Skip to main content Accessibility help
Food, Energy and the Creation of Industriousness
  • Cited by 55
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the print book

Book description

Until the widespread harnessing of machine energy, food was the energy which fuelled the economy. In this groundbreaking 2011 study of agricultural labourers' diet and material standard of living, Craig Muldrew uses empirical research to present a much fuller account of the interrelationship between consumption, living standards and work in the early modern English economy than has previously existed. The book integrates labourers into a study of the wider economy and engages with the history of food as an energy source and its importance to working life, the social complexity of family earnings, and the concept of the 'industrious revolution'. It argues that 'industriousness' was as much the result of ideology and labour markets as labourers' household consumption. Linking this with ideas about the social order of early modern England, the author demonstrates that bread, beer and meat were the petrol of this world, and a springboard for economic change.


‘This is certainly the most original and significant investigation of the living standards and working patterns of rural labourers in early modern England to appear for decades. It radically revises some previous assumptions, subtly nuances others, and raises new questions …’

Keith Wrightson - Yale University

‘This excellent new study, based on impressive empirical research and inventive analysis, affords unprecedented insight on the working lives and standards of living of labouring people in early modern England. This book sheds important new light on consumption, agricultural improvement, and the ‘industrious revolution’ that predated industrialisation, and will prove indispensable to our assessment of the contribution of the labouring population to, as well as their experience of, economic change during a critical period of growth.’

Alexandra Shepard - University of Glasgow

'With this volume Craig Muldrew advances our understanding of living standards, industriousness, and the working lives of men, women, and children in rural England.'

Source: Journal of British Studies

'Craig Muldrew’s Food, Energy and the Creation of Industriousness … paints a picture of a moderately prosperous, hard-working population of wage earners, who made a decent living outside of the crisis periods of 1595–1630 and the late eighteenth century. The book has a lot to offer social and cultural historians, with a detailed examination of ordinary people’s diet, of families’ multiple sources of income, and of the material culture of the home.'

Jane Whittle Source: History Workshop Journal

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.


Manuscript sources
Printed Primary And Secondary Sources
An Account of Several Workhouses for Employing and Maintaining the Poor (London, 1725).
Adams, Beverly (ed.), Lifestyle and Culture in Hertford … Wills and Inventories 1660–1725, Hertfordshire Record Society, 13 (1997).
Albala, Ken, Eating Right in the Renaissance (Berkeley, 2002).
Allen, Robert, The British Industrial Revolution in Global Perspective (Cambridge, 2009).
Allen, Robert, Enclosure and the Yeoman: The Agricultural Development of the South Midlands 1450–1850 (Oxford, 1992).
Allen, Robert, ‘Progress and Poverty in Early Modern Europe’, Economic History Review, 56 (2003), pp. 403–43.
Appleby, Andrew, Famine in Tudor and Stuart England (Liverpool, 1978).
Appleby, Joyce Oldham, Economic Thought and Ideology in Seventeenth-Century England (Princeton, 1978).
Archer, Ian, The Pursuit of Stability: Social Relations in Elizabethan London (Cambridge, 1991).
Archer, Ian, Barron, Caroline and Harding, Vanessa (eds.), Hugh Alley's Caveat: The Markets of London in 1598, London Topographical Society, 137 (1988).
Archer, John, Every Man His Own Doctor (London, 1671).
Arkell, Tom, ‘An Examination of the Poll Taxes of the Later Seventeenth Century, the Marriage Duty Act and Gregory King’, in Schurer, Kevin and Arkell, Tom (eds.), Surveying the People: The Interpretation and Use of Document Sources for the Study of Population in the Later Seventeenth Century (Oxford, 1992), pp. 142–77.
Arkell, Tom, ‘The Incidence of Poverty in England in the Later Seventeenth Century’, Social History, 12 (1987), pp. 23–47.
Arkell, Tom, ‘Printed Instructions for Administering the Hearth Tax’, in Schurer and Arkell, Surveying the People, pp. 38–64.
Arkell, Tom, ‘The Probate Process’, in Arkell, Tom, Evans, Nesta and Goose, Nigel (eds.), When Death Do Us Part: Understanding and Interpreting the Probate Records of Early Modern England (Oxford, 2000), pp. 3–13.
Armitage, Philip, ‘Developments in British Cattle Husbandry from the Romano-British Period to Early Modern Times’, Ark, 9 (1982), pp. 52–4.
Armitage, Philip, ‘A Preliminary Description of British Cattle from the Late Twelfth to the Early Sixteenth Century’, Ark, 7 (1980), pp. 405–13.
Baker, Anne Pimlott, ‘Ellis, William (c. 1700–1758)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford, 2004),, accessed 19 March 2009.
Batchelor, Thomas, General View of the Agriculture of the County of Bedford (London, 1808).
Beaver, Daniel C., Hunting and the Politics of Violence before the English Civil War (Cambridge, 2008).
Beier, A. L., Masterless Men: the Vagrancy Problem in England 1560–1640 (London, 1985).
Beier, A. L. and Finlay, Roger (eds.), The Making of the Metropolis: London 1500–1700 (London, 1986).
Bellers, John, Essays about the Poor, Manufacturers, Trade, Plantations and Immorality and of the Excellency and Divinity of Inward Light (1699), in Clarke, George (ed.), John Bellers, 1654 to 1725, Quaker Visionary: His Life, Times and Writings (York, 1993).
Beresford, John (ed.), The Diary of a Country Parson: The Reverend James Woodforde, 4 vols. (Oxford, 1968).
Berg, Maxine, Luxury and Pleasure in Eighteenth-Century Britain (Oxford, 2005).
Bestall, J. M and Fowkes, D. V. (eds.), Chesterfield Wills and Inventories 1521–1603, Derbyshire Record Society, 1 (1977).
Bettie, John, Crime and the Courts in England 1660–1800 (Oxford, 1986).
Beveridge, William, Prices and Wages in England (London, 1939).
Biggs, Norman, ‘A Tale Untangled: Measuring the Fineness of Yarn’, Textile History, 35 (2004), pp. 120–9.
Bird, Ruth (ed.), The Journal of Giles Moore, Sussex Record Society, 68 (1971).
Blencowe, Robert Willis (ed.), ‘The Journal and Accounts of Timothy Burrell Esq., Barrister-at-Law 1683–1714’, Sussex Archaeological Collections, 3 (1850), pp. 117–72.
Blith, Walter, The English Improver Improved or the Survey of Husbandry Surveyed (London, 1652).
Boorde, Andrew, A Compendyous Regymnet or a Dyetary of Helth (London, 1542).
Boulton, Jeremy, ‘Wage Labour in Seventeenth Century London’, Economic History Review, 49 (1996), pp. 268–90.
Bowden, Peter, ‘Agricultural Prices, Farm Profits, and Rents’, in AHEW, IV, pp. 593–695.
Bowden, Peter, ‘Agricultural Prices, Wages, Farm Profits and Rents’, in AHEW, V.II, pp. 1–118.
Brassley, Paul Lambert, and Saunders, Philip Anthony (eds.), Accounts of the Reverend John Crakanthorp of Fowlmere 1682–1710, Cambridgeshire Records Society, 8 (1988).
Braudel, Fernand, Civilization and Capitalism, 3 vols. (New York, 1981).
Brenner, Robert, Merchants and Revolutionaries: Commercial Change, Political Conflict and London's Overseas Traders 1550–1653 (Cambridge, 1993).
