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  • Print publication year: 2020
  • Online publication date: December 2020

7 - Theoretical Models of Galaxy Formation – East versus West


Two models of galaxy formation were being investigated simultaneously on the 1970’s. The bottom-up model was championed by Peebles, and the top-down model by Zeldovich. At first, dark matter was not part of either model, but this effort to explain the origin of galaxies eventually stalled for both models the because the temperature fluctuations in the cosmic background radiation are too small to accommodate galaxy formation from baryons alone. At first massive neutrinos were introduced as dark matter, and when this failed to word, cold dark matter (CDM) was introduced. CDM forms early halos, and then baryons eventually fall into these halos. The first CDM computer models of galaxy formation were introduced by Melott and Shandarin and later developed by the “Gang of Four” (White, Davis, Efstathiou and Frenk). Eventually, the top-down and bottom-up models gracefully merged, and the concept of “biasing” became part of the final model.

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