rupees and Ritual. Economy and Society Among the Samosir Batak of Sumatra. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Shim, P. S. 2007. Inland People of Sabah, Before, During and After Nunuk Ragang. Kota Kinabalu: Borneo Cultural Heritage Publisher.
Shiraishi, Takeshi 1997. ‘Anti-Sinicism in Java's New Order’, in Chirot, Daniel and Anthony Reid, (eds.) Essential Outsiders: Chinese and Jews in the Modern Transformation of Southeast Asia and Central Europe. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 187–207.
Singarimbun, Masri 1975. Kinship, Descent and Alliance among the Karo Batak. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Sitor, Situmorang 1993. Toba Na Sae: Sejarah Lembaga Sosial Politik Abad XIII–XX. Jakarta: Komunitas Bambu.
Skinner, Cyril 1963. Sja'ir Perang Mengkasar (The Rhymed Chronicle of the Macassar War) by Entji' Amin. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.
Skinner, G. William 1957. Chinese Society in Thailand: an Analytical History. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Skinner, G. William 1996. ‘Creolized Chinese Societies in Southeast Asia’, in Reid, Anthony (ed.) Sojourners and Settlers: Histories of Southeast Asia and the Chinese. Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 51–93.
Smail, John R. W. 1968. ‘The Military Politics of North Sumatra, December 1956–October 1957’, Indonesia 6 (October), 128–87.
Smith, Anthony D. 1986. The Ethnic Origins of Nations. Oxford: Blackwell.
Smith, Anthony D. 1991. National Identity. London: Penguin.
Smith, Anthony D. 1995. Nations and Nationalism in a Global Era. Cambridge: Polity Press.
So, Billy 2000. Prosperity, Region and Institutions in Maritime China: the South Fukien Pattern, 946–1368. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
ST. Sabah Times. Kota Kinabalu, daily.
Stapel, F. W. 1922. Het Bongaais Verdrag. Published dissertation, University of Leiden.
Steedly, Mary 1996. ‘The Importance of Proper Names: Language and “National” Identity in Colonial Karoland’, American Ethnologist, 23: 447–75.
Sulaiman, M. Isa 1997. Sejarah Aceh: Sebuah Gugatan Terhadap Tradisi. Jakarta: Pustaka Sinar Harapan.
Sulaiman, M. Isa 2000. Aceh Merdeka: Ideologi, Kepimimpinan dan Gerakan. Jakarta: Pustaka al Kausar.
Sulaiman, M. Isa 2006. ‘From Autonomy to Periphery: a Critical Evaluation of the Acehnese Nationalist Movement’, in Reid, Anthony (ed.) Verandah of Violence: the Background to the Aceh Problem. Singapore: Singapore University Press, 121–48.
Suryadinata, Leo 1992. Pribumi Indonesians, the Chinese Minority and China, 3rd. edn. Singapore: Heinemann Asia.
Suryadinata, Leo, Arifin, Evi Nurvidya and Ananta, Aris 2003. Indonesia's Population: Ethnicity and Religion in a Changing Political Landscape. Singapore: Institute for Southeast Asian Studies.
Swettenham, Frank 1906. British Malaya. London: John Lane.
Tagliacozzo, Eric 2005. Secret Trades, Porous Borders: Smuggling and States along a Southeast Asian Frontier 1865–1915. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Tan Chee, Khoon 1986. Sabah: a Triumph for Democracy. Kuala Lumpur, Pelandok.
Leng, Tan Pek, 1992. ‘A History of Chinese Settlement in Brunei’, in Essays on Modern Brunei History. Department of History, Universiti Brunei Darussalam.
Winichakul, Thongchai 1991. Siam Mapped. A History of the Geo-body of a Nation. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
Tichelman, G. L. 1936. ‘Batak-trek’, Koloniaal Tijdschrift.
Tiro,] Hasan Muhammad 1958. Demokrasi Untuk Indonesia [Democracy for Indonesia]. Np. Penerbit Seulawah.
Tiro,] Hasan Muhammad 1948. Perang Atjeh, 1873–1927Stencilled, Jogjakarta.
Tiro,] Hasan Muhammad 1981. The Price of Freedom: the Unfinished Diary of Tengku Hasan di Tiro, President, National Liberation Front of Acheh Sumatra [stencilled].
Tiro, Tengku Hasan M. di 1979. The Drama of Achehnese History; 1873–1978. A Play in VIII Acts. State of Acheh: Ministry of Education [stencilled].
Tobing, Adniel L. 1957. Sedjarah Si Singamangaradja I-XII, 4th edn. Medan: Firman Sihombing.
Tønnesson, Stein and Antlöv, Hans (eds.) 1996. Asian Forms of the Nation. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon.
Topin, Benedict (n.d). ‘The Origin of the Kadazan/Dusun: Popular Theories and Legendary Tales’. Typescript.
Toynbee, Arnold J. 1931. A Journey to China or Things which are Seen. London: Constable.