Brindley, Thomas, ‘Escaping from Constraints: The Industrial Revolution in a Malthusian Context’, Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 15 (1985), pp. 729–53.
Britten, James, Old Country Farming Words (London, 1880).
Broadberry, Stephen and Gupta, Bishnupriya, ‘The Early Modern Great Divergence: Wages, Prices and Economic Development in Europe and Asia, 1500–1800’, Economic History Review, 59 (2006), pp. 2–31.
Brushfield, T. N., ‘The Financial Diary of a Citizen of Exeter 1631–43’, Transactions of the Devonshire Association for the Advancement of Science, Literature, and Art, 33 (1901).
Burnett, John, Plenty and Want: A Social History of Diet in England from 1815 to the Present Day (London, 1979).
Burnette, Joyce, ‘An Investigation of the Female–Male Wage Gap during the Industrial Revolution in Britain’, Economic History Review, 50 (1997), pp. 257–81.
Burnette, Joyce, ‘Labourers at the Oakes: Changes in the Demand for Female Day-Labourers at a Farm near Sheffield during the Agricultural Revolution’, Journal of Economic History, 59 (1999), pp. 41–67.
Burnette, Joyce, ‘The Wages and Employment of Female Day-Labourers in English Agriculture, 1740–1850’, Economic History Review, 57 (2004), pp. 664–90.
Burton, Richard, Anatomy of Melancholy, 3 vols., ed. Faulkner, Thomas C., Kiessling, Nicolas K. and Blair, Rhonda L. (Oxford, 1989).
Butcher, E. E. (ed.), Bristol Corporation of the Poor 1696–1834, Bristol Record Society, 3 (1932).
Campbell, Andrew, The Book of Beer (London, 1956).
Campbell, B. M. S. and Overton, Mark, Land, Labour and Livestock: Historical Studies in European Agricultural Productivity (Manchester, 1991).
Clark, Gregory, ‘A New Perspective on Medieval and Early Modern Agriculture: Six Centuries of Norfolk Farming c. 1250–c. 1850’, Past and Present, 141 (1993), pp. 38–105.
Campbell, B. M. S., Galloway, J. A., Keene, D. and Murphy, M., A Medieval Capital: Agrarian Production and Distribution in the London Region c. 1300, Historical Geography Research Series, 30 (1991).
Campbell, Mildred, ‘“Of People Either Too Few or Too Many”: The Conflicts of Opinion on Population and Its Relation to Emigration’, in Aitken, William Appleton and Henning, Basil Duke (eds.), Conflict in Stuart England: Essays in Honour of William Notestein (London, 1960), pp. 171–201.
Carr, Lois Green, Menard, Russell R. and Walsh, Lorena, Robert Cole's World: Agriculture and Society in Early Maryland (Chapel Hill, NC and London, 1994).
Cash, Margaret (ed.), Devon Inventories of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, Devon and Cornwall Record Society, n.s., 11 (1966).
Choksy, George D., ‘The Bifurcated Economics of Sir Dudley North and Roger North: One Holistic Analytical Engine’, History of Political Economy, 27 (1995), pp. 477–92.
Clark, Alice, Working Life of Women in the Seventeenth Century (London, 1992).
Clark, Gregory, ‘Farm Wages and Living Standards in the Industrial Revolution: England, 1670–1869’, Economic History Review, 54 (2001), pp. 477–505.
Clark, Gregory, ‘The Long March of History: Farm Wages, Population, and Economic Growth, England 1209–1869’, Economic History Review, 60 (2007), pp. 97–135.
Clark, Gregory, ‘The Price History of English Agriculture, 1209–1914’, Research in Economic History, 22 (2004), pp. 41–124.
Clark, Gregory, ‘Productivity Growth without Technological Change in European Agriculture before 1850’, Journal of Economic History, 47 (1987), pp. 419–32.
Clark, Gregory, ‘Yields per Acre in English Agriculture, 1250–1860: Evidence from Labour Inputs’, Economic History Review, 44 (1991), pp. 445–60.
Clark, Gregory, Huberman, , Michael and Lindert, , Peter H., ‘A British Food Puzzle, 1770–1850’, Economic History Review, 48 (1995), pp. 215–37.
Clark, Gregory and Werf, Ysbrand, ‘Work in Progress? The Industrious Revolution’, Journal of Economic History, 58 (1998), pp. 830–43.
Clark, Peter, The English Alehouse: A Social History 1200–1830 (London, 1983).
Clarkson, L. A., ‘The Organization of the English Leather Industry in the Late Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 14 (1960–1), pp. 245–56.
Clarkson, L. A. and Crawford, Margaret, Feast and Famine: Food and Nutrition in Ireland 1500–1920 (Oxford, 2001).
Clay, Christopher, Economic Expansion and Social Change: England 1500–1700, 2 vols. (Cambridge, 1984).
Clayton, John, Friendly Advice to the Poor; Written and Published at the Request of the Late and Present Officers of the Town of Manchester (Manchester, 1755).
Clutton-Brock, Juliet, ‘British Cattle in the Eighteenth Century’, Ark, 9 (1982), pp. 55–7.
Coats, A. W., ‘Changing Attitudes to Labour in the Mid-Eighteenth Century’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 11:1 (1958–9), pp. 35–51.
Cock, Thomas, Kitchin-Physick or, Advice to the Poor by Way of a Dialogue (London, 1676).
Cockburn, William, An Account of the Nature, Causes, Symptoms and Cure of the Distempers That Are Incident to Seafaring People with Observations on the Diet of the Sea-Men in His Majesty's Navy (London, 1696).
Colley, Linda, Britons: Forging the Nation 1707–1837 (London, 1992).
Collins, E. J. T., ‘Harvest Technology and Labour Supply in Britain, 1790–1870’, Economic History Review, 22 (1969), pp. 453–73.
Collins, John, Salt and Fishery (London, 1682).
Collins, John, Considerations on Taxes as They Are Supposed to Affect the Price of Labour in Our Manufactories (London, 1765).
Collins, John, Considerations on the Expediency of Raising at This Time of General Dearth, the Wages of Servants That Are Not Domestic (London, 1767).
Cooper, Sheila McIsaac, ‘Service to Servitude? The Decline and Demise of Life-Cycle Service in England’, History of the Family, 10 (2005), pp. 367–86.
Cooper, Sheila McIsaac, A Copy of the Report of an Essay of Bread … (London, 1758).
Corfield, P. J., The Impact of English Towns, 1700–1800 (Oxford, 1982).
Cox, J. and Cox, N., ‘Valuations in Probate Inventories, Part I’, Local Historian, 2 (1985), pp. 467–78; Part II, Local Historian, 8 (1986), pp. 85–100.
Cooper, Sheila McIsaac, ‘Probate 1500–1800: A System in Transition’, in Arkell, Tom, Evans, Nesta and Goose, Nigel (eds.), When Death Do Us Part: Understanding and Interpreting the Probate Records of Early Modern England (Oxford, 2000), pp. 14–37.
Cunningham, William, The Growth of English Industry and Commerce in Modern Times (Cambridge, 1929).
Daunton, Martin, Progress and Poverty: An Economic and Social History of Britain 1700–1850 (Oxford, 1995).
Davies, David, The Case of the Labourers in Husbandry Stated and Considered (London, 1795; reprinted 1977).
Malynes, Gerald, Consuetudo vel lex Mercatoria (London, 1622).
Vries, Jan, ‘Between Purchasing Power and the World of Goods: Understanding the Household Economy in Early Modern Europe’, in Roy Porter and John Brewer, Consumption and the World of Goods (London, 1993), pp. 85–132.
