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  • Print publication year: 2018
  • Online publication date: December 2018

6 - Implications of the Evolution of Canada’s Three Orders of Government for ABS Implementation

from Part II - Hurdles to ABS
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Summary

This chapter evaluates the potential for the governance of access and benefit-sharing in Canada through the lens of different layers of government: federal, provincial, territorial and Indigenous. The emphasis of the chapter is on how the nation-to-nation approach could be an effective way to integrate Indigenous peoples’ claim to genetic resources (GR) and their traditional knowledge (TK) as aspects of their self-determination. A nation-to-nation approach recognizes Indigenous peoples as stakeholders in access and benefit-sharing (ABS) in ways that advance the pursuit of justice and reconciliation in Canada. With the backdrop of ongoing policy initiatives and multifaceted attempts at renewing Canadian-Indigenous relations, the chapter underscores the federal government’s role in driving the charge. It will also require a commitment on the part of provincial governments, and overall political will across Canada, to draw in Indigenous peoples as genuine partners in order to fully integrate their legal traditions. Before Canada can implement the Nagoya Protocol, and any other ABS vision for that matter, all governments need to take the nation-to-nation mantra seriously and to articulate the legal status of GR and TK in Canada.

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Campbell v. British Columbia (Attorney General), [2000] BCSC 1123, 79 BCLR (3d) 122.
Daniels v. Canada (Indian Affairs and Northern Development), [2016] 1 SCR 99, 2016 SCC 12.
Mikisew Cree First Nation v. Canada (Minister of Canadian Heritage), [2005] 3 SCR 388, 2005 SCC 69.
Mitchell v. Minister of National Revenue, 2001 SCC 33, [2001] 1 SCR 911.
R v. Adams, [1996] 3 SCR 101, 138 DLR (4th) 657.
R v. Van der Peet, [1996] 2 SCR 507.
Tsilhqot’in Nation v. British Columbia, [2014] SCC 44.
American Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, OAS Doc. AG/RES. 2888 (XLVI-O/16) (2016).
Convention on Biological Diversity, 1760 UNTS 79, 31 ILM 818 (1992).
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, 660 UNTS 195 (1965).
International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, FAO Res. 3/2001 (2001).
Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from Their Utilization to the Convention on Biological Diversity, CBD COP Decision X/1 (2010).
United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, UN Doc. A/61/L.67/Annex (2007).
Anker, Kirsten. 2016. ‘Reconciliation in Translation: Indigenous Legal Traditions and Canada’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission’. 33 Windsor Y.B. Access to Just. 15.
Bellegarde, Perry. 2017. ‘Celebrating the Longest Day and the First Inhabitants’. Toronto Star, 21 June. www.thestar.com/opinion/commentary/2017/06/21/celebrating-the-longest-day-and-the-first-inhabitants-bellegarde.html.
Borrows, JohnDomesticating Doctrines: Aboriginal Peoples after the Royal Commission’. (2001) 46 McGill L.J. 615.
Borrows, John ‘Unextinguished: Rights and the Indian Act’ 67 U.N.B.L.J. 3.
Borrows, John ‘An Emphasis on Indigenous Law Could Help Shape a Future That’s Brighter than Our Past’. The Hill Times, 28 June 2017.
Clogg, Jessica, Askew, Hannah, Kung, Eugene, and Smith, Gavin. 2016. ‘Indigenous Legal Traditions and the Future of Environmental Governance in Canada’. Journal of Environmental Law and Practice 29: 227–56.
Dagne, Tesh. 2017. ‘Protection of Biodiversity and Associated Traditional Knowledge (TK) in Canada: Ensuring Community Control in Access and Benefit-Sharing (ABS)’. Journal of Environmental Law and Practice 30 (2): 97122.
De Beer, Jeremy and Brusnyk, Craig W.. 2011. ‘Intellectual Property and Biomedical Innovation in the Context of Canadian Federalism’. Health Law Journal 19: 4582.
Department of Justice. 2017. ‘Principles Respecting the Government of Canada’s Relationship with Indigenous Peoples’. www.justice.gc.ca/eng/csj-sjc/principles-principes.html.
