Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Cited by 4
  • Print publication year: 2014
  • Online publication date: May 2014

14 - Recent volcanic eruptions in the Afar rift, northeastern Africa, and implications for volcanic risk management in the region

from Part IV - Case studies: Africa


Acocella, V. (2010). Coupling volcanism and tectonics along divergent plate boundaries: Collapsed rifts from central Afar, Ethiopia. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 122, 1717–1728.
Amelung, F., Oppenheimer, C., Segall, P. and Zebker, H. (2000). Ground deformation near Gada’Ale volcano, Afar, observed by radar interferometry. Geophysical Research Letters, 27, 3093–3096.
Ayele, A, Keir, D., Ebinger, C. al. (2009). The September 2005 mega-dike emplacement in the Manda-Hararo (Afar) nascent oceanic rift. Geophysical Research Letters, 36, L20306.
Barberi, F. and Varet, J. (1970). The Erte ‘Ale volcanic range (Danakil depression, northern Afar, Ethiopia). Bulletin Volcanologique, 34, 848–917.
Barberi, F., and Varet, J. (1975). Recent volcanic units of Afar and their structural significance. In Afar Depression of Ethiopia: Proceedings of an International Symposium on the Afar Region and Related Rift Problems, vol. 1. Stuttgart: Schweizerbart, pp. 174–178.
Barberi, F. and Varet, J. (1977). Volcanism of Afar: Small-scale plate tectonics implications. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 88, 1251–1266.
Barberi, F., Tazieff, H. and Varet, J. (1972). Volcanism in the Afar depression: its tectonic and magmatic significance. Tectonophysics, 15, 19–29.
Barberi, F., Bonatti, E., Marinelli, G. and Varet, J. (1974). Transverse tectonics during the split of a continent: data from the Afar rift. Tectonophysics, 23, 17–29.
Barberi, F., Ferrara, G., Santacroce, R., Treuil, M., and Varet, J. (1975). A transitional basalt-pantellerite sequence of fractional crystallisation, the Boina Centre (Afar Rift, Ethiopia). Journal of Petrology, 16, 22–56.
Bastow, I. D., Nyblade, A. A., Stuart, G. W., Rooney, T. O. and Benoit, M. H. (2008). Upper mantle seismic structure beneath the Ethiopian hot spot: rifting at the edge of the African low velocity anomaly. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 9, Q12022.
Belachew, M., Ebinger, C., Coté, al. (2011). Comparison of dike intrusions in an incipient seafloor-spreading segment in Afar, Ethiopia: Seismicity perspectives. Journal of Geophysical Research, 116, B06405.
Benoit, M. H., Nyblade, A. A., and VanDecar, J. C. (2006). Upper mantle P wave speed variations beneath Ethiopia and the origin of the Afar hot spot. Geology, 34, 329–332.
Beutel, E., van Wijk, J., Ebinger, C., Keir, D., and Agostini, A. (2010). Formation and stability of magmatic segments in the Main Ethiopian and Afar Rifts. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 298, 225–235.
Biggs, J., Amelung, F., Gourmelen, N., Dixon, T. H., and Kim, S.-W. (2009). InSAR observations of 2007 Tanzania rifting episode reveal mixed fault and dyke extension in an immature continental rift. Geophysical Journal International, 179, 549–558.
Bizourd, H., Barberi, F., and Varet, J. (1979). Mineralogy and Petrology of Erta Ale and Boina Volcanic Series, Afar Rift, Ethiopia. Journal of Petrology, 21, 401–436.
Bjornsson, A., Saemundsson, K., Einarsson, P., Tryggvason, E. and Gronvald, K. (1977). Current rifting episode in North Iceland. Nature, 266, 318–323.
Bourassa, A. E., Robock, A., Randel, W. al. (2012). Large volcanic aerosol load in the stratosphere linked to Asian monsoon transport. Science, 337, 78–81.
Chernet, T. (2012). Dallol Volcano and Danakil Depression, Ethiopia. In Proceedings of the Magmatic Rifting & Active Volcanism Conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 11–13 January 2012. Addis Ababa: Afar Rift Consortium, p. 19.
Chu, D., and Gordon, R. G. (1998). Current plate motions across the Red Sea. Geophysical Journal International, 135, 313–328.
Chu, D., and Gordon, R. (1999). Evidence for motion between Nubia and Somalia along the Southwest Indian ridge. Nature, 398, 64–67.
Courtillot, V., Achache, J., Landre, al. (1984). Episodic spreading and rift propagation: new paleomagnetic and geochronologic data from the Afar nascent passive margin. Journal of Geophysical Research, 89, 3315–3333.
Demange, J. and Tazieff, H. (1978). L’éruption tectonique de l’Ardoukôba (Djibouti). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences Paris, 287, 1269–1272.
Ebinger, C. J. and Sleep, N. H. (1998). Cenozoic magmatism throughout East Africa resulting from impact of a single plume. Nature, 395, 788–791.