Vries, Jan, ‘The Industrial Revolution and the Industrious Revolution’, Journal of Economic History, 54 (1994), pp. 249–69.
Vries, Jan, The Industrious Revolution: Consumer Behaviour and the Household Economy, 1650 to the Present (Cambridge, 2008).
Defoe, Daniel, Giving Alms No Charity and Employing the Poor (1704), in Owens, W. R. and Furbank, P. N., Political and Economic Writings of Daniel Defoe (London 2000).
Defoe, Daniel, The Great Law of Subordination Considered or, The Insolence and Insuffrable Behaviour of Servants in England Duly Enquired Into (1724), in Owens, W. R. and Furbank, P. N., Religious and Didactic Writings of Daniel Defoe (London, 2007), vol. VI.
Defoe, DanielA Tour Thro' the Whole Island of Great Britain (London, 1968).
Drummond, J. C. and Wilbraham, Anne, The Englishman's Food: Five Centuries of English Diet (Oxford, 2001).
Dunning, Richard, Bread for the Poor (Exeter, 1698).
Durnin, V. G. A. and Passmore, R., Energy, Work and Leisure (London, 1967).
Durrant, Peter (ed.), Berkshire Overseers' Papers, 1654–1834, Berkshire Record Society, 3 (1997).
Dyer, Alan, The City of Worcester in the Sixteenth Century (Leicester, 1973).
Dyer, Christopher, Standards of Living in the Later Middle Ages: Social Change in England c. 1200–1520 (Cambridge, 1989).
Earle, Peter, ‘The Female Labour Market in London in the Late Seventeenth and Early Eighteenth Centuries’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 42 (1989), pp. 328–53.
Earle, PeterThe Making of the English Middle Class (London, 1989).
Eden, Sir Frederick Morton, The State of the Poor, or a History of the Labouring Classes in England, 3 vols. (London, 1797).
Ellis, William, The London and Country Brewer … By a Person Formerly Concerned in a Common Brewhouse at London (London, 1736).
Ellis, William, The Country Housewife's Family Companion (London, 1750)
Elyot, Thomas, The Boke Named the Governour (London, 1531).
Energy and Protein Requirements: A Report of a Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation, World Health Organization Technical Report Series 724 (1991).
Erickson, Amy Louise, ‘An Introduction to Probate Accounts’, in Martin, G. H. and Spufford, Peter (eds.), The Records of the Nation (London, 1990), pp. 273–86.
Erickson, Amy Louise, ‘Married Women's Occupations in Eighteenth-Century London’, Continuity and Change 23 (2008), pp. 237–66.
Estabrook, Carl, Urbane and Rustic England: Cultural Ties and Social Spheres in the Provinces, 1660–1780 (Manchester, 1998).
Evans, Nesta and Rose, Susan (eds.), Cambridgeshire Hearth Tax Returns Michaelmas 1664, British Record Society Hearth Tax Series, 1 (2000).
Everitt, Alan, ‘Farm Labourers’, in AHEW, IV, pp. 396–465.
Farkas, , G., Geldrich, J. and Láng, S, ‘Neuere Untersuchungen über den Energieverbrauch beim Ernten’, Arbeits Physiologie, 5 (1933), pp. 434–62.
Feinstein, Charles, ‘Pessimism Perpetuated: Real Wages and the Standard of Living in Britain during the Industrial Revolution’, Economic History Review, 58 (1998), pp. 625–58.
Fissell, Mary, ‘The Marketplace of Print’, in Jenner, Mark and Wallis, Patrick (eds.), Medicine and the Market in England and Its Colonies, c. 1450–c. 1850 (London, 2007), pp. 108–32.
Floud, Roderick, Wachter, Kenneth and Gregory, Annabel, Height, Health and History: Nutritional Status in the United Kingdom, 1750–1980 (Cambridge, 1990).
Fogel, Robert, The Escape from Hunger and Premature Death, 1700–2100: Europe, America, and the Third World (Cambridge, 2004).
Fogel, Robert, ‘New Sources and Techniques for the Study of Secular Trends in Nutritional Status, Health, Mortality, and the Process of Aging’, Historical Methods, 26 (1993), pp. 5–43.
Foster, Charles F., Cheshire Cheese and Farming in the North West in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries (Northwich, 1998).
Foster, Charles F., Four Cheshire Townships in the Eighteenth Century: Arley, Appleton, Stockton Heath and Great Budworth (Northwich, 1992).
Foster, Charles F., Seven Households: Life in Cheshire and Lancashire 1582–1774 (Northwich, 2002).
French, Henry, The Middle Sort of People in Provincial England 1600–1750 (Oxford, 2007).
Freudenberger, Hermann and Cummins, Gaylord, ‘Health, Work and Leisure before the Industrial Revolution’, Explorations in Economic History, 13 (1976), pp. 1–12.
Furniss, F. S., The Position of the Laborer in a System of Nationalism: A Study in the Labor Theories of Later English Mercantilism (New York, 1965).
Fussell, G. E. (ed.), Robert Loder's Farm Accounts 1610–1620, Camden Society, 3rd ser., 53 (1936).
Gibson, A. J. S., ‘The Size and Weight of Cattle and Sheep in Early Modern Scotland’, Agricultural History Review, 36 (1988), pp. 162–71.
Gibson, A. J. S. and Smout, T. C., Prices, Food and Wages in Scotland 1550–1780 (Cambridge, 1995).
Gilboy, E. W., ‘Labour at Thornborough: An Eighteenth Century Estate’, Economic History Review, 1st ser., 3 (1931–2), pp. 388–98.
Foster, Charles F., ‘Some New Evidence on Wage Assessments in the Eighteenth Century’, English Historical Review, 43 (1928), pp. 398–40.
Foster, Charles F., ‘Wages in Eighteenth-Century England’, Journal of Economic & Business History, 2 (1929–30), pp. 603–29.
Glennie, Paul, ‘Measuring Crop Yields in Early Modern England’, in Campbell, B. M. S. and Overton, Mark (eds.), Land, Labour and Livestock: Historical Studies in European Agricultural Productivity (Manchester, 1991), pp. 255–83.
Gough, Richard, History of Myddle, ed. Hey, D. (Harmondsworth, 1981).
Grassby, Richard, The Business Community of Seventeenth Century England (Cambridge, 1995).
Griffiths, Paul, Youth and Authority: Formative Experiences in England 1560–1640 (Oxford, 1996).
Hakluyt, Richard, Discourse of Western Planting (1584), in Taylor, E. G. R. (ed.), The Original Writings and Correspondence of the Two Richard Hakluyts, Hakluyt Society, 2nd ser., 77 (1935).
Hale, Matthew, A Discourse Touching Provision for the Poor (London, 1683).
Hallett, Mark and Riding, Christine, Hogarth (London, 2006).
Harrington, Duncan, Pearson, Sarah and Rose, Susan (eds.), Kent Hearth Tax Assessment, Lady Day 1664, British Record Society Hearth Tax Series, 2 (London, 2000).
Harrison, William, The Description of England, ed. Edelen, George (New York, 1994).
Hart, James, The Diet of the Diseased (London, 1633).
Harte, N. B., ‘The Economics of Clothing in the Late Seventeenth Century’, Textile History, 22 (1991), 277–96.
Harte, N. B., ‘The Rise of Protection and the English Linen Trade, 1690–1780’, in Harte, N. B. and Ponting, K. G. (eds.), Textile History and Economic History (Manchester, 1973), pp. 74–112.