Environment and Climate Change Canada. 2016. Canada’s Biodiversity Outcomes Framework and 2020 Goals & Targets. Ottawa, Canada: Government of Canada.
Environment Canada. 2011. ‘Managing Genetic Resources in the 21st Century: Domestic Policy Guidance for Canada’. Ottawa, Canada.
Ferreira de Souza Dias, Braulio, and Garforth, Kathryn. 2017. ‘Historical Perspectives on the Challenge of Biodiversity Conservation’. In: Morgera, Elisa and Razzaque, Jona (eds.), Biodiversity and Nature Protection Law. Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar Publishing. pp. 1330.
Greiber, Thomas, et al. 2012. ‘An Explanatory Guide to the Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit-Sharing’ Bonn, Germany: International Union for the Conservation of Nature.
Gunn, Brenda L. 2007. ‘Protecting Indigenous Peoples’ Lands: Making Room for the Application of Indigenous Peoples’ Laws Within the Canadian Legal System6 Indigenous Law Journal 31.
Hoehn, Felix. 2016. ‘Back to the Future--Reconciliation and Indigenous Sovereignty after Tsilhqot’in’
Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada. 2017. ‘Speech for the Honourable Carolyn Bennett, Minister of Indigenous and Northern Affairs at the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues 16th Session: Opening Ceremony’. www.canada.ca/en/indigenous-northern-affairs/news/2017/04/united_nations_permanentforumonindigenousissues16thsessionopenin.html.
Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada. ‘Speech delivered at the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, New York, May 10’. New York, USA, 11 May 2017, online: http://news.gc.ca/web/article-en.do?nid=1064009.
Jamieson, Roberta ‘Canada’s Original Promise: Still Waiting to be Realized’, CBC Ideas, 30 June 2017 www.cbc.ca/radio/ideas/canada-s-original-promise-still-waiting-to-be-realized-1.4185851.
Oguamanam, Chidi. 2008. ‘Local Knowledge as Trapped Knowledge: Intellectual Property, Culture, Power and PoliticsJournal of World Intellectual Property 11 (1): 2957.
Oguamanam, Chidi. 2011. ‘Genetic Resources & Access and Benefit Sharing: Politics, Prospects and Opportunities for Canada after Nagoya’. Journal of Environmental Law and Practice 22 (2): 87124.
Oguamanam, Chidi. 2014. ‘Indigenous Peoples’ Rights at the Intersection of Human Rights and Intellectual Property Rights’. Marquette Intellectual Property Law Review 18 (2): 261–95. http://scholarship.law.marquette.edu/iplr/.
Oguamanam, Chidi. 2017. ‘Rethinking Copyright for Indigenous Creative Works’ IRPP Policy Options, 28 June 2017, http://policyoptions.irpp.org/magazines/june-2017/rethinking-copyright-indigenous-creative-works/.
Paterson, Robert K. 2017. ‘Canadian and International Traditional Knowledge and Cultural Expression Systems29 I.P.J. 191.
Prime Minister’s Office, ‘Minister of Indigenous and Northern Affairs Mandate Letter’ (Government of Canada, 2015).
Prime Minister’s Office, ‘Prime Minister announces Working Group of Ministers on the Review of Laws and Policies Related to Indigenous Peoples’, 22 February 2017, online: http://pm.gc.ca/eng/news/2017/02/22/prime-minister-announces-working-group-ministers-review-laws-and-policies-related/.
Prime Minister’s Office, ‘Review of Environmental and Regulatory Processes’ Ottawa, 2016, online: www.canada.ca/en/services/environment/conservation/assessments/environmental-reviews.html.
Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (Ottawa: Minister of Supply and Services Canada, 1996).
Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. 2015. ‘Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada: Calls to Action’. Winnipeg, MB.
Valiante, Giuseppe. 2016. ‘Akwesane Creates First Court in Canada for and by Indigenous Peoples’ Canadian Press, 2 October, online: www.cbc.ca/news/canada/montreal/akwesasne-indigenous-court-canada-1.3787969/.