Ebinger, C., Keir, D., Ayele, al. (2008). Capturing magma intrusion and faulting processes during continental rupture: Seismicity of the Dabbahu Afar rift. Geophysical Journal International, 174, 1138–1152.
Ebinger, C., Ayele, A., Keir, al. (2010). Length and timescales of rift faulting and magma intrusion: the Afar Rifting Cycle from 2005 to present. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 38, 439–466.
Eckhardt, S., Prata, A. J., Seibert, P., Stebel, K. and Stohl, A. (2008). Estimation of the vertical profile of sulfur dioxide injection into the atmosphere by a volcanic eruption using satellite column measurements and inverse transport modeling. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 8, 3881–3897.
Einarsson, P. (1991). The Krafla rifting episode 1975–1989. In N’att’ura Myvatns, The Nature of Lake Myvatn, eds. Gardarsson, A., and Einarsson, P.Reykjavik: Icelandic Nature Science Society, pp. 97–139.
Ferguson, D. J., Barnie, T. D., Pyle, D. al. (2010). Recent rift-related volcanism in Afar, Ethiopia. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 292, 409–418.
Ferguson, D. J., Maclennan, J., Bastow, I. al. (2013). Melting during late-stage rifting in Afar is hot and deep. Nature, 499, 70–73.
Field, L., Blundy, J., Calvert, A. and Yirgu, G. (2012a). Magmatic history of Dabbahu, a composite volcano in the Afar Rift, Ethiopia. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 125, 128–147.
Field, L., Barnie, T., Blundy, al. (2012b). Integrated field, satellite and petrological observations of the November 2010 eruption of Erta Ale. Bulletin of Volcanology, 74, 2251–2271.
Fromm, M., Nedoluha, G., and Charvát, Z. (2013). Comment on “Large volcanic aerosol load in the stratosphere linked to Asian monsoon transport”. Science, 339, 647.
Goitom, B., Ogubazghi, G., Blundy, al. (2013). First recorded eruption of Nabro volcano, Eritrea, 2011. In Abstracts of the IAVCEI Scientific Assembly, Kagoshima, Japan, 20–24 July 2013. Kagoshima, Japan: International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior.
Gudmundsson, M. T., Larsen, G., Höskuldsson, A. and Gylfason, G. (2008). Volcanic hazards in Iceland. Jökull, 58, 251–268.
Hamling, I. J., Ayele, A., Bennati, al. (2009). Geodetic observations of the ongoing Dabbahu rifting episode: new dyke intrusions in 2006 and 2007. Geophysical Journal International, 178, 989–1003.
Hamling, I. J., Wright, T. J., Calais, E., Bennati, L. and Lewi, E. (2010). Stress transfer between thirteen successive dyke intrusions in Ethiopia. Nature Geoscience, 3, 713–717.
Harris, A. J. L., Murray, J. B., Aries, S. al. (2000). Effusion rate trends at Etna and Krafla and their implications for eruptive mechanisms. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 102, 237–270.
Hayward, N. J. and Ebinger, C. J. (1996). Variations in the along-axis segmentation of the Afar Rift System. Tectonics, 15, 244–257.
Hofmann, C., Courtillot, V., Feraud, al. (1997). Timing of the Ethiopian flood basalt event and implications for plume birth and global change. Nature, 389, 838–841.
Kidane, T., Courtillot, V., Manighetti, al. (2003). New paleomagnetic and geochronological results from Ethiopian Afar: block rotations linked to rift overlap and propagation and determination of a ∼2 Ma reference pole for stable Africa. Journal of Geophysical Research, 108, 2102. doi:10.1029/2001JB000645.
Lahitte, P., Gillot, P. Y. and Courtillot, V. (2003). Silicic central volcanoes as precursors to rift propagation: the Afar case. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 207, 103–116.
Maclennan, J., McKenzie, D. and Gronvold, K. (2001). Plume-driven upwelling under central Iceland. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 194, 67–82.
Manighetti, I., Tapponnier, P., Courtillot, V., Gruszow, S. and Gillot, P.-Y. (1997). Propagation of rifting along the Arabia-Somalia plate boundary: the Gulfs of Aden and Tadjoura. Journal of Geophysical Research, 102, 2681–2710.
Manighetti, I., Tapponnier, P., Gillot, P. al. 1998. Propagation of rifting along the Arabia-Somalia Plate Boundary into Afar. Journal of Geophysical Research, 103, 4947–4974.
McKenzie, D. P., Davies, D. and Molnar, P. (1970). Plate tectonics of the Red Sea and East Africa. Nature, 224, 125–133.
Montelli, G., Nolet, G., Masters, F., Dahlen, A. and Hung, S -H. (2004). Global P and PP travel time tomography: rays versus waves. Geophysical Journal International, 158, 637–654.
Oppenheimer, C. and Francis, P. (1997). Remote sensing of heat, lava and fumarole emissions from Erta ‘Ale volcano, Ethiopia. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 18, 1661–1692.