Hassell Smith, Alan, ‘Labourers in Late Sixteenth-Century England: A Case Study from North Norfolk’, Continuity and Change, [part I] 4:1 (1989), pp. 11–52; [part II] 4:3 (1989), pp. 367–94.
Hatcher, John, The History of the British Coal Industry, I, Before 1700 (Oxford, 1992).
Hatcher, John, ‘Labour, Leisure and Economic Thought’, Past and Present, 160 (1998), pp. 65–115.
Haynes, John, Great Britain's Glory: or an Account of the Great Numbers of Poor Employed in the Woollen and Silk Manufacturies (London, 1715).
Hey, David, An English Rural Community: Myddle under the Tudors and Stuarts (Leicester, 1974).
Hey, David, ‘The North-West Midlands: Derbyshire, Staffordshire, Cheshire, and Shropshire’, in AHEW, V.I, pp. 129–58.
Hill, Christopher, Society and Puritanism in Pre-Revolutionary England (Harmondsworth, 1964).
Hindle, Steve, ‘Dearth and the English Revolution: The Harvest Crisis of 1647–50’, Economic History Review, 61 (2008), pp. 64–95.
Hindle, Steve, ‘Dearth, Fasting and Alms: The Campaign for General Hospitality in Late Elizabethan England’, Past and Present, 172 (2001), pp. 44–86.
Hindle, Steve, On the Parish: The Micro-Politics of Poor Relief in Rural England c. 1550–1750 (Oxford, 2004).
Hindle, Steve, ‘Persuasion and Protest in the Caddington Common Enclosure Dispute 1635–1639’, Past and Present, 158 (1998), pp. 35–78.
Hindle, Steve, ‘Power, Poor Relief, and Social Relations in Holland Fen, c. 1600–1800’, Historical Journal, 41 (1998), pp. 67–96.
Hipkin, Stephen, ‘Tenant Farming and Short-Term Leasing on Romney Marsh, 1585–1705’, Economic History Review, 53 (2000), pp. 646–76.
,Historical Manuscript Commission Reports, no. 15, Report on Manuscripts in Various Collections (London, 1901), I, pp. 160–75.
Hitchcock, Timothy V. (ed.), Richard Hutton's Complaint Book: The Notebook of the Steward of the Quaker Workhouse at Clerkenwell 1711–1737, London Record Society, 24 (1987).
Holderness, B. A., ‘East Anglia and the Fens: Norfolk, Suffolk, Cambridgeshire, Ely, Huntingdonshire, Essex, and the Lincolnshire Fens’, in AHEW, V.I, pp. 197–238.
Holderness, B. A., ‘Prices, Productivity and Output’, in AHEW, VI, pp. 84–189.
Holmes, Geoffrey, ‘Gregory King and the Social Structure of Pre-Industrial England’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 5th ser., 27 (1977), pp. 41–68.
Horn, Pamela, ‘Davies, David (1742–1819)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford, 2004),, accessed 19 May 2009.
Horrell, Sara, ‘Home Demand and British Industrialization’, Journal of Economic History, 56 (1996), pp. 565–71.
Horrell, Sara and Humphries, Jane, ‘Old Questions, New Data, and Alternative Perspectives: Families’ Living Standards in the Industrial Revolution', Journal of Economic History, 52 (1992), pp. 849–80.
Horrell, Sara and Humphries, Jane, ‘Women's Labour Force Participation and the Transition to the Male-Breadwinner Family, 1790–1865’, Economic History Review, 48 (1995), pp. 89–117.
Hoskins, W. G., ‘Harvest Fluctuations and English Economic History, 1480–1619’, Agricultural History Review, 12 (1964), pp. 28–46.
Hoskins, W. G., ‘Harvest Fluctuations and English Economic History, 1620–1759’, Agricultural History Review, 16 (1968), pp. 15–31.
Hoskins, W. G., ‘The Rebuilding of Rural England 1570–1640’, Past and Present, 4 (1953), pp. 44–57.
Houghton, John, England's Great Happiness or, A Dialogue between Content and Complaint (London, 1677).
Houlbrooke, Ralph, Death, Religion and the Family in England 1480–1750 (Oxford, 1998).
Houliston, Victor, ‘Moffet, Thomas (1553–1604)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford, 2004),, accessed 19 March 2009.
Houliston, Victor, ‘Houses of Correction at Maidstone and Westminster’, British Museum, MS Lansdowne 5, reprinted in English Historical Review, 42 (1927), pp. 251–61.
Hudson, Pat and Sonenscher, Michael (eds.), Manufacture in Town and Country before the Industrial Revolution (Cambridge, 1984).
Hughes, Elizabeth and White, Philippa (eds.), The Hampshire Hearth Tax Assessment 1665, Hampshire Record Society, 11 (1991).
Humphries, Jane, ‘Enclosures, Common Rights, and Women: The Proletarianisation of Families in the Late Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries’, Journal of Economic History, 50 (1990), pp. 17–42.
James, John, History of the Worsted Manufacture in England (London, 1857).
Jenner, Mark, ‘From Conduit Community to Commercial Network? Water in London, 1500–1725’, in Griffiths, Paul and Jenner, Mark (eds.), Londinopolis: Essays in the Cultural and Social History of Early Modern London (Manchester, 2000), pp. 250–71.
Jones, Norman, The Birth of the Elizabethan Age: England in the 1560s (Oxford, 1993).
Kerridge, Eric, The Agricultural Revolution (London, 1967).
Kerridge, Eric, Textile Manufactures in Early Modern England (Manchester, 1985).
King, Gregory, ‘The Burns Journal’ (c. 1695–1700), in Laslett, Peter (ed.), The Earliest Classics: John Graunt and Gregory King (London, 1973).
King, Gregory‘Natural and Political Observations and Conclusions upon the State and Condition of England’ (1696), in Laslett (ed.), The Earliest Classics: John Graunt and Gregory King (London, 1973), pp. 54–5.
King, Peter, ‘Pauper Inventories and the Material Lives of the Poor in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries’, in Hitchcock, Tim, King, Peter and Sharpe, Pamela (eds.), Chronicling Poverty: The Voices and Strategies of the English Poor, 1640–1840, Basingstoke, 1997), pp. 155–91.
King, Peter, ‘Social Inequality, Identity and the Labouring Poor in Eighteenth-Century England’, in French, Henry and Barry, Jonathan (eds.), Identity and Agency in England, 1500–1800 (London, 2004), pp. 60–86.
Kussmaul, Ann, Servants in Husbandry in Early Modern England (Cambridge, 1981).
Kussmaul, Ann (ed.), The Autobiography of Joseph Mayett of Quainton 1783–1839, Buckingham Record Society, 23 (1986).
Landau, Norma, ‘The Eighteenth-Century Context of the Laws of Settlement’, Continuity and Change, 6 (1991), pp. 417–39.
Landau, Norma, ‘The Laws of Settlement and the Surveillance of Immigration in Eighteenth-Century Kent’, Continuity and Change, 3 (1988), pp. 391–420.
Landau, Norma, ‘The Regulation of Immigration, Economic Structures and Definitions of the Poor in Eighteenth-Century England’, Historical Journal, 33 (1990), pp. 541–71.
Laslett, Peter, The World We Have Lost Further Explored, 3rd edn (London, 1983).
Latham, Robert and Mathews, William (eds.), The Diary of Samuel Pepys, 10 vols. (London, 1970–83).
Levine, David and Wrightson, Keith, The Making of an Industrial Society: Wickham 1560–1765 (Oxford, 1991).
