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  • Print publication year: 2011
  • Online publication date: January 2012

Chapter 135 - Anesthesia outside the operating room

from Part 25 - Ambulatory and Remote Location Anesthesia

Suggested readings

AisenbergJ, BrillJV, LadabaumU, et al. Sedation for gastrointestinal endoscopy: new practices, new economics. Am J Gastroenterol 2005; 100:996–1000.
BhanankerSM, PosnerKL, CheneyFW, et al. Injury and liability associated with monitored anesthesia care: a closed claims analysis. Anesthesiology 2006; 104(2):228–234.
CampoR, BrulletE, MontserratA, et al. Identification of factors that influence tolerance of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1999; 11:201–204.
CohenLB, DeleggeMH, AisenbergJ, et al. AGA Institute review of endoscopic sedation. Gastroenterology 2007; 133:675–701.
CohenLB, WechslerJS, GaetanoJN, et al. Endoscopic sedation in the United States: results from a nationwide survey. Am J Gastroenterol 2006; 101:967–974.
FrakesJT. Outpatient endoscopy. The case for the ambulatory surgery center. Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am 2002; 12:215–227.
HolzmanRS, CullenDJ, EichornJH, PhilipJH. Guidelines for sedation and analgesia by nonanesthesiologists during diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. J Clin Anesth 1994; 6:255–274.
HolzmanRS, CullenDJ, EichhornJH, PhilipJH. Guidelines for sedation by nonanesthesiologists during diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. The Risk Management Committee of the Department of Anaesthesia of Harvard Medical School. J Clin Anesth 1994; 6(4):265–276.
HussainN, AlsulaimanR, BurtinP, et al. The safety of endoscopic sphincterotomy in patients receiving antiplatelet agents – a case-control study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2007; 25:579–584.
KellyJS. Sedation by non-anesthesia personnel provokes safety concerns; anesthesiologists must balance JCAHO standards, politics, & safety. Available at: Accessed May 25, 2008.
MathewA, RileyTR 3rd, YoungM, et al. Cost-saving approach to patients on long-term anticoagulation who need endoscopy: a decision analysis. Am J Gastroenterol 2003; 98:1766–1776.
PayenJF, ChanquesG, MantzJ, et al. Current practices in sedation and analgesia for mechanically ventilated critically ill patients. Anesthesiology 2007; 106:687–695.
PikeIM. Open-access endoscopy. Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am 2006; 16:709–717.
Pino, RM. The nature of anesthesia and procedural sedation outside of the operating room. Curr Opin Anesthesiol 2007; 20:347–351.
Practice guidelines for sedation and analgesia by non- anesthesiologists. Anesthesiology 2002; 96(4):1004–1017.
SotoRG, FuES, VilaH Jr, MiguelRV. Capnography accurately detects apnea during monitored anesthesia care. Anesth Analg 2004; 99(2):379–382.