Tsu, Jing 2005. Failure, Nationalism, and Literature: the Making of Modern Chinese Identity, 1895–1937. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Yang, Twang Peck 1998. The Chinese Business Elite in Indonesia and the Transition to Independence, 1940–1950. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press.
Umar, PehinOrang, KayaLaila, WijayaDato, HajiAbdul, Aziz 1992. ‘Melayu Islam Beraja Sebagai Falsafah Negara Brunei Darussalam’, in Sumbangsih, (ed.) Dato Seri Laila Jasa Awang Haji Abu Bakar bin Haji Apong. Gadong: Akademi Pengajian Brunei.
Vella, Walter 1978. Chaiyo: King Vajiravudh and the Development of Thai Nationalism. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
Vergouwen, J. C. 1964 [1933]. The Social Organisation and Customary Law of the Toba-Batak of Northern Sumatra. The Hague: Nijhoff for KITLV.
Vlieland, C. A. 1932. British Malaya: a Report on the 1931 Census and on Certain Problems of Vital Statistics. London: n.p.
Vliet, Jeremias 2005. Van Vliet's Siam, ed. and trans. Baker, Chris, Pombejra, Dhiravat na, Kraan, Alfons and Wyatt, David K.. Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books.
Volkstelling 1930. 8 vols. Batavia: Departement van Economische Zaken, 1933–36.
Wade, Geoffrey 1994. ‘The Ming Shi-lu (Veritable Records of the Ming Dynasty) as a Source for Southeast Asian History: Fourteenth to Seventeenth Centuries’. Ph.D. dissertation, 8 vols. University of Hong Kong.
Wade, Geoffrey and Laichen, Sun (eds.) 2009. Southeast Asia in the Fifteenth Century: the Ming Factor. Singapore: Singapore University Press.
Gungwu, Wang 1981. Community and Nation: Essays on Southeast Asia and the Chinese. Singapore:Heinemann for Asian Studies Association of Australia.
Gungwu, Wang 1996. ‘Sojourning: the Chinese Experience in Southeast Asia’, in Reid, Anthony (ed.) Sojourners and Settlers: Histories of Southeast Asia and the Chinese. Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 1–14.
Gungwu, Wang 2000. The Chinese Overseas: from Earthbound China to the Quest for Autonomy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Peng, Wang Tai 1994. The Origins of the Chinese Kongsi. Petaling Jaya, Malaysia: Pelanduk.
Warnaen, Suwarsih 1982. ‘Identitas Sosial Suku Bangsa dan Nasional Sudah Stabil’, Sinar Harapan, 16 October.
Wickberg, Edgar 1965. The Chinese in Philippine Life 1850–1898. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Wiener, Margaret 1995. Visible and Invisible Realms: Power, Magic and Conquest in Bali. University of Chicago Press.
Winstedt, R. O. 1923. Malaya: the Straits Settlements and the Federated and Unfederated Malay States. London: Constable.
Winstedt, R. O. (ed.) 1938. ‘The Malay Annals or Sejarah Melayu’, Journal of the Malaysian Branch, Royal Asiatic Society XVI, pt. III.
Winstedt, R. O. and Haji Hasan, Abdul Hadi bin 1918. Kitab Tawarikh Melayu. Singapore.
Wolf, Eric 1982. Europe and the People without History. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Wolters, Oliver 1999 [1982]. History, Culture and Region in Southeast Asian Perspectives. Singapore: Institute for Southeast Asian Studies.
Womack, Brantly 2006. China and Vietnam: the Politics of Asymmetry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Woodside, Alexander 1976. Community and Revolution in Modern Vietnam. Atlanta: Houghton Mifflin.
Wright, Arnold and Cartwright, H. A. 1908. Twentieth Century Impressions of British Malaya: its History, People, Commerce, Industries, and Resources. London: Lloyds.
Ching-hwang, Yen 1995. Studies in Overseas Chinese History. Singapore: Times Academic Press.
Ypes, W. K. H. 1932. Bijdrage tot de Kennis van de Stamverwantschap, de Inheemsche Rechtsgemeenschappen en het Grondenrecht der Toba- en Dairibataks. The Hague: Nijhoff for Adatrechtstichting.
Yule, Henry and Burnell, A. C. 1979. Hobson-Jobson. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharial.
Zawawi, Ibrahim 2001. Voices of the Crocker Range: Indigenous Communities in Sabah. Social Narratives of Transitioin in Tambunan and its Neighbours. Kuching: Institute of East Asian Studies, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak.
Zenner, Walter 1991. Minorities in the Middle: a Cross-cultural Analysis. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Zentgraaff, H. C. 1938. Atjeh. Batavia: De Unie.
Yangwen, Zheng 2009. ‘The Peaceful Rise of China after a Century of Unequal Treaties’, in Reid and Zheng (eds.) 159–91.


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between #date#. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.