Lindert, Peter H. and Williamson, Jeffrey G., ‘Revising England's Social Tables 1688–1812’, Explorations in Economic History, 19 (1982), pp. 385–407.
Littleton, Edward, The Groans of the Plantations: or a True Account of their Grievous and Extreme Sufferings by the Heavy Impositions upon Sugar (London, 1689).
Locke, John, Two Treatises of Government, ed. Laslett, Peter (New York, 1963).
Lodge, Eleanor C. (ed.), The Account Book of a Kentish Estate 1616–1704 (London, 1927).
Lubbock, Basil (ed.), Barlow's Journal of His Life at Sea in King's Ships, East and West Indiamen and Other Merchantmen from 1659–1703, 2 vols. (London, 1934).
Macfarlane, Alan (ed.), The Diary of Ralph Josselin, 1616–1683 (Oxford, 1976).
Machin, R., ‘The Great Rebuilding: A Reassessment’, Past and Present, 77 (1977), pp. 33–56.
Malcolm, Thick, ‘Market Gardening in England and Wales’ in AHEW, V.II, pp. 503–32.
Malcolmson, Robert W., Popular Recreations in English Society 1700–1850 (Cambridge, 1973).
Markham, Gervase, The English Housewife, Containing the Inward and Outward Vertues Which Ought to Be in a Compleat Woman (London, 1664).
Marshall, William, The Rural Economy of the Midland Counties, 2 vols. (London, 1796).
Martins, Susanna and Williamson, Tom (eds.), The Farming Journal of Randall Burroughes (1794–1799), Norfolk Record Society, 58 (1995).
Mathias, Peter, ‘Agriculture and the Brewing and Distilling Industries in the Eighteenth Century’, Economic History Review, n.s., 5 (1952), pp. 249–57.
Mathias, Peter, The Brewing Industry in England 1700–1830 (Cambridge, 1959).
Mayhew, Henry, London Labour and the London Poor, 4 vols. (London, 1861).
McClure, Ruth K., Coram's Children: The London Foundling Hospital in the Eighteenth Century (New Haven, 1981).
McRae, Andrew, God Speed the Plough: The Representation of Agrarian England, 1500–1660 (Cambridge, 1996).
Meldrum, Tim, Domestic Service and Gender 1660–1750: Life and Work in the London Household (Harlow, 2000).
Meldrum, Tim, Memorandum Book of Richard Cholmeley of Brandsby, 1602–1623, North Yorkshire County Record Office Publications, 44 (1988).
Meldrum, Tim, Men and Armour for Gloucestershire in 1608 compiled by John Smith (Gloucester, 1980; reprint of 1902 edition).
Mendelson, Sara, and Crawford, Patricia, Women in Early Modern England (Oxford, 1998).
Miller, Derek, ‘Man's Demand for Energy’, in Oddy, Derek and Miller, Derek (eds.), Diet and Health in Modern Britain (London, 1985), pp. 274–95.
Miller, James Arthur (ed.), The Letters of Stephen Gardiner (Cambridge, 1933).
Mingay, G. E. (ed.), The Agrarian History of England and Wales, VI, 1750–1850 (Cambridge, 1981).
Mintz, Sidney W., Sweetness and Power: The Place of Sugar in Modern History (Harmondsworth, 1985).
Misselden, Edward, The Circle of Commerce (London, 1623).
Mitchell, B. R. and Deane, Phyllis, Abstract of British Historical Statistics (Cambridge, 1971).
Moffet, Thomas, Health's Improvement: or, Rules Comprizing and Discovering the Nature, Method, and Manner of Preparing All Sorts of Food Used in This Nation (London, 1655).
Monckton, H. A., A History of English Ale and Beer (London, 1966).
Money, John, ‘Teaching in the Market-Place, or “Caesar adsum jam forte: Pompey aderat”: The Retailing of Knowledge in Provincial England during the Eighteenth Century’, in Brewer, John and Porter, Roy (eds.), Consumption and the World of Goods (London, 1993), pp. 355–80.
Moore, Adam, Bread for the Poor (London, 1653).
Moore, Sir Norman, The History of St. Bartholomew's Hospital, 2 vols. (London, 1918).
Moore-Colyer, R. J., ‘Farming Techniques: Cattle’, AHEW, VI, pp. 313–61.
Mortimer, Ian, ‘Why Were Probate Accounts Made? Methodological Issues Surrounding the Historical use of Administrators’ and Executors' Accounts', Archives, 31 (2006), pp. 2–17.
Muldrew, Craig, ‘ “Th'ancient Distaff and Whirling Spindle”: Measuring the Contribution of Spinning to Household Earnings and the National Economy in England 1550–1770’, Economic History Review (in press).
Muldrew, Craig, ‘Class and Credit: Social Identity, Wealth and the Life Course in Early Modern England’, in French, Henry and Barry, Jonathan (eds.), Identity and Agency in England, 1500–1800 (London, 2004), pp. 147–77.
Muldrew, Craig, ‘Credit, Market Relations, and Debt Litigation in Late Seventeenth Century England, with Particular Reference to King's Lynn’, University of Cambridge Ph.D. thesis, 1991.
Muldrew, Craig, ‘Economic and Urban Development of Seventeenth-Century Britain’, in Coward, Barry (ed.), The Blackwell Companion to Stuart Britain (Oxford, 2003), pp. 148–65.
Muldrew, Craig, The Economy of Obligation: The Culture of Credit and Social Relations in Early Modern England (London, 1998).
Muldrew, Craig, ‘“Hard Food for Midas”: Cash and Its Social Value in Early Modern England’, Past and Present, 170 (2001), pp. 78–120.
Muldrew, Craig, ‘Wages and the Problem of Monetary Scarcity in Early Modern England’, in Lucassen, Jan (ed.), Wages and Currency: Global Comparisons from Antiquity to the Twentieth Century (Berne, 2007), pp. 391–410.
Munby, Lionel M. (ed.), Early Stuart Household Accounts, Hertfordshire Record Society, 2 (1986).
Mun, Thomas, Englands Treasure by Forraign Trade, in McCulloch, J. P. (ed.), A Select Collection of Early English Tracts on Commerce (Cambridge, 1954).
Newman-Brown, W., ‘The Receipt of Poor Relief and Family Situation, Aldenham, Hertfordshire, 1630–90’, in Smith, Richard (ed.), Land, Kinship and Life Cycle (Cambridge, 1984), pp. 405–22.
North, Dudley, Discourses upon Trade; Principally Directed to the Cases of the Interest, Coynage, Clipping, Increase of Money (London, 1691).
North, Roger, A Discourse of the Poor (London, 1753).
Oddy, Derek, From Plain Fare to Fusion Food: British Diet from the 1890s to the 1990s (Woodbridge, 2003).
Oppenheim, Michael, A History of the Administration of the Royal Navy and of Merchant Shipping in Relation to the Navy, I, 1509–1660 (London, 1896).
Ormrod, David, English Grain Exports and the Structure of Agrarian Capitalism 1700–1760 (Hull, 1985).
Overton, Mark, Agricultural Revolution in England: The Transformation of the Agrarian Economy 1500–1850 (Cambridge, 1996).
Overton, Mark and Campbell, B. M. S., ‘Norfolk Livestock Farming 1250–1740: A Comparative Study of Manorial Accounts and Probate Inventories’, Journal of Historical Geography, 18 (1992), pp. 377–96.
Overton, Mark and Campbell, Bruce M. S., ‘Production et productivité dans l'agriculture anglaise, 1086–1871’, Histoire & Mesure, 11 (1996), pp. 255–97.