Wilkins, Kerry. 2013. Canadian Encyclopedic Digest: Aboriginal Law, 4th Edition. WestLaw.
Willmore, Christine. 2017. ‘Sovereignty, Conservation and Sustainable Use’. In: Morgera, Elisa and Razzaque, Jona (eds.), Biodiversity and Nature Protection Law. Northampton MA: Edward Elgar. pp. 3143.
Wilson-Raybould, Jody. 2017. ‘Beyond Denial: Indigenous Reconciliation Requires Recognition’. The Globe and Mail, 18 July.
Campbell v. British Columbia (Attorney General), [2000] BCSC 1123, 79 BCLR (3d) 122.
Daniels v. Canada (Indian Affairs and Northern Development), [2016] 1 SCR 99, 2016 SCC 12.
Mikisew Cree First Nation v. Canada (Minister of Canadian Heritage), [2005] 3 SCR 388, 2005 SCC 69.
Mitchell v. Minister of National Revenue, 2001 SCC 33, [2001] 1 SCR 911.
R v. Adams, [1996] 3 SCR 101, 138 DLR (4th) 657.
R v. Van der Peet, [1996] 2 SCR 507.
Tsilhqot’in Nation v. British Columbia, [2014] SCC 44.
American Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, OAS Doc. AG/RES. 2888 (XLVI-O/16) (2016).
Convention on Biological Diversity, 1760 UNTS 79, 31 ILM 818 (1992).
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, 660 UNTS 195 (1965).
International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, FAO Res. 3/2001 (2001).
Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from Their Utilization to the Convention on Biological Diversity, CBD COP Decision X/1 (2010).
United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, UN Doc. A/61/L.67/Annex (2007).
Anker, Kirsten. 2016. ‘Reconciliation in Translation: Indigenous Legal Traditions and Canada’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission’. 33 Windsor Y.B. Access to Just. 15.
Bellegarde, Perry. 2017. ‘Celebrating the Longest Day and the First Inhabitants’. Toronto Star, 21 June. www.thestar.com/opinion/commentary/2017/06/21/celebrating-the-longest-day-and-the-first-inhabitants-bellegarde.html.
Borrows, JohnDomesticating Doctrines: Aboriginal Peoples after the Royal Commission’. (2001) 46 McGill L.J. 615.
Borrows, John ‘Unextinguished: Rights and the Indian Act’ 67 U.N.B.L.J. 3.
Borrows, John ‘An Emphasis on Indigenous Law Could Help Shape a Future That’s Brighter than Our Past’. The Hill Times, 28 June 2017.
Clogg, Jessica, Askew, Hannah, Kung, Eugene, and Smith, Gavin. 2016. ‘Indigenous Legal Traditions and the Future of Environmental Governance in Canada’. Journal of Environmental Law and Practice 29: 227–56.
Dagne, Tesh. 2017. ‘Protection of Biodiversity and Associated Traditional Knowledge (TK) in Canada: Ensuring Community Control in Access and Benefit-Sharing (ABS)’. Journal of Environmental Law and Practice 30 (2): 97122.
De Beer, Jeremy and Brusnyk, Craig W.. 2011. ‘Intellectual Property and Biomedical Innovation in the Context of Canadian Federalism’. Health Law Journal 19: 4582.
Department of Justice. 2017. ‘Principles Respecting the Government of Canada’s Relationship with Indigenous Peoples’. www.justice.gc.ca/eng/csj-sjc/principles-principes.html.
Environment and Climate Change Canada. 2016. Canada’s Biodiversity Outcomes Framework and 2020 Goals & Targets. Ottawa, Canada: Government of Canada.
Environment Canada. 2011. ‘Managing Genetic Resources in the 21st Century: Domestic Policy Guidance for Canada’. Ottawa, Canada.
Ferreira de Souza Dias, Braulio, and Garforth, Kathryn. 2017. ‘Historical Perspectives on the Challenge of Biodiversity Conservation’. In: Morgera, Elisa and Razzaque, Jona (eds.), Biodiversity and Nature Protection Law. Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar Publishing. pp. 1330.