Oppenheimer, C. and Francis, P. (1998). Implications of the longeval lava lakes for geomorphological and plutonic processes at Erta ‘Ale volcano, Afar. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 80 (1–2), 101–111.
Oppenheimer, C., and Yirgu, G. (2002). Thermal imaging of an active lava lake: Erta ‘Ale volcano, Ethiopia. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 23, 4777–4782.
Oppenheimer, C., McGonigle, A. J. S., Allard, P., Wooster, M. J. and Tsanev, V. I. (2004). Sulfur, heat and magma budget of Erta‘Ale lava lake, Ethiopia. Geology, 32, 509–512.
Pagli, C., Wright, T. J., Ebinger, C. al. (2012). Shallow axial magma chamber at the slow-spreading Erta ‘Ale Ridge. Nature Geoscience, 5, 284–288.
Peltzer, G., Doubre, C., and Tomic, J. (2012). Sustained magmatic inflation and fault movement in the Asal-Goubbet Rift observed during 11 years of radar interferometry data. In Proceedings of the Magmatic Rifting & Active Volcanism Conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 11–13 January 2012. Addis Ababa: Afar Rift Consortium.
Pham Van, N., Boyer, D., Le Mouël, J -L., and Courtillot, V. (1981). Identification of a magma chamber in the Ghoubbet-Asal rift (Djibouti) from a magnetotelluric experiment. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 52, 372–380.
Prodehl, C., Fuchs, K., and Mechie, I. (1997). Seismic-refraction studies of the Afro-Arabian rift system – a brief review. Tectonophysics, 278, 1–13.
Rognon, P. (1975). Tectonic deformation in central Afar basins in the upper Pleistocene and Holocene periods, from the study of lacustrine deposits. In Afar Depression of Ethiopia, eds. Pilger, A. and Rosler, A.Proceedings of an International Symposium on the Afar Region and Rift Related Problems, Bad Bergzabren, Germany, 1974, vol. 1. Stuttgart, Germany: E. Schweizerbartsche Verlagsbuchhandlung, pp. 198–200.
Rowland, J. V., Baker, E., Ebinger, C. al. (2007). Fault growth at a nascent slow-spreading ridge: 2005 Dabbahu rifting episode, Afar. Geophysical Journal International, 171, 1226–1246.
Sawamura, P., Vernier, J. P., Barnes, J. al. (2012). Stratospheric AOD after the 2011 eruption of Nabro volcano measured by lidars over the Northern Hemisphere. Environmental Research Letters, 7, 034013.
Schilling, J. G., Kingsley, R., Hanan, B. and McCully, B. (1992). Nd-Sr-Os isotropic variations along the Gulf of Aden: evidence for mantle-plume lithosphere interaction. Journal of Geophysical Research, 97, 10927–10966.
Sparks, R. S. J., Aspinall, W. P., Auker, al. (2012). Mapping and characterising volcanic risk. In Proceedings of the Magmatic Rifting & Active Volcanism Conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 11–13 January 2012. Addis Ababa: Afar Rift Consortium.
Thordarson, T. and Larsen, G. (2007). Volcanism in Iceland in historical time: Volcano types, eruption styles and eruptive history. Journal of Geodynamics, 43, 118–152.
Tryggvason, E. (1984). Widening of the Krafla fissure swarm during the 1975– 1981 volcano tectonic episode. Bulletin of Volcanology, 471, 47–69.
Varet, J. (1978). Geology of Central and Southern Afar (Ethiopia and Djibouti Republic). Paris: CNRS.
Vernier, J.-P., Thomason, L. W., Fairlie, T. al. (2013). Comment on “Large volcanic aerosol load in the stratosphere linked to Asian monsoon transport”. Science, 339, 647.
Wiart, P. A. M. and Oppenheimer, C. (2000). Largest known historic eruption in Africa: Dubbi volcano, Eritrea, 1861. Geology, 28, 291–294.
Wiart, P., and Oppenheimer, C. (2005). Large magnitude silicic volcanism in north Afar: The Nabro Volcanic Range and Ma‘alalta volcano. Bulletin of Volcanology, 67, 99–115.
Wiart, P. A. M., Oppenheimer, C. and Francis, P. (2000). Eruptive history of Dubbi volcano, northeast Afar (Eritrea), revealed by optical and SAR image interpretation. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 21, 911–936.
Wright, R., Flynn, L. P., Garbeil, H., Harris, A. J. L. and Pilger, E. (2004). MODVOLC: near-real-time thermal monitoring of global volcanism. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 135, 29–49.
Wright, T. J., Ebinger, C., Biggs, al. (2006). Magma-maintained rift segmentation at continental rupture in the 2005 Afar dyking episode. Nature, 442, 291–294.
Wright, T. J., Sigmundsson, F., Pagli, al. (2012). Geophysical constraints on the dynamics of spreading centres from rifting episodes on land. Nature Geoscience, 5, 242–250.
Yirgu, G., Ayele, A. and Ayalew, D. (2006). Recent seismovolcanic crisis in northern Afar, Ethiopia. Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union, 87, 325–326.