Overton, Mark, Whittle, Jane, Dean, Darron and Hann, Andrew, Production and Consumption in English Households, 1600–1750 (Abingdon, 2004).
Özmucur, Süleyman and Pamuk, Sevket, ‘Real Wages and Standards of Living in the Ottoman Empire, 1498–1914’, Journal of Economic History, 62 (2002), pp. 293–321.
Palliser, D. M., Tudor York (Oxford, 1979).
Palmer, John, How to Brew (Boulder, 2006).
Paul, A. A. and Southgate, D. T. A., McCance and Widdowson's The Composition of Foods, 4th edn (London, 1978).
Peirce, E. H., Annals of Christ's Hospital (London, 1908).
Pennell, Sara ‘“Great Quantities of Gooseberry Pye and Baked Clod of Beef”: Victualling and Eating Out in Early Modern London’, in Griffiths, Paul and Jenner, Mark (eds.), Londinopolis: Essays in the Cultural and Social History of Early Modern London (Manchester, 2000), pp. 228–49.
Pennell, Sara ‘The Material Culture of Food in Early Modern England, circa 1650–1750’, University of Oxford D.Phil. thesis, 1997.
Penney, Norman (ed.), The Household Account Book of Sarah Fell of Swarthmoor Hall (Cambridge, 1920).
Perkins, J. A., ‘Harvest Technology and Labour Supply in Lincolnshire and the East Riding of Yorkshire 1750–1850’, Tools and Tillage, 3 (1976–7), pp. 46–58, 125–35.
Peterson, Christian, Bread and the British Economy c. 1770–1870 (Aldershot, 1995).
Petyt, William, Britannia Languens or a Discourse on Trade (London, 1680), in McCulloch, J. P. (ed.), A Select Collection of Early English Tracts on Commerce (Cambridge, 1954).
Phelps Brown, Henry and Hopkins, Sheila V., ‘Seven Centuries of Building Wages’, in Brown, Henry Phelps and Hopkins, Sheila V., A Perspective of Wages and Prices (London, 1981), pp. 1–12.
Phelps Brown, Henry and Hopkins, Sheila V., ‘Seven Centuries of the Prices of Consumables, Compared with Builders’ Wage-Rates', in Brown, Henry Phelps and Hopkins, Sheila V., A Perspective of Wages and Prices (London, 1981), pp. 13–59.
Phillips, Rod, A Short History of Wine (New York, 2000).
Platt, Hugh, Sundrie New and Artificiall Remedies against Famine (London, 1596).
Pollock, Vivienne, ‘Contract and Consumption: Labour Agreements and the Use of Money in Eighteenth-Century Rural Ulster’, Agricultural History Review, 43 (1995), pp. 19–34.
Porter, Roy, The Greatest Benefit to Mankind: A Medical History of Humanity from Antiquity to the Present (London, 1997).
Porter, Roy and Brewer, John (eds.), Consumption and the World of Goods (London, 1993).
Pound, John, Tudor and Stuart Norwich (Chichester, 1988).
Pounds, N. J. G., ‘Barton Farming in Eighteenth Century Cornwall’, Journal of the Royal Institution of Cornwall, n. s., 7 (1973), pp. 54–75.
Powel, John, The Assize of Bread (London, 1636).
Putnam, B. H., ‘Northamptonshire Wage Assessments of 1560 and 1667’, Economic History Review, 1 (1927–8), pp. 124–34.
Rappaport, Steve, Worlds within Worlds: Structures of Life within Sixteenth-Century London (Cambridge, 1989).
Reed, Michael, The Ipswich Probate Inventories, 1583–1631, Suffolk Records Society, 22 (1981).
Reed, Mick, ‘“Gnawing It Out”: A New Look at Economic Relations in Nineteenth-Century Rural England’, Rural History, 1 (1990), pp. 83–94.
Reid, Douglas A, ‘The Decline of Saint Monday 1766–1876’, Past and Present, 71 (1976), pp. 76–101.
Richards, Jennifer, Rhetoric and Courtliness in Early Modern Literature (Cambridge, 2003).
Richardson, R. C., ‘Metropolitan Counties: Bedfordshire, Hertfordshire, and Middlesex’, in AHEW, V.I, pp. 239–69.
Roche, Daniel, A History of Everyday Things: The Birth of Consumption in France, 1600–1800 (Cambridge, 2000).
Rodger, N. A. M., The Wooden World: An Anatomy of the Georgian Navy (London, 1986).
Rollison, David, The Local Origins of Modern Society: Gloucestershire 1500–1800 (London, 1993).
Rule, John, Albion's People: English Society 1714–1815 (London, 1992).
Sambrook, Pamela, Country House Brewing in England, 1500–1900 (London, 1996).
Sarti, Raffaella, Europe at Home: Family and Material Culture, 1500–1800 (New Haven, 1999).
Scholliers, Peter and Schwarz, Leonard (eds.), Experiencing Wages: Social and Cultural Aspects of Wage Forms in Europe since 1500 (New York and Oxford, 2003).
Schurer, Kevin and Arkell, Tom (eds.), Surveying the People: The Interpretation and Use of Document Sources for the Study of Population in the Later Seventeenth Century (Oxford, 1992).
Leonard, Schwartz, London in the Age of Industrialisation: Entrepreneurs, Labour Force and Living Conditions, 1700–1850 (Cambridge, 1993).
Sgroi, Rosemary, ‘Piscatorial Politics Revisited: The Language of Economic Debate and the Evolution of Fishing Policy in Elizabethan England’, Albion, 35 (2003), pp. 1–24.
Shammas, Carole, ‘Food Expenditures and Economic Well-Being in Early Modern England’, Journal of Economic History, 43 (1983), pp. 89–100.
Shammas, Carole, The Pre-Industrial Consumer in England and America (Oxford, 1990).
Sharp, Buchanan, In Contempt of all Authority: Rural Artisans and Riot in the West of England, 1586–1660 (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1980).
Sharpe, J. A., Crime in Seventeenth-Century England: A County Study (Cambridge, 1983).
Sharpe, J. A., Early Modern England: A Social History 1550–1760 (London, 1987).
Shaw-Taylor, Leigh, ‘Labourers, Cows, Common Rights and Parliamentary Enclosure: The Evidence of Contemporary Comment c. 1760–1810’, Past and Present, 171 (2001), pp. 95–126.
Shaw-Taylor, Leigh, ‘The Nature and Scale of the Cottage Economy’,, accessed 6 July 2010.
Shaw-Taylor, Leigh, ‘Parliamentary Enclosure and the Emergence of an English Agricultural Proletariat’, Journal of Economic History, 61:3 (2001), pp. 640–62.
Shaw-Taylor, Leigh, ‘Proletarianisation, Parliamentary Enclosure and the Household Economy of the Labouring Poor 1750–1850’, University of Cambridge Ph.D. thesis, 1999.
Shaw-Taylor, Leigh, and Jones, Amanda, ‘The Male Occupational Structure of Northamptonshire 1777–1881: A Case of Partial De-Industrialization?’,, accessed 6 July 2010.
Shepard, Alexandra, ‘Poverty, Labour and the Language of Social Description in Early Modern England’, Past and Present, 201 (2008), pp. 51–95.
Sherman, Sandra, Imagining Poverty: Quantification and the Decline of Paternalism (Columbus, OH, 2001).
Short, Brian M., ‘The South-East: Kent, Surrey, and Sussex’, in AHEW, V.I, pp. 270–357.