Greiber, Thomas, et al. 2012. ‘An Explanatory Guide to the Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit-Sharing’ Bonn, Germany: International Union for the Conservation of Nature.
Gunn, Brenda L. 2007. ‘Protecting Indigenous Peoples’ Lands: Making Room for the Application of Indigenous Peoples’ Laws Within the Canadian Legal System6 Indigenous Law Journal 31.
Hoehn, Felix. 2016. ‘Back to the Future--Reconciliation and Indigenous Sovereignty after Tsilhqot’in’
Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada. 2017. ‘Speech for the Honourable Carolyn Bennett, Minister of Indigenous and Northern Affairs at the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues 16th Session: Opening Ceremony’. www.canada.ca/en/indigenous-northern-affairs/news/2017/04/united_nations_permanentforumonindigenousissues16thsessionopenin.html.
Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada. ‘Speech delivered at the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, New York, May 10’. New York, USA, 11 May 2017, online: http://news.gc.ca/web/article-en.do?nid=1064009.
Jamieson, Roberta ‘Canada’s Original Promise: Still Waiting to be Realized’, CBC Ideas, 30 June 2017 www.cbc.ca/radio/ideas/canada-s-original-promise-still-waiting-to-be-realized-1.4185851.
Oguamanam, Chidi. 2008. ‘Local Knowledge as Trapped Knowledge: Intellectual Property, Culture, Power and PoliticsJournal of World Intellectual Property 11 (1): 2957.
Oguamanam, Chidi. 2011. ‘Genetic Resources & Access and Benefit Sharing: Politics, Prospects and Opportunities for Canada after Nagoya’. Journal of Environmental Law and Practice 22 (2): 87124.
Oguamanam, Chidi. 2014. ‘Indigenous Peoples’ Rights at the Intersection of Human Rights and Intellectual Property Rights’. Marquette Intellectual Property Law Review 18 (2): 261–95. http://scholarship.law.marquette.edu/iplr/.
Oguamanam, Chidi. 2017. ‘Rethinking Copyright for Indigenous Creative Works’ IRPP Policy Options, 28 June 2017, http://policyoptions.irpp.org/magazines/june-2017/rethinking-copyright-indigenous-creative-works/.
Paterson, Robert K. 2017. ‘Canadian and International Traditional Knowledge and Cultural Expression Systems29 I.P.J. 191.
Prime Minister’s Office, ‘Minister of Indigenous and Northern Affairs Mandate Letter’ (Government of Canada, 2015).
Prime Minister’s Office, ‘Prime Minister announces Working Group of Ministers on the Review of Laws and Policies Related to Indigenous Peoples’, 22 February 2017, online: http://pm.gc.ca/eng/news/2017/02/22/prime-minister-announces-working-group-ministers-review-laws-and-policies-related/.
Prime Minister’s Office, ‘Review of Environmental and Regulatory Processes’ Ottawa, 2016, online: www.canada.ca/en/services/environment/conservation/assessments/environmental-reviews.html.
Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (Ottawa: Minister of Supply and Services Canada, 1996).
Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. 2015. ‘Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada: Calls to Action’. Winnipeg, MB.
Valiante, Giuseppe. 2016. ‘Akwesane Creates First Court in Canada for and by Indigenous Peoples’ Canadian Press, 2 October, online: www.cbc.ca/news/canada/montreal/akwesasne-indigenous-court-canada-1.3787969/.
Wilkins, Kerry. 2013. Canadian Encyclopedic Digest: Aboriginal Law, 4th Edition. WestLaw.
Willmore, Christine. 2017. ‘Sovereignty, Conservation and Sustainable Use’. In: Morgera, Elisa and Razzaque, Jona (eds.), Biodiversity and Nature Protection Law. Northampton MA: Edward Elgar. pp. 3143.
Wilson-Raybould, Jody. 2017. ‘Beyond Denial: Indigenous Reconciliation Requires Recognition’. The Globe and Mail, 18 July.