Slack, Paul, From Reformation to Improvement: Public Welfare in Early Modern England (Oxford, 1998).
Slack, Paul, ‘Material Progress and the Challenge of Affluence in Seventeenth-Century England’, Economic History Review, 62 (2009), pp. 576–603.
Slack, Paul, ‘Measuring the National Wealth in Seventeenth-Century England’, Economic History Review, 57 (2004), pp. 607–35.
Slack, Paul (ed.), Poverty in Early-Stuart Salisbury, Wiltshire Record Society, 31 (1975).
Smith, Adam, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, 2 vols. (Oxford, 1976).
Smith, Charles, Three Tracts on the Corn-Trade and Corn Laws, 2nd edn (London, 1766).
Smith, Richard M., ‘Ageing and Well-Being in Early Modern England: Pension Trends and Gender Preferences under the Old Poor Law c. 1650–1800’, in Johnson, Paul and Thane, Pat (eds.), Old Age from Antiquity to Post-Modernity (London, 1998), pp. 64–95.
Smith, , Thomas, , Discourse of the Commonweal of This Realm of England (London, 1581).
Sneath, Ken, ‘Consumption, Wealth, Indebtedness and Social Structure in Early Modern England’, University of Cambridge Ph.D. thesis, 2009.
Snell, Keith, Annals of the Labouring Poor: Social Change and Agrarian England 1660–1900 (Cambridge, 1985).
Snell, Keith, ‘Pauper Settlement and the Right to Poor Relief in England and Wales’, Continuity and Change, 6:3 (1991), pp. 375–415.
Snell, Keith, ‘Settlement, Poor Law and the Rural Historian: New Approaches and Opportunities’, Rural History, 3:2 (1992), pp. 145–72.
Sokoll, Thomas, Household and Family among the Poor: The Case of Two Essex Communities in the Late Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries (Bochum, 1993).
Solar, Peter M., ‘Poor Relief and English Economic Development before the Industrial Revolution’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 48 (1995), pp. 1–22.
Somerset, H. V. F., ‘An Account Book of an Oxford Undergraduate in the Years 1619–1622’, Oxoniensia, 22 (1957), pp. 85–92.
Sonenscher, Michael, ‘Work and Wages in Paris in the Eighteenth Century’, in Berg, Maxine, Hudson, Pat and Sonenscher, Michael (eds.), Manufacture in Town and Country before the Industrial Factory (Cambridge, 1983), pp. 147–72.
Speechley, Helen, ‘Female and Child Agricultural Day Labourers in Somerset, c. 1685–1870’, University of Exeter Ph.D. thesis, 1999.
Spufford, Margaret, Contrasting Communities, English Villagers in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries (Cambridge, 1974).
Spufford, Margaret, ‘The Limitations of the Probate Inventory’, in Chartres, John and Hey, David (eds.), English Rural Society, 1500–1800: Essays in Honour of Joan Thirsk (Cambridge, 1990), pp. 139–74.
Spufford, Margaret and Went, James, Poverty Portrayed: Gregory King and the Parish of Eccleshall (Keele, 1995).
Spufford, Peter, Brett, Matthew and Louise, Erickson Amy (eds.), Guide to the Probate Accounts of England and Wales (London, 1999).
Stanes, Robin, The Old Farm: A History of Farming Life in the West Country (Exeter, 1990).
Steedman, Carolyn, Master and Servant: Love and Labour in the English Industrial Age (Cambridge, 2007).
Stone, Lawrence, The Crisis of the Aristocracy, 1558–1641 (Oxford, 1965).
Styles, John, ‘Clothing in the North: The Supply of Non-Elite Clothing in the Eighteenth Century North of England’, Textile History, 25 (1994), pp. 139–66.
Styles, John, ‘Custom or Consumption? Plebeian Fashion in Eighteenth-Century England’, in Berg, Maxine and Eger, Elizabeth (eds.) Luxury in the Eighteenth Century: Debates, Desires and Delectable Goods (Basingstoke, 2003), pp. 103–15.
Styles, John, The Dress of the People: Everyday Fashion in Eighteenth-Century England (New Haven, 2007).
Styles, John, ‘Embezzlement, Industry and the Law in England, 1500–1800’, in Berg, Maxine, Hudson, Pat and Sonenscher, Michael (eds.), Manufacture in Town and Country before the Factory (Cambridge, 1983), pp. 173–210.
Svedberg, Peter, Poverty and Undernutrition: Theory, Measurement, and Policy (Oxford, 2000).
Swinton, John, A Proposal for Uniformity of Weights and Measures in Scotland, by Execution of the Laws Now in Force (Edinburgh, 1779).
Tadmor, Naomi, Family and Friends in Eighteenth Century England: Household, Kinship, and Patronage (Cambridge, 2001).
Takahashi, Motoyasu, Village Inheritance in Early Modern England; Kinship Structure, Inheritance Customs and Generation Continuity (Matsuyama, Japan, 2003).
Tawney, A. J. and Tawney, R. H., ‘An Occupational Census of the Seventeenth Century’, Economic History Review, 5 (1934–5), pp. 25–64.
Tawney, R. H., The Agrarian Problem in the Sixteenth Century (London, 1912; reissued London and New York, 1967).
Thirsk, Joan, Economic Policy and Projects: The Development of a Consumer Society in Early Modern England (Oxford, 1978).
Thirsk, Joan, English Peasant Farming: The Agrarian History of Lincolnshire from Tudor to Recent Times (London, 1957).
Thirsk, Joan, Food in Early Modern England: Phases, Fads, Fashions 1500–1760 (London, 2007).
Thirsk, Joan (ed.), The Agrarian History of England and Wales, IV, 1500–1640 (Cambridge, 1967).
Thirsk, Joan, The Agrarian History of England and Wales, V, 1640–1750 (Cambridge, 1984).
Thirsk, Joan and Cooper, J. P. (eds.), Seventeenth-Century Economic Documents (Oxford, 1972).
Thomas, Keith, Religion and the Decline of Magic (Harmondsworth, 1971).
Thompson, E. P., ‘The Moral Economy of the English Crowd in the Eighteenth Century’, and ‘The Moral Economy Reviewed’, in Customs in Common (London, 1991), pp. 183–305.
Thorold Rogers, J. B., A History of Agriculture and Prices in England from 1259 to 1793, 8 vols. (Oxford, 1866–1902).
Tingey, J. C., ‘An Assessment of Wages for the County of Norfolk in 1610’, English Historical Review, 13 (1898), pp. 522–7.
Trinder, Barrie and Cox, Jeff (eds.), Yeomen and Colliers in Telford: Probate Inventories for Dawley, Lilleshall, Wellington and Wrockwardine, 1660–1750 (Chichester, 1980).
Turner, M. E., Beckett, J. V. and Afton, B., Farm Production in England 1700–1914 (Oxford, 2001).
Tusser, Thomas, Five Hundred Points of Good Husbandry (Oxford, 1984).
Tyrer, Frank and Bagley, J. J. (eds.), The Great Diurnal of Nicholas Blundell, 3 vols, Record Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, 110, 112, 114 (1968–72).
Vaderlint, Jacob, Money Answers All Things: or an Essay to Make Money Sufficiently Plentiful (London, 1734).
Vaisey, David (ed.), The Diary of Thomas Turner (Oxford, 1985).
Vaisey, DavidA Vindication of Strong Beer and Ale (London, 1647).
Voth, Hans-Joachim, Time and Work in England 1750–1830 (Oxford, 2000).
Walter, John, Understanding Popular Violence in the English Revolution: The Colchester Plunderers (Cambridge, 1999).
Walter, John and Wrightson, Keith, ‘Dearth and the Social Order in Early Modern England’, Past and Present, 71 (1976), pp. 22–42.
Warde, Paul, Energy Consumption in England and Wales, 1560–2000 (Istituto di Studi sulle Società del Mediterraneo, 2007).
Watkins, George, Compleat English Brewer or, the Whole Art and Mystery of Brewing, in All Its Various Branches (London, 1767).
Wear, Andrew, Knowledge and Practice in English Medicine 1550–1680 (Cambridge, 2000).
Weatherill, Lorna, Consumer Behaviour and Material Culture in Britain 1660–1760 (Cambridge, 1988).
Weatherill, Lorna, The Pottery Trade and North Staffordshire 1660–1760 (Manchester, 1971).
Weatherill, Lorna (ed.), The Account Book of Richard Latham 1724–1767 (Oxford, 1990).
Webb, John (ed.), Poor Relief in Elizabethan Ipswich, Suffolk Records Society, 9 (1966).
Werner, Lex (ed.), London Bodies (London, 1998).
Whitaker, Edward, Directions for Brewing Malt Liquors (London, 1700).
Whittle, Jane, The Development of Agrarian Capitalism: Land and Labour in Norfolk 1440–1580 (Oxford, 2000).
Whittle, Jane, ‘Housewives and Servants in Rural England, 1440–1650: Evidence of Women's Work from Probate Documents’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 15 (2005), pp. 51–74.
Willan, T. S., A Bedfordshire Wage Assessment of 1684, Bedfordshire Historical Record Society, 25 (1943), pp. 129–37.
Willan, T. S., Elizabethan Manchester (Manchester, 1980).
Williams, N. J., The Maritime Trade of the East Anglian Ports 1550–1590 (Oxford, 1988).
Winch, Donald, ‘Eden, Sir Frederick Morton, second baronet (1766–1809)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford, 2004),, accessed 19 May 2009.
Winstanley, R. L., Parson Woodforde: The Life and Times of a Country Diarist (Bungay, 1996).
Winstanley, R. L. (ed.), The Diary of James Woodforde, X, 1782–1784 (Parson Woodforde Society, 1998).
Winstanley, R. L. and Jameson, Peter (eds.), The Diary of James Woodforde: 1759–1802, 17 vols. (Parson Woodforde Society, 1988–2008).
Wood, Andy, ‘Fear, Hatred and the Hidden Injuries of Class in Early Modern England’, Journal of Social History, 39:3 (2006), pp. 803–26.
Wood, Andy, Riot, Rebellion and Popular Politics in Early Modern England (2002).
Woodward, Donald, ‘The Anglo-Irish Livestock Trade of the Seventeenth Century’, Irish Historical Studies, 18 (1972–3), pp. 489–523.
Woodward, Donald, ‘The Assessment of Wages by Justices of the Peace, 1563–1813: Some Observations’, Local Historian, 8:8 (1969), pp. 293–8.
Woodward, Donald, ‘Cattle Droving in the Seventeenth Century: A Yorkshire Example’, in Chaloner, W. H. and Ratcliffe, B. M. (eds.), Trade and Transport: Essays in Economic History in Honour of T. S. Willan (Manchester, 1977), pp. 35–58.
Woodward, Donald, ‘Early Modern Servants in Husbandry Revisited’, Agricultural History Review, 48 (2002), pp. 141–50.
Woodward, Donald, ‘The Means of Payment and Hours of Work in Early Modern England’, in Leonard, Carol S. and Mironov, B. N. (eds.), Hours of Work and Means of Payment: The Evolution of Conventions in Pre-Industrial Europe, Proceedings of the Eleventh International Economic History Congress (Milan, 1994).
Woodward, Donald, Men at Work: Labourers and Building Craftsmen in the Towns of Northern England, 1450–1750 (Cambridge, 1995).
Woodward, Donald (ed.), The Farming and Account Books of Henry Best of Elmswell, 1642 (Oxford, 1984).
Wordie, J. R., ‘The Chronology of English Enclosure, 1500–1914’, Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 36 (1983), pp. 483–505.
Wordie, J. R., ‘The South: Oxfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Berkshire, Wiltshire, and Hampshire’, in AHEW, V.I, pp. 317–57.
Worlidge, John, Systema Horticultra; or The Art of Gardening (London, 1700).
Wright, Sue, ‘“Chumaids, Huswyfes and Hucksters”: The Employment of Women in Tudor and Stuart Salisbury’, in Charles, Lindsey and Duffin, Lorna (eds.), Women and Work in Pre-Industrial England (Beckenham, 1985), pp. 103–21.
Wrightson, Keith, ‘Alehouses, Order, and Reformation in Rural England, 1590–1660’, in Yeo, E. and Yeo, S. (eds.), Popular Culture and Class Conflict 1590–1914 (Brighton, 1981), pp. 167–87.
Wrightson, Keith, Earthly Necessities: Economic Lives in Early Modern Britain (New Haven, 2000).
Wrightson, Keith, ‘Mutualities and Obligations: Changing Social Relationships in Early Modern England’, Proceedings of the British Academy, 139 (2006), pp. 157–94.
Wrightson, Keith, ‘“Sorts of People” in Tudor and Stuart England’, in Barry, Jonathan and Brooks, Christopher (eds.), The Middling Sort of People: Culture, Society and Politics in England, 1550–1800 (London, 1994), pp. 28–51.
Wrightson, Keith and Levine, David, Poverty and Piety in an English Village, Terling 1525–1700 (New York, 1979).
Wrigley, E.A., Continuity, Chance and Change: The Character of the Industrial Revolution in England (Cambridge, 1988).
Wrigley, E.A., ‘Energy Availability and Agricultural Productivity’, in Campbell, B. M. S. and Overton, Mark (eds.), Land, Labour and Livestock: Historical Studies in European Agricultural Productivity (Manchester, 1991), pp. 323–39.
Wrigley, E.A., ‘English County Populations in the Later Eighteenth Century’, Economic History Review, 60 (2007), pp. 35–69.
Wrigley, E.A., ‘The Quest for the Industrial Revolution’, in Wrigley, E. A., Poverty, Progress and Population (Cambridge, 2004), pp. 17–43.
Wrigley, E.A., ‘Some Reflections on Corn Yields and Prices in Pre-Industrial Economies’, in Walter, John and Schofield, Roger (eds.), Famine, Disease and the Social Order in Early Modern Society (Cambridge, 1989), pp. 235–78.
Wrigley, E.A., ‘The Transition to an Advanced Organic Economy: Half a Millennium of English Agriculture’, Economic History Review, 59 (2006), pp. 435–80.
Wrigley, E.A., ‘Urban Growth and Agricultural Change: England and the Continent in the Early Modern Period’, in Wrigley, E. A., People, Cities and Wealth (Oxford, 1987), pp. 157–93.
Wrigley, E. A., Davies, R. S., Oeppen, J. E. and Schofield, R. S., English Population History from Family Reconstitution 1580–1837 (Cambridge, 1997).
Wrigley, E. A. and Schofield, R. S., The Population History of England (Cambridge, 1989).
Young, Arthur, The Farmer's Guide in Hiring and Stocking Farms, 2 vols. (London, 1770).
Young, Arthur, The Farmer's Tour through the East of England, 4 vols. (London, 1771).
Young, Arthur, A Six Month Tour through the North of England (London, 1771).
Young, Arthur, A Six Weeks Tour, through the Southern Counties of England and Wales (London, 1768).